Unit Five The Real Truth about Lies --Randy Fitzgerald
BR1-word web Directions: Figure out the expressions with the word lie. Word-web LIE a bold-faced lie nail a lie live a lie a black lie a white lie a monstrous lie a downright lie a barefaced lie
Open discussion: 1.Do you lie sometimes? Why and why not? 2.Do you agree that there is a real need to lie in our life?
About the author & the text Randy Fitzgerald: freelance writer, columnist and blogger The text is chosen from Readers Digest in 1999.
Structural analysis of the text Part 1Para 1- 6 Introducing the topic by reporting two survey results. Part 2Para 7-11 Telling little white lies is a common practice and the reason for telling such lies by citing an example Part 3Para 12-15 The consequences of telling lies Part 4Para 16-18 Discussing whether lies should be avoided at all costs
Part 1Para 1-- 6 Introducing the topic by reporting two survey results.
1. profess v (fml) claim (sth), often falsely , : I don't profess to be an expert in this subject. > professed adj (falsely) claimed; alleged ; profession n. ~ of sth ; : a profession of belief Language work (Para. 1- 6)
2. earth-shattering adj surprising or shocking and very important: an earth- shattering event
4. spare sb's feelings to avoid doing something that would upset someone e.g. Just tell me the truth. You don t need to spare my feelings.
5. preoccupation n. a) [u]~ (with sth) state of constantly thinking or worrying about sth; obsession ; : She found his preoccupation with money irritating. b) [C] something that you give all your attention to main/chief/central etc preoccupation > preoccupy v. preoccupied a.
6. prevaricate v [I] (fml) try to avoid telling the (whole) truth by speaking in an evasive or a misleading way; equivocate ; : Tell us exactly what happened and don t prevaricate. > prevarication n [U&C] ; : The report was full of lies and prevarications. prevaricator n
The Educational Ladder Kindergarten Elementary school High school College Americans view their public school system as an educational ladder: Pre-College
Day Care ( ) Center Nursery School Kinder -garten Early Childhood Education Preschools
All school systems in the US have 12 years of elementary, middle school and senior high school. + Elementary schoolHigh school 6 years Senior high schoolJunior high school 4 years 2 years
7. pundit n. a person who is an authority on a subject; expert ; : The pundits disagree on the best way of dealing with the problem.
Questions: 1. What does Professor Bella DePaulo's study indicate about lying? What do most people think about lying? 2. What is the result of the survey conducted by Josephson Institute of Ethics? What can we learn from it?
Part 2Para 7-11 Telling little white lies is a common practice and the reason for telling such lies by citing an example.
8. ubiquitous adj (fml) (seeming to be) present everywhere or in several places at the same time , : Is there no escape from the ubiquitous cigarette smoke in restaurants? > ubiquity n [U] .
9. fib n (infml) untrue statement, esp about sth unimportant ; : Stop telling such silly fibs. > fib v (-bb-) [I] ; fibber n
10. invariable adj never changing; always the same; constant ; : an invariable pressure, temperature, amount * his invariable courtesy > invariability n [U]. invariably adv Antonym: variable a.
11. blurt v (phr v) blurt sth out say sth suddenly and tactlessly : He blurted out the bad news before I could stop him.
12. deceit n a) [U] deliberately leading sb to believe or accept sth that is false; deceiving ; : practice deceit on sb * She won her promotion by deceit. b) [C] dishonest act or statement : She got them to hand over all their money by a wicked deceit. > deceitful adj deceive v.
13. compliment v ~ sb (on sth) express praise or admiration of sb : I complimented her on her skilful performance. > compliment n. ( ) [ pl.]
14. lubricant n [U and C] a substance such as oil that you put on surfaces that rub together, especially parts of a machine, in order to make them move smoothly and easily > lubricate vt. lubrication n [U]
15. tangle v a) ~ (sth) (up) (cause sth to) become twisted into a confused mass , : Her hair got all tangled up in the barbed wire fence. b) ~ with sb/sth become involved in a quarrel or fight with sb/sth ; : You shouldn t tangle with Peter -- he's bigger than you. > tangled adj: tangled hair, wire, etc tangle n. , entangle v.
Questions: 3. According to the writer, what could be considered nice lies ? 4. Why do people tell white lies? Do you think the lies will be well received once they are exposed?
Part 3Para 12-15 The consequences of telling lies
16. the slippery slope (infml) course of action that can easily lead to disaster, failure, etc : A one-party state can be the start of the slippery slope towards fascism. > slippery a. slope n.
17. wear down phr v a) to reduce or become weaker until useless e.g. My shoes have worn down at the heel. b) wear sb down to gradually make someone physically weaker or less determined e.g. It was clear he was being worn down by the rumours over his future.
18. perception n (fml) a) [U] ability to see, hear or understand ; : improve one's powers of perception b) [C] ~ (that...) way of seeing or understanding sth ; : My perception of the matter is that... > perceive vt. perceptible a. perceptive a.
19. warp v [I, Tn] a) (cause sth to) become bent or twisted from the usual or natural shape , : The damp wood began to warp. * The hot sun had warped the cover of the book. b) (fig) (cause sb/sth to) become biased, distorted or perverted [ ] , : His judgment was warped by self- interest. * a warped mind / sense of humor
20. proliferate v [I] if something proliferates, it increases quickly and spreads to many different places ( ) : Computer courses continue to proliferate. > proliferation n [U] ; : a nuclear non-proliferation treaty
21. cynicism n. the belief that people always act selfishly > cynic n. , cynical adj
22. falter v [I] a) to become weaker and unable to continue in an effective way : The economy is showing signs of faltering. b) (of the voice) waver : His voice faltered as he tried to speak.
Questions: 5. What, according to the author, would be the consequences of lying?
Part 4Para 16-18 Discussing whether lies should be avoided at all costs
23. ethic n system of moral principles; rules of conduct ; : the Puritan ethic > ethics n (a) [sing v] science that deals with morals (b) [pl] moral correctness : Medical ethics ethical adj ; ethicist n.
24. undermine v. (fig) weaken (sth/sb) gradually or insidiously : undermine sb's position, reputation, authority, etc. undermine sb's confidence / authority / position / credibility etc
25. confound v [Tn] puzzle and surprise (sb); perplex : His behaviour amazed and confounded her. * I was confounded to hear that... > confounded adj. ,
26. astound v overcome (sb) with surprise or shock; amaze ; : We were astounded to read your letter. > astounding adj
Question: 6. Are all white lies unacceptable? What is the yardstick of acceptable lies?