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  • Update on

    Pervious Concrete

    Performance Eastern

    Washington

    Liv Haselbach

    Fulbright-ALCOA Distinguished Chair in the

    Environmental Sciences and Engineering in Brazil

    Professor, Civil & Environmental Engineering

    Washington State University

    haselbach@wsu.edu

    Associate Director: CESTiCC

    Center for Environmentally Sustainable

    Transportation in Cold Climates

    And

    Thanks to the Husseman Fund from the

    Washington State Department of Ecology,

    WSU Facility Services

    City of Spokane1

  • 2

    Pervious concrete can be used for many applications including:

    - Parking lots,

    - sidewalks,

    - low volume roads, and

    - there is interest for roadway shoulders to control the roadway runoff.

    Traditional Pavement as mainline Permeable Pavement Shoulder

    Natural Soil

    Open Graded Aggregate Bed

    Source of photo: http://www.ephenryecocenter.com

  • Permeable Pavement Systems!

    PERVIOUS CONCRETE IS A STRUCTURED SURFACE PLUS:

    Surface Infiltration: Stormwater Flooding Mitigation

    Underground Storage (no surface pooling/ponding)

    Pollutant Removal: - on top - in ground - in reservoir - to air?

    Heat Island Mitigation

    Noise Reduction

    Safety Benefits 3

  • Permeable Pavement Systems!

    What is the surface?

    - Pervious Concrete

    - Porous Asphalt

    - Permeable Pavers

    What depth should the

    aggregate bed be?

    -For structure (loads)

    -For water storage

    (runon and storms)

    - For frost depth

    4

  • Permeable pavements on slopes?

    Remember it is a System

    Be careful that the water from surrounding areas (runon) does not flow too fast and overshoot!5

  • What is Pervious Concrete?

    Mixture of :

    Coarse aggregate,

    Cementitious material,

    Admixtures, and

    Water.

    Carefully controlled amounts of water &

    cementitious materials are used to create a

    paste that forms a thick coating around

    aggregate particles without flowing off during

    mixing & placing.

    6

  • Unique Structure of Pervious

    Concrete

    Vertical Porosity Distribution

    Top Transition Zone

    Micro/Macro Pores

    Connected/Disconnected Pores7

  • Porosity of Pervious Concrete

    Total Porosity Ranges: ~13%-40%

    Recommended: ~20-25%

    Tortuous (vertical and horizontal flow)

    Compressive Strength(not used for specifying):

    Typically 1000-3000 psi. (7-20 Mpa)

    8

  • How is pervious concrete placed?

    Concrete Traditional PC

    Cement 1 1

    Aggregate 3 4+

    Water 1/2 ~1/3

    Fines 2 ~0

    Mixed

    Compacted & CoveredCured 7 days

    9

  • Testing Methods

    ASTM c1688-14a Standard Test Method for Density and

    Void Content of Freshly Mixed Pervious Concrete

    ASTM c1701-09 Standard Test Method for Infiltration Rate

    of In Place Pervious Concrete:

    ASTM c1747-13 Standard Test Method for Determining

    Potential Resistance to Degradation of Pervious Concrete

    by Impact and Abrasion (or ASTMc944 Rotating Abrasion

    for traditional concrete)

    ASTM c1754-12 Standard Test Method for Density and

    Void Content of Hardened Pervious Concrete

    ISO 17785-1 Testing methods for pervious concrete

    infiltration rateJune 2016

    10

  • ASTM C1701 in Field

    11

  • Older

    Placements

    in Pullman

    Valley Playfield Walks

    Vetmed CircleSloan Sidewalk12

  • Site Information and

    Runon Areas

    Site Pervious Concrete Area

    Paved Run-on Sources

    Paved Approximate Area Producing Run-on

    Total Area Ratio of Total Area to Pervious Concrete Area

    Valley Playfield East

    4277 ft2 Incline Standard Concrete

    2500 ft2 6777 ft2 1.58

    Valley Playfield Center

    7262 ft2 None Negligible 7262 ft2 1.00

    VetMed 2827 ft2 Incline Standard Concrete

    4000 ft2 6827 ft2 2.41

    Sloan Sidewalk 960 ft2 Incline Standard Concrete

    2000 ft2 2960 ft2 3.08

    Average 2

    Haselbach, L. and Werner, B., Pervious Concrete Performance in Eastern Washington: Surface

    Infiltration, Proceedings ASCE Low Impact Development Conference, Houston Texas, January 2015.

  • More Placements: PACCAR Parking Lot:

    Pervious Concrete, WSU Pullman:

    Summer 2015

    14

  • Summary of seven pervious

    pavement sites at WSU Pullman

    as of Summer 2016

    Age (yr) Size (sq.ft.) Mix

    VetMed Circle 5 2827 Concrete

    Sloan Hall Sidewalk 4 960 Concrete

    East Valley Playfields 6 4277 Concrete

    Center Valley Playfields 5 7262 Concrete

    Allen Center Walk and ADA

    Parking5 5924 Asphalt

    Community Hall 1 130 Concrete

    PACCAR 1 9370 Concrete

    15

  • Pullman Pervious Locations

    Site 2014 Average (in/hr)

    Winters Experienced by

    2014 Testing

    2015 Average (in/hr)

    Winters Experienced by

    2015 TestingValley Playfields East

    498 4 178 5

    Valley Playfields Center

    594 3 no data 4

    VetMed Circle 413 3 234 4

    ADA Parking Lot (asphalt)

    123 3 no data 4

    Sloan Hall Sidewalk

    513 2 233* 3

    Community Hall Sidewalk

    1820 0

    PACCAR 977 0

    16

    Locations were not chosen randomly and therefore the numbers may be biased to clogged areas.

    *This data point reflects a partial cleaning of the pervious installation.

    Prior to cleaning, this value was likely closer to about 190 in/hr.

    Haselbach, 2016. Low Impact Development Feasibility Project on the WSU Pullman Campus,

    Final report to Washington State Department of Ecology.

  • Cleaned Sloan! Woohoo!

    September 2015

    Hose and Nozzle

    Upper ~15 feet

    Lower ~20 feet

    Just as fast now as center portion which has

    not been cleaned after 3 winters, but still

    functioning well.

    17

  • Sloan Infiltration Testing 2014

    Time (Seconds)

    Test

    location

    number

    Pre-

    wetTest

    5 gal

    Infiltration Rate

    (in/hr)1 gal

    1 604 620 12

    2 21.6 185.5 198

    3 13.33 82.9 444

    4 9.43 51.8 710

    5 8.96 51.87 709

    6 10.61 52.85 696

    7 10.61 69.45 530

    Haselbach, L. and Werner, B.,

    Pervious Concrete Performance in

    Eastern Washington: Surface

    Infiltration, Proceedings ASCE Low

    Impact Development Conference,

    Houston Texas, January 2015.

  • Sloan Temperature Impacts?

    19

    Werner, B. and Haselbach, L. Temperature and testing impacts on surface infiltration rates

    of pervious concrete, under development. J Cold Regions Engr.

  • Clogging with Time at Sloan

    20

    Werner, B. and Haselbach, L.(2016) Temperature and testing impacts on surface infiltration rates of

    pervious concrete, submitted Special Issue on Environmental Sustainability of Transportation Infrastructure in

    Cold Climates, ASCE J of Cold Regions Engineering

  • ASTM C1701 Alpha and Beta Tests

    21

    Werner, B. and Haselbach, L. Temperature and testing impacts on surface infiltration rates

    of pervious concrete, under development. J Cold Regions Engr.

    Slope is 1.05 and R2 is 0.97

  • Community Placement

    22

  • Placement

    Wet the rock before you place the concrete.

    23

  • Placement

    .

    24

  • Placement

    .

    Done in seven days!

    25

  • Soil Moisture and Temperature

    Sensoring at Community Hall

    WSU Case Study Retention

    Why? If we used permeable pavement systems

    next to mainlines, what impacts are there on the

    soils under the mainlines?

    Frost depth? Soil migration?

    Typical Palouse Clay soils

    Sensors in the neighboring soils

    Pervious concrete sidewalk

    Weather station on top of Sloan

    Opportunity for controlled flooding events26

  • Community Sidewalk

    27

    Method: Several soil moisture and temperature sensors are installed in slow draining soils next to a

    retention system located in a pervious concrete sidewalk on the Pullman Campus of Washington State

    University (with clayey soil) with no underdrains. This portion is for the warm/dry season. The

    observation wells can be used for draindown studies.

    Existing

    Traditional

    Concrete

    Existing

    Traditional

    Concrete

    New Pervious Concrete

    Dam

    OW 1

    OW: Observation Well

    MS: Moisture Sensor Array

    Zone A

    Zone BZone C

    OW 2

    Data logger

    M.S.A2

    M.S.A1

    M.S.B2

    M.S.B1

    M.S.C2

    M.S.C1

    N

    Yekkalar, M. and Haselbach, L. (2016) under review

    Impacts of a Pervious Concrete System on Neighboring Clay Soils in Warm-Dry Months.

  • Community Sidewalk

    28

    First set of GPR targets Second set of GPR targets

    6 in

    6 in

    2 ft

    6 in 3 ft 3 ft 8 ft 5 ft 6 in 3 ft 3 ft

    N

    Yekkalar, M. and Haselbach, L. (2016) under review

    Impacts of a Pervious Concrete System on Neighboring Clay Soils in Warm-Dry Months.

  • Draindown Test Results from Test 1 on October 17, 2015:

    Zone C Observation Well

    Time

    (minute)

    Water

    Depth

    (in)

    Time

    (minute)

    Water

    Depth

    (in)

    Time

    (minute)

    Water

    Depth

    (in)

    0 20.25 16.57 16.25 39.42 12.25

    0.75 19.75 17.93 15.75 41.67 11.75

    1.20 19.25 20.