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  • University of Kragujevac Faculty of Education in Jagodina

    Conference Proceedings No. 11

    Content and Language Integrated Learning (CLIL) in Teaching English to Young Learners

    Jagodina, 2012

  • Content and Language Integrated Learning (CLIL) in Teaching English to Young Learners

    Conference Proceedings No. 11

    Published by Prof. Sretko Divljan

    Faculty of Education in Jagodina Milana Mijalkovića 14, Jagodina

    Editors Radmila Popović

    Vera Savić

    Reviewed by Radmila Popović

    Proofread by Esther Helaizen

    Cover design Miloš Đorđević

    Printed by City Press, Jagodina

    Printed in 200 copies

    ISBN 978-86-7604-082-7

    We acknowledge the support of the Ministry of Education and Science of Serbia for the organisation of the Conference and the publication of the Proceedings.

    Jagodina, 2012

  • Contents

    Preface ....................................................................................................................... 5

    Foreword .................................................................................................................... 7

    Mary Spratt Comparing CLIL and ELT..................................................................................... 9

    Nataša Janković and Marina Cvetković Curiosity and Creativity – a Perfect Foundation for CLIL................................ 21

    Vera Savić Effective CLIL Lesson Planning: What Lies Behind It? .................................... 35

    Radmila Đaković and Tijana Dabić Foreign Language Anxiety and CLIL ................................................................. 47

    Ivana R. Ćirkovic Miladinovic and Ivana M. Milić Young learners and CLIL: Developing language skills in ELT Classroom Integrated with the Contents of Musical Education ........................................ 55

    Tatjana Glušac CLIL and One-to-One Classes ............................................................................ 63

    Tijana Vasiljević Stokić Techniques for Teaching Very Young Learners ................................................ 75

    Biljana R. Pavlović and Jelena D. Marković CLIL in Serbian Classrooms............................................................................... 83

    Mirjana Marušić CLIL and Natural Sciences – Physics and Chemistry ....................................... 93

    Marija Jović Animal Planet ..................................................................................................... 97

    Vesna M. Prvulović Maths in English............................................................................................... 105

    Marija L. Kovač Possible Solution to the Lack of CLIL Materials for Year 3 Students in Primary Schools in Serbia............................................................................ 111

    Jelena Čupić Making and Using Simple Musical Instruments in Teaching English to Young Learners ............................................................................................ 117

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    Preface

    ''Content and Language Integrated Learning (CLIL) in Teaching English to Young Learners'' is a publication based on papers presented at the conference ''CLIL in Teaching English to Young Learners'' held at the Faculty of Education in Jagodina on 4-5 June 2010. These papers discuss CLIL both from theoretical and practical points of view and aim to contribute to better understanding and to its wider and more successful implementation in Serbian primary schools.

    CLIL is the term used to describe a methodological approach in which foreign language tuition is integrated within subject teaching. This is not a new approach in Europe - it has been practised for about three decades - but the term was first officially used in the 1990s. The 2006 EURYDICE publication “Content and Language Integrated Learning (CLIL) at schools in Europe” showed that CLIL programmes had been started in most EU member countries both at primary and secondary levels and as part of mainstream school education or within pilot projects.

    Being based on an integrated approach, in which language learning and content learning happen simultaneously, CLIL differs from all other approaches to language teaching and learning. Research indicates that if it is properly implemented, its benefits are manifold. It can contribute to improving students’ language skills and subject knowledge, but also promote multiculturalism, intercultural knowledge and understanding. It also fosters the development of diverse learning strategies and the application of innovative teaching methods and techniques. Moreover, content related instruction seems to facilitate students’ cognitive development and learning in general.

    In spite of a number of positive CLIL experiences in other educational systems, CLIL still has not become part of Serbian mainstream primary education, except for a few pilot bilingual education programmes carried out so far. Although the effects of these short-term projects have not been researched, and there are no national programme for educating CLIL teachers, there have been many individual examples of successful CLIL lessons taught by Serbian EFL teachers. A poll conducted among Serbian EFL teachers in 2010 indicated that the majority were interested in implementing this innovative approach in their language classrooms.

    The papers in this book describe the individual efforts of language educators to implement CLIL principles in their teaching contexts. The

  • 6

    papers also express the hope of language educators to influence changes in language teaching and learning in Serbia by contributing to the introduction of CLIL in teaching young learners. It is hoped that this book can contribute to making individual CLIL experiences less daunting and more successful. The articles show that solutions may lie in using appropriate guidelines for the successful implementation of CLIL (Mary Spratt); in arousing children's curiosity in learning and applying a considerable amount of creativity in teaching (Nataša Janković and Marina Cvetković); in focusing on selecting, designing and balancing appropriate content and language support materials, activities, and tasks when planning a CLIL lesson (Vera Savić); and in reducing pupils’ language anxiety in CLIL education (Radmila Đaković and Tijana Dabić). The authors give concrete suggestions for successful content and language integration in music lessons (Ivana Ćirković Miladinović and Ivana Milić); in one-to-one classes (Tatjana Glušac); in teaching very young learners (Tijana Vasiljević Stokić); or when teaching maths and science contents (Vesna Prvulović, Mirjana Marušić and Marija Jović). The papers further suggest that the success of CLIL in Serbian primary classes will result from good cooperation between content and language teachers (Biljana Pavlović and Jelena Marković) who create engaging hands-on activities (Jelena Čupić) or make use of a great variety of materials available on the Internet (Marija Kovač). We hope that this book will inspire further efforts in the field.

    Vera Savić

  • 7

    Foreword

    When the term Content & Language Integrated Learning (CLIL) was adopted in Europe during 1994, the experts involved strongly believed that it represented futuristic education founded on historically significant good educational practice. There was doubt about whether it would spread from isolated centres of innovation, or very specific regions, into mainstream education as a whole. There was also a large question mark over whether this type of educational experience would flourish in the larger countries of Europe. But there was consensus, amongst practitioners and researchers, that the initial research outcomes of various CLIL models were too positive for it to be side-lined as another passing educational ‘fad’.

    My early educational life was based very much in the 1960s. At that time the young adult generation in many countries had a common mantra based on the word ‘why’? I learnt two additional languages at school, Latin and French. I was already rather old for starting language learning (about 13 yrs) and, thus, needed ever more skillful teaching and learning opportunities. But these did not materialize. The teaching of both languages was dry, dull, detached and woefully inadequate.

    The reason ‘why’ we were learning Latin grammar, and memorizing sentences like ‘Caligula spoke with his sword on his knee’ was never explicitly clear. We saw it as a dead language being learnt because of academic tradition. If only the teaching had shown the relationship between Latin and modern languages; the intellectual benefits that result from knowledge of the language; and the relevance to modern society – then the situation might have been different.

    French was in much the same category. We studied French with an ex- soldier who had probably spent some time in France during the 1940s. The entire French experience was tied up in the dull pages of textbooks we carried from room to room. We rarely heard the language because the teaching was primarily in English, and largely based on memorization of de-contextualized sentences such as ‘Sophie is a student at the Sorbonne’.

    Things have now changed and the previous ‘why’ generations are being replaced by the ‘how’ generations. T