Universalist Approaches

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Outline• Prescriptive/universalist approaches:Bureaucracy and Scientific management Human Relations Organisations as MachinesOrganisation as MachineBureaucracy As Machine“The fully developed bureaucratic mechanism compares with other organisations exactly does the machine with the non-mechanical modes of production.”Weber’s Ideal-Typical BureaucracyJob specialisat (DoL) Authority hieraRed-Tape =? BureaucracyScientific Management (=Taylorism)• A systematic method of deter

Text of Universalist Approaches

Outline Prescriptive/universalist approaches:Bureaucracy and Scientific management Human Relations

Organisations as Machines

Organisation as Machine

Bureaucracy As MachineThe fully developed bureaucratic mechanism compares with other organisations exactly does the machine with the non-mechanical modes of production.

Webers Ideal-Typical Bureaucracy

Job specialisat (DoL) Authority hiera

Red-Tape =? Bureaucracy

Scientific Management (=Taylorism) A systematic method of determining the best way to do a job and specifying the skills needed to perform it Taylors objective was to achieve: Efficiency: by eliminating waste, increasing the output per worker and reducing underworking (or soldiering) by employees Standardisation: of jobs, by dividing tasks into small specified subtasks Discipline: by establishing hierarchical authority and introducing a system whereby management decisions are implemented or enforced

Principles of Scientific Management Define a clear division of tasks and responsibilities between management and workers (a la Weber) Use scientific methods to determine the most efficient way of doing work with rules and principles, replacing rule-of-thumb Select the best person to perform the job designed Train the worker to do the work efficiently Monitor worker performance to ensure that the work is performed with the principles of scientific management and secure this with the use of economic incentives

Training by Rules and Regulations

Taylors One Best Way (1911, p.15) The workmen in all our trades have been taught the details of their work by observation of those immediately around them, there are many ways in common use for doing the same thing... Now, among the various methods and implements used in each element of trade there is always one method and one implement which is quicker and better than any of the rest. And this one best method and best implement can only be discovered or developed through a scientific study and analysis of all the methods and implements in use, together with accurate, minute, motion and time study. This involves the gradual substitution of science for rule-of-thumb throughout the mechanic arts

Taylorism at Work at Bettlehem Steel3rd Year Achievements Old Plan labourers tons pw/pd (avg.) earnings per w. (avg.) cost of handling a ton net savings in labour cost 500 16 $1.15 $0.072 New Plan 140 59 $1.88 $0.033 4 cents

total savings per year


Taylors View of Workers To Taylor, the worker was an economic animal who responded directly to financial incentives He regarded the worker as a machine fuelled only by money. Now one of the very first requirements for a man who is fit to handle pig iron as a regular occupation is that he shall be so stupid and phlegmatic that he more nearly resembles in his mental makeup the ox than any other type. The man who is mentally alert and intelligent is entirely unsuited to what would be the grinding monotony of work of this character.

Taylorism as Control of Labour Workers should be controlled not only by the giving of orders and maintenance of discipline, but also by removing from them any decisions about the manner in which their work was to be carried out. By division of labour, by isolating the individual worker, and by dictating precise stages and methods for work, management could gain control of the actual production process. And the use of economic incentives could turn workers into cogs in a machine. The jobs were simplified so that workers would be cheap, easy to train, easy to supervise, and easy to replace -- think of robots replacing human labour!!. All of these enhances the meaning of work imposed through the clock-time...

Greeting the Customer



Management Checklist in A Fast-Food Restaurant

1. There is a smile 2. There is eye contact Taking the Order 1.The counter person is familiar with menu 2-The customer has to give the order only once 3-There is suggestive selling Assembling the Order 1-Assembled in proper order 2-Proper amount of ice in drinks 3-Drinks are filled to the proper level Presenting the Order 1- It is properly packaged 2-Plastic trays are used if eating inside Asking for and Receiving Payment 1-The amount of the order is stated clearly 2- The change is counted out loud and efficiently Thanking the Customer 1-The thank-you is sincere

Criticisms of Taylorism Neglected the importance of other rewards from work (achievement, job satisfaction and recognition) Ignored the psychological needs and capabilities of workers Removed the social from human beings: subject to the alienation, de-skilling and rationalisation criticisms This asocial (or individualistic) perspective on organisation not only undermined the human potential but also ignored the ability of workers to create their own forms of resistance and, hence, solidarity

Organisation as Machine Mechanistic organisation works well under conditions where machines work well: when there is a straightforward task to perform when the environment is stable enough to ensure that the products produced will be appropriate (scale economies) when one wishes to produce exactly the same product over and over again when precision in doing one task is at a premium when the human machine parts are compliant and behave as they have been designed to do

NO COMMENT Taylor: ...scientific management [is] applicable to all kinds of human activities, from our simplest acts to the work of our great corporations

Human Relations and Hawthorne Experiments The objective was to investigate the impact of physical working conditions on workers productivity. To advertise for the use of light bulbs in factories, the management wanted to show the relationship between lighting and productivity. For there was competition between gas and electric lighting producers for industrial use. There were 4 stages in the experiments: illumination experiments relay assembly tests interviewing programme the bank wiring observation room

Relay Assembly Test Room Experiments

In General, productivity increased with each change in work conditions

15 min rests+lunch standard standard same+Sat AM Off same+Sat AM Off 15 min rests lunch 15 min rests lunch two 10 min. Rests two 10 min. Rests standard work cnd standard work cnd standard work cnd 130 125 120 115 110 105 100 95 % of standard output 90

The Hawthorne Effect: A Turning Point Two Hawthorne effects are distinguished today: The real change was the segregation of a small group that behaved and performed differently because they were being observed by the research team research intervention was an independent variable itself in its effect on human behaviour The observer in the experiment had become a trusted friend of the women, allowing an informal group to develop, which gave their life a new meaning

Conclusions from Hawthorne Studies Social context shapes the perceptions and motives; thus individuals who may possess highly productive assets can, in the wrong social environment, be unproductive and unmotivated People at work are motivated by more than pay and conditions alone: (Barnard: the human factor cannot be simply slotted into task assignments and motivated by external material reward) Work is a group activity, and individuals should be seen as group members not in isolation (Mayo: Desire for human association is a fundamental human impulse) The need for recognition, security and sense of belonging is more important in determining workers morale and productivity (than pay and work conditions) Through their unofficial norms, informal groups exercise strong controls over the work habits and attitudes of individuals Supervisors need to be aware of both individuals social needs and the power of the informal group in order to align these to achieve the formal (organisational) objectives

What Did this Mean? Human relations theorists suggest that the role of management is to provide organisational environments in which employers can fulfil the social needs of their employees and encourage the workers desire for co-operative activity Thus, as long as management knows how to control these social factors, they will be able to use their employees social needs to achieve managerial ends

Winning the hearts & minds of workers

Continuing the Taylorist Tradition:Human Relations as Control of Labour The technical features of Taylorism did not contradict Human Relations: Taylors workers required only money; Mayos workers required group membership. It is the case that mechanical methods of management control is still in place...

So, Human Relations continued where Taylorism left it: extended the division of labour and compensated for lack of motivation with social stimulation Therefore, it may really represent simply another strategy of organisational control. For it has provided a new tool for managers by creating and sustaining consent

Conclusions:From Taylors Economic Animal to Mayos Social Man In response to the economic animal of Taylor, Mayo stressed the importance of the social man The universal assumption here is that the major human need is for social solidarity which can be satisfied through group association Naturally this undermines the role of economic incentives In other words, participants act according to sentiments and emotions...This, though, emphasises the essentially co-operative or consent-based nature of the business organisation According to both approaches, one could prescribe the rules of organisation, which would be universally applicable