Using Context Clues Looking at the Surrounding Text.

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    12-Jan-2016

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  • Using Context CluesLooking at the Surrounding Text

  • What Are Context Clues?Context clues are hints that help you figure out the meaning of unfamiliar words.To find context clues, look at the words, sentences, and paragraphs that surround the unfamiliar word.Martin begged and pleaded with his mother to let him go on the spring break beach trip with his friends, but she resisted his supplications and made him go on the familys annual camping trip.

  • Types of Context CluesWriters often include context clues in their writing. When you come across an unfamiliar word, look for the following types of context clues. Example: Writers may suggest the meaning of a word by providing an example. Some example signal phrases are for example, the following, and such as.Most emotions have an antithesis; for example, joy and sorrow.Avoid excessive gesticulations, such as pointing or pounding on the podium, while giving a speech.

  • Types of Context CluesRestatement or Definition: Writers may suggest the meaning of a word by repeating the same basic information using different words. Writers also might give a definition of the word. You are lucky to have such an erudite teacher, my father said. Ms. Jenkins is a great scholar and has done a great deal of research in her field.Yeomen, or owners of small farms, made up the majority of Southern farmers.

  • Types of Context CluesContrast: Writers may suggest the meaning of a word by contrasting it with other words. Some contrast signal words are not or but.The doctor tried to alleviate the patients discomfort, but the symptoms just intensified.The committee is searching for someone who is impartial, not biased or unfair.

  • Types of Context CluesCause and Effect: Writers may suggest the meaning of a word by showing a causal relationship between it and another word or phrase. Some cause-and-effect signal words and phrases are because, since, for, due to, and as a result. The team was exuberant because they won the state championship.As a result of the meager harvest, the farmers made little profit.

  • Using Context CluesTo figure out the meaning of an unfamiliar word, use a word map like the one below.

  • How to Use Context CluesStep 1: Write the sentence containing the unfamiliar word. Identify the unfamiliar word.

    Step 2:Write down what you think the word means based on what you already know about it. Ask yourself,Does this word have any roots, prefixes, or suffixes whose meanings I know? What are some words I think of when I look at this word?What other words does this word sound like?

  • How to Use Context CluesStep 3: Write the clues from the text. Ask yourself,What type of text am I reading? What topic might this word relate to?Does the writer provide an example of the word? restate or define the meaning of the word? show contrast? show cause and effect?How is the word used in the sentence? What words could I substitute for it?

  • How to Use Context CluesStep 4: Look the word up in a dictionary or glossary and write its dictionary definition.How does your definition compare with the dictionarys definition?

    Step 5: Write some synonyms for the word. Choose synonyms that are familiar to you.

  • Suddenly he heard a sharp report and something struck the water smartly within a few inches of his head, spattering his face with spray. He heard a second report, and saw one of the sentinels with his rifle at his shoulder, a light cloud of blue smoke rising from the muzzle. The man in the water saw the eye of the man on the bridge gazing into his own through the sights of the rifle. He observed that it was a gray eye and remembered having read that gray eyes were keenest, and that all famous marksmen had them. Nevertheless, this one had missed.from An Occurrence at Owl Creek Bridge by Ambrose BierceLets Practice

  • Lets PracticeSentences: Suddenly he heard a sharp report and something struck the water smartly within a few inches of his head, spattering his face with spray. He heard a second report, and saw one of the sentinels with his rifle at his shoulder, a light cloud of blue smoke rising from the muzzle. Word: reportWhat I Think It Means: This isnt the usual meaning of report. In this story, report has something to do with guns. Clues to Meaning in the Text: After the man hears the report, something strikes the water. Another report causes smoke to rise from the muzzle of a rifle.Dictionary Definition: an explosive noiseSynonyms: noise, firing, bang, explosion, blast

  • On Your OwnIt was nine oclock. There was no sun or hint of sun, though there was not a cloud in the sky. It was a clear day, and yet there seemed an intangible pall over the face of things, a subtle gloom that made the day dark, and that was due to the absence of sun. This fact did not worry the man. He was used to the lack of sun. It had been days since he had seen the sun, and he knew that a few more days must pass before that cheerful orb, due south, would just peep above the skyline and dip immediately from view. from To Build a Fire by Jack London

  • The End

    *{Amberwould be good to do animation in the following way to emphasize the steps of using context clues as described on pages 8-10.Graphic organizer with bf titles/heads appears with slide (no clicks)On first click, text in Sentence box and Word oval appear. [Step 1]On second click, text in What I Think . . . appears. [Step 2]On third click, text in Clues to Meaning . . . appears. [Step 3]On fourth click, text in Dictionary Definition appears. [Step 4]Finally, on fifth click, text in Synonyms appears. [Step 5]Thanks!Sean

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