VLSI: An Circuit Design...¢  1 VLSI Design: An Introduction - 3 - Figure 1.1: Photograph illustrating

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  • Chapter 1 UEEA2223/UEEG4223

    Integrated Circuit Design

    VLSI: An Introduction

  • Prepared by Dr. Lim Soo King 02 Jan 2011.

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    Chapter 1 VLSI Design: An Introduction ........................................ 1 1.0 Introduction ................................................................................................ 1

    1.0.1 Early Computing Machine .................................................................................. 1 1.0.2 Invention of Transistor and Integration Circuit ............................................... 2

    1.1 General Trend ............................................................................................ 2 1.2 Device Scale Down...................................................................................... 6 1.3 Frequency Improvement ........................................................................... 7 1.4 Layers .......................................................................................................... 8 1.5 Density ....................................................................................................... 10 1.6 Design Trends ........................................................................................... 12 1.7 High Dielectric Constant Materials ........................................................ 12 1.8 Metallization ............................................................................................. 13 1.9 Cost of an Integrated Circuit .................................................................. 14 1.10 Die Yield and Defect Density ................................................................. 15 Exercises .......................................................................................................... 15 Bibliography ................................................................................................... 16

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    Figure 1.1: Photograph illustrating the internal parts of a hand phone ................................ 3 Figure 1.2: Typical structure of an integrated circuit mounted on a ball grid array............. 4 Figure 1.3: Patterns representative of each scale decade from 10cm-size instrument to

    10nm-size oxide layer ........................................................................................ 4 Figure 1.4: Intel microprocessors compared with Moore’s Law ......................................... 5 Figure 1.5: Evolution of dynamic RAM and flash semiconductor memories ...................... 6 Figure 1.6: Evolution of lithography .................................................................................... 7 Figure 1.7: Increased operating frequency of microprocessors and micro-controllers ........ 8 Figure 1.8: Evolution of key parameters with the technology scale down .......................... 8 Figure 1.9: Cross-section of the 0.35µm CMOS .................................................................. 9 Figure 1.10: 2D view of the 0.12µm process ....................................................................... 10 Figure 1.11: Relative dimension comparison of an NAND gate designed with various

    technologies ..................................................................................................... 11 Figure 1.12: The silicon wafer used for patterning the integrated circuits ........................... 11 Figure 1.13: Evolution of integrated circuit design techniques, from layout level to system

    level .................................................................................................................. 12 Figure 1.14: High dielectric constant material ..................................................................... 13

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    Chapter 1

    VLSI Design: An Introduction _____________________________________________ 1.0 Introduction The advancement in integrated circuit technology has changed the concept of digital data manipulation, which in turn has dramatically impacted our society. It evolved from the earlier days of mainframe computer to minicomputer, personal computer, and laptop computer. More significantly, the use of integrated circuits for designing digital solution is continuous in all areas of electronics, such as in instrumentations, and conversion of telecommunications and consumer electronic into digital format. In this chapter, student will be giving a briefing pertaining to the historical perspective of the VLSI system right from early computing machine to the invention of first transistor in 1947 and integrated circuit in 1958. Information illustrating technology trend, scale down, frequency improvement, design trend, design technology such as interconnect materials, dielectric material, software used etc, and CMOS technology are presented. At the end of this chapter, packaging of integrated circuit is introduced. 1.0.1 Early Computing Machine

    The first implementation of computational engine was way back in early 19th century, which was the Babbage’s difference engine. Although this was a decimal engine, nevertheless the underlying concept of computing was the same as the modern binary system. The analytical engine developed in 1934 was perceived as a general purpose machine, which had feature closed modern computer.

    Early digital electronics systems were designed based on magnetically

    control switches or relays. They were used mainly in the implementation of very simple logic networks. Such system is still used in the train safety system today. The age of digital computing began with vacuum tube. The vacuum tube digital design culminated with the design of Electronic Numerical Integrator and Computer ENIAC intended for computing artillery firing tables and Universal Automatic Computer I UNIVAC I, which is the first successful commercial computer. The ENIAC was 80 feet long, 8.5 feet high, and several feet wide. It has 18,000 vacuum tubes. It was rapidly become clear that vacuum tube

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    technology had reached its design limit. Reliability problem and excessive power consumption had made the implementation of larger engine economically and practically infeasible.

    1.0.2 Invention of Transistor and Integration Circuit

    Since the invention of transistor in 1947 at Bell laboratory and followed by the induction of the bipolar junction transistor by William Shockley in 1949, the evolution of integrated circuit IC fabrication techniques is a unique fact in the history of modern industry. There have been steady improvements in terms of speed, density, and cost for more than 50 years.

    In 1956, the first bipolar digital logic gate made of discrete components was introduced by Harris Semiconductor. In 1958, Jack Kilby at Texas Instruments conceived the integrated circuit, in which all components including passive and active types are integrated on a single semiconductor substrate. This invention led to the introduction of the first set of integrated circuit commercial logic gate called the Fairchild Micrologic Family. In 1962, the first true successfully IC logic family, the transistor-transistor logic TTL was born. Other digital family was devised from TTL such as the emitter-coupled logic ECL was designed in 1974.

    Eventually bipolar junction transistor digital logic lost the battle for hegemony in digital design to the low power bipolar families such as integrated injection logic I2L and metal oxide semiconductor field effect transistor MOSFET integrated circuit. MOSFET became dominated not only due low power consumption but able to make into miniature form and millions of them can be integrated in a single semiconductor substrate.

    1.1 General Trend Inside a general purpose electronics system such as personal computer, hand phone, or an instrument, there are numerous integrated circuits IC placed together with discrete components on the printed circuit board PCB. Figure 1.1 illustrates an example, the hand phone PCB.

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    Figure 1.1: Photograph illustrating the internal parts of a hand phone The integrated circuits appearing in this example have various sizes and complexities. The main core of the circuits consists of a microprocessor and a digital signal processor DSP considered as the heart of the system. Each has several millions of transistors on a single chip. The push for smaller size, reduced power supply consumption, and enhancement of services, has resulted in continuous technological advances, with the possibility of ever higher integration.

    The integrated circuit consists of a silicon die, with a size of usually around 2.0cm x 2.0cm for the case of microprocessors and memories. The integrated circuit is normally mounted on a package as shown in Fig 1.2, which is placed on a printed circuit board. The active part of the integrated circuit is only a very thin portion of the silicon die. At the border of the chip, small solder bumps serve as electrical connections between the integrated circuit and the package. The package itself is a sandwich of metal and insulator materials that conveys the electrical signals to large solder bumps, which interface with the printed circuit board.

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    Figure 1.2: Typical structure of an integrated circuit mounted on a ball grid array

    Inside the electronic equipmen