Using Wikis in Literacy to Engage Students in Text Studies

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Shireen Richardson 201512523 Masters of Education Unit EEL702. Using Wikis in Literacy to Engage Students in Text Studies. Participants will learn:. What a wiki is Reasons for using a wiki in literacy Ways in which wikis can engage students - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


Slide 1

Using Wikis in Literacy to Engage Students in Text Studies

Shireen Richardson 201512523Masters of EducationUnit EEL702This session has been designed as an introduction to wikis. Whilst the main focus is on how a wiki can be used in literacy to engage students in text studies, it is hoped that you will also consider other possibilities. Such possibilities could include using wikis in other facets of English and also in other subject areas.1Participants will learn:What a wiki isReasons for using a wiki in literacyWays in which wikis can engage studentsHow to set up and use a wiki for student engagement in text studyApplications for wikis in text studiesHow to overcome barriers (real or perceived)How to assess student wikisGoals for this session2What is a Wiki?A web page that can be easily edited

One of many freely available Web 2.0 tools

It can be contributed to by its creator and any number of approved members

Wikipedia is an example of a wiki!

The way a wiki works makes it ideal for the collaborative sharing of knowledge and ideas.

Web 2.0 = refers to web applications that allow interactive sharing and collaboration. Examples include social-networking sites, blogs, wikis, video-sharing sites, hosted services and web applications (Wikipedia,, accessed 05/09/2010)

When people initially hear the word wiki, they often think of Wikipedia. Wikipedia is in fact a huge wiki or web space that can be collaboratively edited and updated.

3This clip (by Le Fever 2007) provides a really simple visual explanation of wikis.

(Depending on the level of understanding of session participants, this clip can be played or skipped.)4Features of a WikiEditable by more than one personControl of design, page structure, layout, text, visualsCan easily incorporate a range of multimedia, text, hyperlinks, audio and visual mediaAsynchronousA range of privacy settingsUser/editor history is available for each pageDiscussion forums are available for each page'wiki users can edit from within any browser - specialised knowledge of a web-composing not necessary' (Lundin 2008)The fact that wikis can be edited by more than one person makes them ideal for collaborative sharing of knowledge and ideas Students are able to make many choices (contributing to greater engagement)Students are making use of multimedia and multimodal presentation of textAsynchronous means not at the same time, not at set intervals. Students can contribute to wikis at any time, although, cannot successfully edit the same page as another user concurrently.Privacy settings can be controlled by the teacher in accordance with school policiesTeachers can monitor what each student has contributedTeachers can monitor contribution to discussion forums; can provide feedback to student groups in the discussion; can help students learn appropriate online etiquetteEase of use and access

5I have found the best feature of the wiki to be its nature as a collaborative creative space, and particularly, a space where students can work together primarily as co-authors by collecting pieces of a project into a coherent whole.

(Harding 2007, p. 135)

Harding (2007, p.135) identified the best feature of a wiki as being student collaboration.6Available WikisWikispaces

For an extensive comparative list of over a hundred available wikis, visit:

There are many wikis available. These are just a few of the more commonly used wikis (in education).

The bottom link is a tool that compares the available features of over a hundred wikis.7Why Use Wikis in Literacy?Providing students with skills for the 21st century

Greater depth and breadth of learning in English

Extending students existing ICT experience

Increased self esteem

Skills for the 21st centuryUsing ICT in literacy is viewed by a number of educational researchers as essential for 21st century education, to prepare students for the digital age (for example, Kalantzis, Cope & Cloonan 2010; Kitson, Fletcher & Kearney 2007; Luke & Elkins 1998; Meiers 2009; Neal 2005; Spires et al. 2008; The New London Group 2000) and to cater to the needs of digital natives (Prensky 2001).Greater depth and breadth of learningWikis are multimodal the more modes that are accessed, the more learning occurs. (Benson 2008)Students are exploring new literacies and gaining visual literacy skills (Luce-Kapler 2007)A more sophisticated analysis and understanding of text occurs through collaboration (Gibbons 2010; Harding 2007)Students are reading, interpreting and writing/creating webpages (therefore it enhances students abilities in reading and writing!)Students are communicating with others via asynchronous discussion pages (enables students to carefully consider responses unlike in live classroom discussions. This often encourages or provides quieter students with the opportunity to respond!)Students are engaging with the textExtending students existing ICT experienceStudents comfort with online social networking makes the wiki a perfect forum for students to coauthor works and to respond to each others writing. (Gibbons 2010)Students are accustomed to technology at home and expect to use it at school they would like to use more technology in their learningGibbons experimented in using a wiki for writing tasks he had one class complete their paper in the traditional mode while his other class completed theirs entirely using a wiki. What he found was that On the wiki, students fell into their comfort zone and were more willing to share and contribute than the students who did not use the wiki (the control class) were. (Gibbons 2010, p. 36) By comfort zone Gibbons is referring to the comfort level students feel when working with social networking software and tools. Gibbons also observed that the standard of work was significantly higher in the wiki group than in the control group. In addition, as students realised their work was to have a greater audience, they were more motivated in aiming to write for this audience in other words, their writing had greater authentic purpose.Increased self esteem-occurs when using ICT and multimedia in general and results in confidence and willingness to take risks, leading to a progression of increased experimentation, increased involvement, meeting new challenges, improved performance, resulting in increased and more lasting learning. (Faux 2005)

8Why Use Wikis in Literacy?Scaffolding learning

Varying levels of teacher control

Freedom of expression, representation, negotiation and choice

Collaboration can be easily monitored

ScaffoldingUsing an ICT multimedia environment allows for: scaffolding of student learning; a decrease (fading) or increase in level of scaffolding; student control of level of scaffolding (Faux 2005)Varying levels of teacher control A teacher can participate as guide, collaborator, site administrator, editor and can control all aspects of the wiki as they wish. (Morgan & Smith 2008)Freedom of expression, representation, negotiation and choice Identified by Bower, Woo, Roberts & Watters (2006) as providing students with more choice and opportunity to negotiate than some other forms of collaborative toolsWikis lack of structure to begin with highlights the choices students make (Lundin 2008)Students are working together as co-authors (Harding 2007)A boost in student creativity was observed (Mak & Coniam 2008). I also observed this in my wiki experiment.Collaboration can be easily monitoredTeachers are able to monitor the levels of collaboration and individual student input (Bower et al. 2006; Harding 2007) (compare this with face-to-face discussion and group work that can be difficult to monitor and assess as it takes place in the classroom)

9Why Use Wikis in Literacy? Easy to use for both teachers and students

Audience of peers for advice and criticism (Lundin 2008, Tarasiuk 2010)

Increased student engagement

Easy to use for both teachers and students...require little specialised knowledge and no specialised software to manipulate multimedia Elements (Lundin 2008)Because they are so easy to use, the technology recedes into the background, allowing anyone to become a publisher. (Educause 2005)Audience of peers for advice and criticism (Lundin 2008, Tarasiuk 2010) Authentic purpose/audience.Increased student engagementMore on this point in a moment.

10Wikis and EngagementWhat is engagement?

Take a moment to discuss your definition with the person next to you.Follow this with a brief group discussion of what engagement is.11Wikis and EngagementEngagement relates to making connections with the activity, connecting with other students, experiencing fun and excitement; as a result, deep learning occurs.

Engagement occurs with variety, student choice and constantly changing or increasing challenges.

(My definition of engagement on this slide)

12Wikis and EngagementStudent engagement is a rendezvous between learning and the digital tools and techniques that excite students. (Educause 2009)

This definition as it applies to technology is most useful!

Student engagement is a rendezvous between learning and the digital tools and techniques that excite students. (Educause 2009)

13Wikis and Engagement Research Findings:Increased student engagement (Harding 2007, Luce-Kapler 2007, Morgan & Smith 2008, Wetzel 2008)

Increased student involvement, understanding and results (Gibbons 2010)

Students working in own time (Gibbons 2010, Tarasiuk 2010))

Students enjoyed working with wikis (Mak & Coniam 2008)

There is relatively little research that focuses solely on how wikis increase student engagement. However, engagement has been mentioned in a general sense in a number of studies relating to other aspects of using wikis. (For example, Tarasiuk 2010, Tharp 2010, Wetzel 2008) And points listed on this slide.

Students are more engaged with online writing process, collaboration and discussion (Harding 2007; Luce-Kapler 2007; Morgan & Smith 2008)Gibbons experimented with using wikis for writing tasks, creative writing, webquest responses and also text responses. In all uses, he found students were more actively involved in the tasks, produced higher results and a greater level of understanding. They were all involved!I noticed that students were making changes in the evenings as well as during class. (Gibbons 2010, pp. 36-7) This is significant as it backs up my findings!Students expressed the opinion that they really enjoyed working with the wikis (Mak & Coniam 2008). To add to this, my students beg me every lesson to work more with wikis.The fun or wow factor helps to engage students (as witnessed in my classes)14Wikis and Engagement Research Findings:Students found the wiki project fun and engaging, they enjoyed the books they read...I knew the students enjoyed the wiki after the project was over because many of them continued using it for other writing assignments. And just recently, I received an email from one of the students I no longer have in class asking for the name of our wiki website because she wanted to use the format again for a project in another class. (Tharp 2010)

This example referred to a wiki project being used for a secondary level class novel study.

My experience in using a wiki with my Year 7 students reflects this statement. Students begged me to be allowed to work on their wikis; students worked on them voluntarily at home; students have been beginning to use or consider using wikis as a presentation or collaboration tool for other topics and subjects.


Chinese Cinderella ProjectThis is the project I have been undertaking with my students in English. (will have the opportunity to explore in more detail later on computers the link has been included in your handout)16How I Set Up and Used a Wiki for the Chinese Cinderella Project1. Signed up for a wikispaces account

2. Set up accounts for student wiki groups

3. Set up the Chinese Cinderella task wiki:

4. Introduced students to wikis

3. This wiki served as a model for students in terms of layout and some of the technological features that were available in wikis (it will be visited later in the presentation)4. I used the data projector or an interactive whiteboard - gave students a general overview and just enough information to get them started17How I Set Up and Used a Wiki for the Chinese Cinderella Project5. Progressively introduced tools and skills

6. Established mini deadlines along the way

7. Set expectations and deadlines regarding the use of the discussion forum

5. Again, using the data projector or an interactive whiteboard6. This was to ensure tasks were not going to be left until the last minute (this is important in order to make full use of the collaborative experience)7. I set expectations and deadlines for students regarding the need to use the discussion forum for each page to comment on each others' work, to discuss items as they arose and also to encourage each other 18Useful links for How To...

The first site offers a range of tours to help with all aspects of using and creating wikis.The second site by wikispaces offers a range of 'help' topics for you and your students to access. The third link will take you to the wiki I have created on Using Wikis in Literacy to Engage Students in Text Studies. Here you will find all aspects of todays presentation.These links have been included in your handout.

19Examples of Text Study ApplicationsBook Club

Literature Circles

Whole Class Text Study

Character Wiki

A number of ideas can be used with wikis across different classes, cross campus or inter-schoolAside from text study, wikis can be used in English in a range of other ways:For example, Penguin Books and De Monfort University launched a wiki-novel project that was edited by some 1500 writers (Harding 2007).Writing wikis (to collaboratively write and publish pieces in a range of genres)Grammar wikis (to store student-made and/or found grammar quizzes and games)Vocabulary wikis (for vocabulary games and activities)Issues discussions (students can discuss issues with each other via a wiki)20Case Study: Year 7 GirlsChinese Cinderella (click below)

(Please note diagram is hyperlinked) This links to the wiki that I set up as the model for my students. It utilises a number of wiki skills and contains a range of tasks for students to complete. Whenever I was demonstrating to students how to use wikis, I was able to use this one as an example.(Depending on time, explore details are on handout for later access)21Student Responses to Chinese Cinderella (click below)

(Please note: diagram is hyperlinked) Year 7 English, group ones wiki briefly explore one or two pages, beginning with this example that shows how students created a concept map, saved it as a jpeg and uploaded it into their wiki. Students also explored the use of presentation effects.22Student Responses to Chinese Cinderella (click below)

(Please note: diagram is hyperlinked) This links to the home page of year 7 English, group twos wiki. (Briefly explore one or two pages.)23Student Responses to Chinese Cinderella (click below)

(Please note: diagram is hyperlinked) Year 7 English group three created very clear, concise chapter summaries as part of their wiki. (Briefly explore some of their discussion pages.)24Student Responses to Chinese Cinderella (click below)

(Please note: diagram is hyperlinked) Year 7 English group four worked on learning how to create a table in the wiki in order to record their research into Cinderella stories and make comparisons. 25Other Examples of Wikis used for Text StudiesHoles by Louis Sachar: (McGlashan, L, Waldron, R & Purcell, S, 2008)

Click above to access link(Please note: diagram is hyperlinked) This wiki is a unit for year 8 students based on the novel 'Holes' by Louis Sachar. It was created by the authors to guide students in their novel study unit and also to assist teachers by providing activities, assessment guides, links to VELS and a rationale.

26Other Examples of Wikis used for Text Studies continued

Click above to access link(Please note: diagram is hyperlinked) This is an example of a student-created wiki based on the novel Holes, by Louis Sachar.27Perceived BarriersNo time to set up a wiki project

Wikis will be difficult or more time consuming to assess

I dont have the technical ability for such a project, nor do my students

Perceived Barriers:

1. No time to set up a wiki projectI found that I could set up the Chinese Cinderella wiki project as I went along and could also use this to model to my students how to work with wikis. There are also many wikis available that have been set up by other teachers. You can search for these in Wikispaces.

2. Wikis will be difficult or more time consuming to assessWith my wiki project, I assessed students on a regular, informal basis by writing comments in the discussion section of every page this meant I had progressive record available. I also formally assessed tasks on agreed deadlines, using rubrics and/or comments. In one research article, it was reported that teachers considered it much easier to manage and assess group projects that had been completed using a wiki(Elgort, Smith & Toland 2008).

3. I dont have the technical ability for such a project, nor do my studentsWikis are really easy to learn if you can use a word processing program, you can learn to use a wiki. In addition, there are many instructional videos and step-by-step instructions available to assist you. Dont forget, you can learn with your students when you first use wikis and you can also enlist the support of the IT department or IT champions within the school.

Careful explanations, demonstrations, and examples for the application of the wiki to the assignment are needed to alleviate some of these barriers, as is sufficient time to develop competence with the new technology. Further, a well-chosen wiki platform may address many, if not all, of the concerns that can arise from technical difficulties. (Deters, Cuthrell & Stapleton 2010)

28Perceived BarriersSome students might not contribute at all, or might contribute unequally

Some students might become upset because they believe they are doing more than their fair share of the work 4. Some students might not contribute at all, or might contribute unequallyRemember that this challenge occurs with other forms of delivery! Students still need incentives, encouragement and praise. Emphasise that it is an important part of their assessment they are being marked on it. As with any group project, it is possible for students to contribute unequally to the task. Fortunately, this can be monitored by looking at the history of pages and/or receiving RSS updates or emails for when changes have been made and by whom. It is important to monitor this in the early stages so that steps can be taken to rectify this problem.

A number of researchers identified the challenge of supporting students in regard to consistency and equality of contribution to the wikis (for example, Bower et al, Higdon & Topaz 2009; Mak & Coniam 2008; Solvie 2008).

5. Some students might become upset because they believe they are doing more than their fair share of the workProvide students with the opportunity to reflect (anonymously) on the contribution of their peers. Make students aware that wikis clearly show how much and how often each student has contributed. Encourage students to voice concerns in a non-blaming manner. Intervene if necessary. Provide opportunities for peer and self assessment.29Perceived BarriersMy students responses are inadequate and not up to expectations

My students are not participating in the page discussions or are not participating in an acceptable manner

6. My students responses to assigned tasks are inadequate and not up to expectationsYou will need to model responses, include explicit teaching and clearly outline your expectations. My wiki task template for Chinese Cinderella models the type of layout, setup and quality I am expecting.

7. My students are not participating in the page discussions or are not participating in an acceptable mannerSet guidelines for your students as to how often you expect them to post responses and comments. Be very explicit about the types of comments you expect them to make and the need for them to be respectful of others at all times. Teach them appropriate etiquette.

30Perceived BarriersI am concerned that my students with special educational needs will not be able to benefit from this activity

One of my student groups has had a major falling out and the students can no longer work together

8. I am concerned that my students with special educational needs will not be able to benefit from this activityBecause wikis are collaborative tools, this is a perfect opportunity for mixed ability groups and for more confident/able students to assist other members of the group. This becomes a positive experience for all. In addition, you can provide a varying degree of scaffolding for your SEN students.

9. One of my student groups has had a major falling out and the students can no longer work togetherFirstly, it is important for students to be able to work with those they dont necessarily like this is what they will have to face in their adult lives. However, if it becomes clear that students will not be able to do this, steps must be taken. I experienced just this situation with one of my groups for Chinese Cinderella. I ended up moving one student to a new group and getting this student to complete an alternative task to compensate for her missed work.

31Perceived BarriersThe wiki does not appear to be working

My students are disputing my assessment of their contribution to the wiki

Students are perpetually leaving tasks until the last minute therefore, not much collaboration or discussion is taking place10. The wiki does not appear to be workingAt times, text wont format the way you want it to and other minor inconsistencies occur. The designers and providers of wikis are always working on improving them and eliminating some of these minor bugs. Sometimes you have to look at a different way of achieving what you want. You can also overcome text formatting inconsistencies by first copying your text into a notepad-type of application, then copying and pasting it back.

11. My students dispute my assessment of their contribution to the wikiTo overcome this problem, you will need to encourage students to do as much of the work as possible in the wiki, particularly any draft work. Therefore you will have concrete evidence of what each student has contributed.

12. Students are perpetually leaving tasks until the last minute This can be a problem when students leave tasks until the last minute, there is little time for collaboration and discussion. As a result, students are not benefitting from the wikis collaborative learning potential. This problem can be avoided by allowing class time for students to work on their wikis as well as setting regular mini deadlines for components of the wiki. In addition, make it clear to students that there must be evidence of regular collaboration and discussion in order for them to produce a superior product (wiki) and receive a higher grade. One of the papers I read reported this to be a significant problem. The authors found that collaborative opportunity was lost because many students left it until the last moment to complete the work (just prior to deadlines). (Judd, Kennedy & Cropper 2010)32Remember:Just because a teacher builds a Wiki, does not mean that it will automatically engage students in learning.

Planning for integration of Wikis requires rethinking teaching strategies and techniques to take advantage of their full potential. (Wetzel 2009)

As mentioned for previous slides, it is essential that lesson planning and teaching strategies ensure that students are collaborating effectively and being fully engaged with both the technology and the learning objectives. To reiterate, students need to be monitored on a regular basis, mini deadlines are needed, class time must be provided and the technology needs to be modelled. 33How to assess a wiki The wiki overall Group tasks Individual tasks Individual contribution to the wiki (collaboration)Individual contribution to wiki discussions (collaboration)

Year 7 & 8 Wiki Assessment Template:

Several components of a wiki need to be assessed:Overall wikiAssessment of the overall wiki structure, setup, presentation, text formatting and use of multimediaGroup tasksEach group task needs to be assessed in accordance with the expectations set for the particular taskIndividual tasksAssigned individual tasks need to be assessed in accordance with expectations set for the taskIndividual contribution to the wikiStudents need to be assessed on their collaborative efforts with other members of the group. Use wiki statistics and page history to determine individual students contributionsIndividual contribution to wiki discussionsStudents need to be assessed on their ability to discuss aspects of the wiki and text study tasks with other group members. Use the discussion for each page to gauge the depth and breadth of such discussions, as well as frequency of input.Wiki Assessment Template this template can be used to facilitate assessment of student wikis and can be adjusted to suit the needs of your particular wiki project. A copy has been included in your handout today. An electronic copy (for editing) is available on request or can be downloaded from my wiki:

34ConclusionsA wiki is a valuable tool in the classroom for students to respond to text

Students enjoy using wikis

When used effectively, students are engaged

A wiki is not difficult to learn or useIt is essential students use technology in classes in order to prepare them for the world in which they liveOpportunity for questions from participants following this slide.35Thank you for your participation Please stay and PLAY with a wiki by:

Working through the steps detailed in the handout

Having a go in the wiki sandbox

Exploring some of the wikis listed in the handout

Please complete the supplied feedback form

I am of the belief that having the opportunity to play with the technology could increase teachers uptake of new technology in classes. (Perhaps an area for future investigation?)36ReferencesBenson, S 2008, 'A Restart of What Language Arts Is: Bringing Multimodal Assignments into Secondary Language Arts', Journal of Advanced Academics, vol. 19, no. 4, pp. 634-74.

Bower, M, Woo, K, Roberts, M & Watters, P 2006, 'Wiki Pedagogy - A Tale of Two Wikis', Paper identification number: 160, Macquarie University.

Deters, F, Cuthrell, K & Stapleton, J 2010, 'Why Wikis? Student Perceptions of Using Wikis in Online Coursework', Journal of Online Teaching and Learning, vol. 6, no. 1, retrieved 30/08/2010, .

Educause 2005, '7 Things you should know about...Wikis', Educause Learning Initiative, retrieved 20/08/2010, .

Educause 2009, Student Engagement, Volume 32, Number 4, 2009

37References continuedElgort, I, Smith, A & Toland, J 2008, 'Is wiki an effective platform for group coursework?', Australasian Journal of Educational Technology, vol. 24, no. 2, pp. 195-210.

Faux, F 2005, 'Multimodality: how students with special educational needs create multimedia stories', Education, Communication & Information, vol. 5, no. 2, pp. 167-81.

Gibbons, S 2010, 'Collaborating like Never Before: Reading and Writing through a Wiki', English Journal, vol. 99, no. 5, pp. 35-9.

Harding, JR 2007, 'Extending the Classroom Space: Wikis, Online Discussions, and Short Fiction', Eureka Studies in Teaching Short Fiction, vol. 8, no. 1, pp. 131-8.

Higdon, J & Topaz, C 2009, 'Blogs and Wikis as Instructional Tools: A Social Software Adaptation of Just-in-Time Teaching', College Teaching, vol. 57, no. 2, pp. 105-10.

38Judd, T, Kennedy, G & Cropper, S 2010, 'Using wikis for collaborative learning: Assessing collaboration through contribution', Australasian Journal of Educational Technology, vol. 26, no. 3, pp. 341-54.

Kalantzis, M, Cope, B & Cloonan, A 2010, 'The New Literacies: Multiple Perspectives on Research and Practice', in E Baker (ed.), New Literacies: A Multiliteracies Perspective. , Guildford Press, New York, pp. 61-87.

Kitson, L, Fletcher, M & Kearney, J 2007, 'Continuity and Change in Literacy Practices: A Move towards Multiliteracies', Journal of Classroom Interaction, vol. 41/42, no. 2/1, pp. 29-41.

Le Fever, L 2007, 'Wikis in Plain English',, Commoncraft, accessed 05/09/2010

Luce-Kapler, R 2007, 'Radical Change and wikis: Teaching new literacies', Journal of Adolescent & Adult Literacy, vol. 51, no. 3, pp. 214-23.

References continued39Luke, A & Elkins, J 1998, 'Reinventing literacy in `new times'', Journal of Adolescent & Adult Literacy, p. 4.

Lundin, RW 2008, 'Teaching with Wikis: Toward a Networked Pedagogy', Computers & Composition, vol. 25, no. 4, pp. 432-48.

Mak, B & Coniam, D 2008, 'Writing with wikis', MODERN ENGLISH TEACHER, vol. 17, no. 3, pp. 38-42.

McGlashan, L, Waldron, R, & Purcell, S 2008, 'Holes - an online and blended learning literature study for Year 8: Submission for Assignment 2, ECX703 eLearning Technologies and Media, Deakin University',

Meiers, M 2009, 'The use of ICT in schools in the digital age', The Digest, vol. 2009 1.

References continued40Morgan, B & Smith, RD 2008, 'A Wiki for Classroom Writing', Reading Teacher, vol. 62, no. 1, pp. 80-2.

Prensky, M 2001, 'Digital Natives, Digital Immigrants', On the Horizon, vol. 9, no. 5.

Richardson, S 2010, Using Wikis for Text Studies, accessed 05/09/2010

Richardson, S 2010, Chinese Cinderella by Adeline Yen Mah, accessed 05/09/2010

Solvie, PA 2008, 'Use of the Wiki: Encouraging Preservice Teachers' Construction of Knowledge in Reading Methods Courses', Journal of Literacy & Technology, vol. 9, no. 2, pp. 57-87.

References continued41Spires, HA, Lee, JK, Turner, KA & Johnson, J 2008, 'Having Our Say: Middle Grade Student Perspectives on School, Technologies, and Academic Engagement', Journal of Research on Technology in Education, vol. 40, no. 4, pp. 497-515.

Tharp, TL 2010, '"Wiki, Wiki, Wiki--WHAT?" Assessing Online Collaborative Writing', English Journal, vol. 99, no. 5, p. 40.

The New London Group 2000, 'A Pedagogy of Multiliteracies: Designing social futures', in Multiliteracies: Literacy Learning and the Design of Social Futures, Macmillan, South Melbourne, pp. 9-37.

Wetzel, D 2008, 'Using Wiki Technology to Engage Students: Educational Technology Strategies for Creativity and Collaboration', Suite, retrieved 30/08/2010, .

References continued42Wetzel, D 2009, '5 Strategies for Using Wikis in the Classroom: Engaging Students in Technology Projects that Support Learning', Suite, retrieved 30/08/2010, .

Wiki Matrix: compare them all,, accessed 05/09/2010

References continued


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