Unit 11 The Real Truth about Lies --Randy Fitzgerald.
Unit 11The Real Truth about Lies --Randy Fitzgerald ContentsPre-reading questionsBackground informationGlobal study of Text IStructural analysis Detailed study of of Text IComprehension questions of Text IExercisesGrammatical itemsGlobal study of Text IIOral activitiesWriting practiceWarming up activities1.If your good friend buys a new MP3 or a new mobile phone which you dislike intensely, and asks for your opinion about it, what will you say?2.When do you think people lie?3. Why do people lie?4.To whom do people most likely to lie?5. How would you feel if somebody lied to you for your own good?6. Whats your view of white lies?7. Have you ever lied? examplesOpen discuss 1.What topics are husbands, wives, boyfriends and girlfriends likely to lie about? 2.If once a cheater, always a cheater? 3. If you have done something wrong, should you confess or tell a lie or keep it a secret? How do you rebuild, restore or regain trust after it has been destroyed? Quotes readinglie & truthLet sleeping dogs lie. Truth is beautiful, without doubt; but so are lies. - - - Ralph Waldo Emerson A lie stands on one leg, truth on two. - - - Benjamin FranklinTruth is completely spontaneous. Lies have to be taught. - - - Richard Buckminster Fuller Jr. Truth is completely spontaneous. Lies have to be taught. - - - Richard Buckminster Fuller Jr. It is always the best policy to tell the truth, unless, of course, you are an exceptionally good liar. - - Jerome K. Jerome Truth is the safest lie. - - - Jewish Proverb Truth never damages a cause that is just. - - - Mohandas K. Gandhi "Non-Violence in Peace and War" Beauty is truth, truth beauty,-that is all - - - John Keats "Ode on a Grecian Urn" It is hard to believe that a man is telling the truth when you know that you would lie if you were in his place. - - - H. L. Mencken I never know how much of what I say is true. - - - Bette Midler Let us begin by committing ourselves to the truth- to see it like it is, and tell it like it is- to find the truth, to speak the truth, and to live the truth. - - - Richard M. Nixon , Speech, 9 Aug. 1968, Miami, accepting the presidential nomination. Rather than love, than money, than fame, give me truth. - - - Henry David Thoreau Truly, to tell lies is not honorable; but when the truth entails tremendous ruin, To speak dishonorably is pardonable. - - - Sophocles Lying is an act of aggression--against the recipient of the lie. Lies hurt people, they hurt companies and shareholders and they hurt relationships. Lying is also an act of weakness. The liar is unwilling to bear the responsibility of the truth-telling. Lying is the lazy way, the selfish way.Lying is an antisocial act, injuring the person lied to and any relationships binding liar and victim.About text ITopic The Real Truth about Lieswhite liesSelected from Reader's Digest in the November, 1999Journalistic styleShort paragraphs---18 parasArgumentative writingWhile-reading questionsHow does the writer begin with the topic?How does he convince the readers the real truth of lies?Find out words, phrases, expressions or sentences to indicate the consequences of lies? After-reading questionsWhat is the tone of the author in the text?What is the authors attitude towards lies?What is the authors viewpoint in the text?What are the features of the text?What is your viewpoint of the topic?Structural analysis of the text Part 1paras 16Introducing the topic by reporting two survey results.Part 2paras 7-11Telling little white lies is a common practice and the reason for telling such lies by citing an examplePart 3paras 12-15The consequences of telling liesPart 4paras 16-18Discussing whether lies should be voided at all costsDetailed study of the textQuestions in para 1-61.What survey is conducted according to para 1? A1.147 people volunteered for an unusual projectkeeping diaries for a week, recording the numbers and details of the lies they told.2.What is the result of Professor Bella DePaulo's survey? What conclusion can we draw from the result?A2. According to the survey done by Professor DePaulo, 140 out of 147 people admitted having told lies. As some of the lies are well-intentioned, people may not regard them as lies. This result shows that telling lies is common.3. What is the result of the survey conducted by Josephson Institute of Ethics? What can we learn from it?A3. According to this survey, among 20,000 students surveyed, 92 percent professed to have told lies and meanwhile, 91 percent never doubted about their own ethics or character. Again, this result shows that telling lies is common and people seldom relate telling lies to morality.Language work (1)1.volunteer : v. to give or offer willingly or without being paidn. a person who gives help willingly2. Profess: v. to make a claim (of / about) James professed to know everything about sculpture. He professed the greatest respect for the law.3. earth-shattering: of the greatest importance to the whole worldAfter years of hard work, they finally made an earth-shattering discovery. The new invention is of earth-shattering importance.4. feign: v. to pretend to have or be; to put on a false air of She feigned to be ill in order not to do the exercises. He feigned surprise and they all believed him.5. spare one's feelings : to avoid doing something that would upset somebody He simply wished to minimize the fuss and to spare her feelings. We carefully avoided mentioning the news to spare his feelings.6. preoccupation: n.the state of constantly thinking or worrying about somethingBecause of his preoccupation with his books, he didn't realize we were already back. Such preoccupation with your work isn't healthy.7. Might that, too, be a lie? Is it possible to consider that a lie?"Might" here means "possibility. " Note that "may," when used to mean "possibility," is normally not used in a question.8. prevarication: n. the state of avoiding giving a direct answer or making a firm decision After months of prevarication, a decision was finally made. When we questioned the authorities on the subject, we were met by prevarication.9.ethics: n. moral correctness; moral principles10.consultant: n. a person who gives specialist professional advice to others11. devote ... to: to give all or a large part of one's time or resources to (a person, activity, or cause) I want to devote more time to my family. He devotes himself to philanthropy.12. profession: n.a form of employment, especially one that is possible only for an educated person and that is respected in society as honorable She intends to make teacher her profession. According to the report, forty percent of the lawyers entering the profession are women.13. pundit : n. a person who is an authority on a particular subject; an expert Mr. Johnson is a well-known political pundit. We've invited a foreign-policy pundit to give us a lecture.14. shape or spin the truth: to modify the truth15. client: n. somebody who pays for services or advice from a person or organization eg. a solicitor and his clientCf: a shopkeeper and his customer16. Specialize in17. Step outDetailed study of Paras.7-11Questions :1. What are little white lies?AI: Little white lies are those harmless lies that are told so as not to hurt someone else.2. According to the writer, what could be considered "nice lies"?A2: According to the writer, all these could be considered "nice lies" : complimenting people on their appearance, expressing appreciation for gifts or food.3. What does this sentence mean: "What a tangled web we weave, when first we practice to deceive"?A3: When we tell a fib, very likely we will have to tell more lies to cover up the lie we have told. One lie will lead to more lies. Then we will get ourselves entangled with the web we weave.Language work (2)18. Ubiquitous: a. seeming to be everywhere By the end of last century, the computer had become ubiquitous. We are now confronted with the ubiquitous spread of English.19. Fib: n. a small unimportant lie Have you ever told fibs! She told innocent fibs like anyone else.20. Invariably: ad. alwaysIt's invariably wet when I take my holidays. She invariably forgets to take her keys.21. blurt out : to say something suddenly and without thinking, usually because one is nervous or excitedTo our surprise,he blurted his secret out at table. John blurted out that he dreamed of becoming a computer programmer. 22. lubricant :n. a substance such as oil which causes a machine to operate more easily23. tangled: a.complicated or made up of many confusing parts After listening to his speech I thought his ideas and opinions were so tangled that I couldnot vote for him.The floor of the forest was covered with tangled growth.Paras 12-15Q: What is the grave consequence of telling lies?A: The ubiquitousness of lies may cause people to be distrustful of each other, thus leading to the collapse of the whole society.Language work (3)24. wear down: v.to reduce or become weaker until uselessEg: Heavy traffic and variable weather can wear down the surface of the road. Your back tyres are badly worn down; you should fit new ones.25. Perception: n. the ability to see, hear and understandperceive : v. 26. warp : v. to (cause to) turn or twist out of shapeEg: Left in the garage where it was damp, the wooden frame had warped. The door must be warped. It won't close properly.27. think highly of : to have a good opinion of We think highly of yow suggestion. I can assure you that the management thinks very highly of you.28. proliferation : n. a rapid increase in the amount or number of something Smoking triggers off cell proliferation. Over the past two years, we have witnessed the proliferation of TV channels.29. cynicism: n.the belief that people always act selfishly30. falter: v. lose power or strength in an uneven way,thus no longer making much progressParas. 16-18Q: Should all white lies be avoided at all costs? What does "an exchange of ... the principle of trust for the principle of caring" mean?A: No, not necessarily. The rule of honesty is violated so as to establish the principle of showing love and care. Language work (4)31. at all costs : under any circumstances32. associate : n. somebody whom you work or do business with He is not a friend, but a business associate.33. undermine: v. to gradually make sb. Or sth. less strong or effectiveShe jealously tried to undermine our friendship. Lack of food has undermined his health.34. rule of thumb : a rough method of calculation, based on practical experience I never weigh anything when I'm cooking I just do it by rule of thumb. As a rule of thumb, a cup of filter coffee contains about 89mg caffeine.35. confound : v. to confuse and surprise people, causing them to be unable to explain or deal with a situationHis choice may confound us all.The dancer confounded the critics who said she was finished by giving the best performance of her life.36. astound : v. to make somebody very surprised or shockedIt astounds me that anyone could ever consider declaring war. He used to astound his friends with feats of physical endurance.Text comprehensionTone : objectiveView: negativeWay of convincing: scientific research; example; scholarly quotation1. What does Professor Bella DePaul's study indicate about lying? What do most people think about lying?A: The study suggests that lying is a common phenomenon and most of the lies we tell are small, insignificant. She also points out that different sexes lie for different reasons, but nobody that lies suffers from a guilty conscience.Answer the following questions (page161)2. Why do people tell white lies? Do you think the lies will be well received once they are exposed?A: According to the passage, the nature of white lies is to seek self-interest: People tell white lies basically for self-promoting purposes. White lies may have different receptions in different cultures. In western cultures as is illustrated by the example, white lies may not be well received as the people value honesty and integrity more than caring and face value; but in the eastern cultures, they may be received as a sign of concern and respect for each others face.3. What, according to the author, would be the consequences of lying?A: The consequences of lying fall into three aspects: The deceived may feel cheated and won't trust the liar any more; the liar will lose trust from the deceived and get entangled in the lies he fabricates; and the society as a whole would falter and collapse as its members do not trust each other any more.4. Are all white lies unacceptable? What is the yardstick of acceptable lies?A: Not all white lies are unacceptable. Some falsehoods like setting somebody up for a surprise party or telling children about the tooth fairy can be justified. However, you have to consider the attitude of the deceived towards lying and the consequences, i.e.whether your act will undermine his trust in you.Explain the sentences in your own words1. Psychological barriers wear down; the ability to make more distinctions can coarsen; the liars perception of his chances of being caught may warp. (para12) One is less inhibited from lying; his ability to tell the truth from the falsehood is dulled;he may become less cautious against being caught.2. Once theyve become common enough, even the small untruths that are not meant to hurt encourage a certain cynicism and loss of trust. (para.15)When it becomes common enough to tell small lies, even the small unharmful ones will induce doubt and distrust.3.The most understandable and forgivable lies are an exchange of what ethicists refer to as the principle of trust for the principle of caring. (para. 16)Those lies that are most understandable and acceptable are based on what moralists call the principle of love and care rather than that of trust.Vocabulary exercisesI. Explain the underlined part in each sentence in your own words. 1. The lies were most often not what most of us would call earth-shattering. -- of the greatest importance to the whole world2. According to DePaul, women in their interactions with other women lied mostly to spare the other's feelings.---to avoid hurting the other's feelings / to avoid doing something that would upset the other person3. And then there are professions lawyers, pundits, PR consultants whose members seem to specialize in shaping or spinning the truth to suit clients' needs.---telling the truth with a favorable emphasis or slant / modifying the truth4. Philosopher Sissela Bok warns us that they can put us on a slippery slope.-- a course of action which can easily lead to something unacceptable, wrong, or disastrous 5. Are all white lies to be avoided at all costs?---under any circumstances / whatever might happen (at any cost, whatever the cost)6. And if you are not sure,Mark Twain has given us a good rule of thumb.--- a broadly accurate guide or principle, based on past experience rather than theory / a rough method of assessing or measuring sth., based on practical experienceII. Choose the best to complete the following sentence1. The students _____ that they were interested, but I could see that they weren't. A. looked B. pretended C. feigned D. happened2. My boss was very _____ and gave me time off work to look after my daughter. A. appreciative B. considering C. positive D. supportive3. All her attempts to question the authorities on the subject have been met by evasion and____A. prevarication B. pretension C. preoccupation D. presumption BDA4. As our war _____ Patrick Sherwin reports, most of the bombs fell in the south of the country. A. correspondent B. respondent C. consultant D. pundit5. She _____ him as a rather shy sort of man.A. deceived B. conceived C. perceived D. received6. The continued fighting threatens to _____ efforts to negotiate an agreement. A. warp B. undermine C. astound D. confoundACB III.Fill in the blank in each sentence with an appropriate phrasal verb or collocation taken from the text.1. The governor is trying hard to ________ the scandal.2. Samantha was amazed when late one evening Adam __________ that he loved her.3. He claimed that he had been ________ after drugs were discovered in his suitcase.4. Did you ever _________ why the man deserted his wife and four children?5. Wind and water slowly ______________ the mountain's jagged edges.6. They are going to a restaurant which _______ Mexican food. cover up blurted out set up find out wear/wore down specializes in IV.Fill in each blank with one of the two words from each pair 1. admission, admittanceA. __________________ to the exhibition will be by invitation only.B. __________ to the exhibition costs two pounds.C. She wanted some _________ of guilt from her husband.In the meaning "permission to go in" admittance is more formal than admission, which is the more ordinary word. The entrance price is the admission, not the admittance. Admittance is not used to refer to a statement that something bad, unpleasant, or embarrassing is true. Admittance/Admission Admission admission 2. institute, institutionA. He has a horror of ending his life lonely in an __________. B. He is working in a famous research __________.Although both of them can be an organization or the buildings that it uses, an institute exists so that its members are able to do a particular, especially scientific, educational, or social, type of work, whereas an institution provides help, work, medical treatment, or protection to people with special needs, e.g., an orphanage or a home for the elderly. institution institute 3. consultant, consulA. The Welsh traveler was helped by the British _______ in Osaka personally.B. Her father used to be the president's _________ on economic affairs. consultant: a person who gives expert advice in business, law, etc. consul: an official appointed by a state to live in a foreign city and protect the state's citizens and interests there4. intense, intensiveA. They offer a month-long ________ course in teaching English.B. He suffers from an _______ pain.consul consultant intensive intenseIntense is used to describe something that is very great or extreme in strength or degree,e.g.,intense heat/cold/pain/interest/anger. An intensive activity involves the concentration of energy or people on one particular task in order to try to achieve a great deal in a short time. For instance, " intensive farming uses methods that are intended to produce the largest amount of crops or meat possible from a particular area. 5. suspect, doubtA. The detective_________that she was the murder because she had been behaving very strangely. B. The detective ________that she was the murderer because she was not physically strong enough to stab such a powerful man to death. suspected doubted To suspect something is to think it is quite likely. To doubt something, however, is to question the truth of it, i. e. , to consider it unlikely.6. compliment, complementA. He often ___________ her on her appearance. B. His dark good looks __________ her blonde beauty.Compliment and complement (together with related words such as complimentary and complementary) are frequently confused. They are pronounced in the same way but have quite different meanings: As a verb compliment means "admire and praise(somebody)for something," while complement means "add to (something) in a way that enhances or improves. " Mistakes are common, particularly where complimentary is meant but complementary is written, as in " honeymooners receive complementary fruit and flowers compliments complement V. Explain the underlined phrasal verbs in your own words.1. The outdoor concert was called off due to the weather.cancelled 2. The expanded vocabulary, as well as the improved reading speed and accuracy, will be i record that can encourage you to get over the boredom.overcome 3. They knew that any failure to abide by the terms of the treaty would bring international condemnation. follow 4. He was reduced to begging in the streets of Manhattan. fell into 5. The plain fact is that they are giving me the sack, however they try to dress it up.make it more acceptable 6. The secret is not to brood over your failures, but to accept them as inevitable. feel unhappy about Grammar exercisesII. Choose the best answer.1. _____ go to school tomorrow?A. Must you to B. Have you to C. Do you have to D. Do you must2. _____ known the truth?A. Might John B. May John have C. Could John have D. Can John3. If my brother _____ come, give him this letter.A. would B. should C. will have D. oughtCCB4. I don't think he _____ there as no one seems to have seen him.A. could have been B. can be C. might have been D. should he.5. None is so blind as those who _____ see.A. couldn't B. can't C. shan't D. won't 6. _____ I trouble you for a light? You _____, indeed.A. May, may B. Might, may C. Might, might D. May, mightADBRewrite the following sentences. using verbless clauses.1. When you are in doubt, tell the truth. It will confound your enemies and astound your friends.When in doubt, tell the truth. It will confound your enemies and astound your friends. 2. When it is heated, metal expands.When heated, metal expands.3. If it is true, it will cause us a lot of trouble.If true, it will cause us a lot of trouble.4. Whenever it is possible, they should be typed.Whenever possible, they should be typed. 5. When one is in Rome, do as the Romans do.When in Rome, do as the Romans do.6. Send the goods now, if they are ready. Send the goods now, if ready.7. If it is necessary, ring me at home.If necessary, ring me at home.8. He glanced about as if he was in search of something.He glanced about as if in search of something.Change each of the following sentences so that the italicized part is given in 's genitive construction.1. He has been staying for a few weeks at his uncle's house.2. She prefers my work to my brother's.3. I don't know her name, but I can tell you her husband's.4. I've read John's letter, but where did you put Mary's?5. The accident was the driver's own fault and not the cyclist's.6. Do you know the brain's weight?Translate the following sentences into English, using the words or phrases given in the brackets1.(feign) Hamlet feigned madness when he was hesitating what to do.2. (prevarication)Prevarication is one of the techniques this businessman likes to employ.3. (ubiquitous)Sometimes the light of the truth is just too dazzling, so white lies are ubiquitous.4. (profess)Many women in America profess that they are unhappy with their status of second-class citizens.5.(blurt out)On the impulse of the moment, he blurted out the secret.6.(warp)You should get rid of any prejudice, resist temptations and let nothing warp your judgment.7.(a tangled web)Being over-sensitive and imaginative, he often weaves a tangled web in mind.8.(spare)He is very popular among his peers as he always tries to spare others any trouble. DictationChildhood is less clear to me than to many people: / When it ended I turned my face away from it / for no reason that I know about, / certainly without the usual reason of unhappy memories. / For many years that worried me, / but then I discovered / that the tales of former children are seldom to be trusted. / Some people supply too many past victories or pleasures / with which to comfort themselves, / and other people cling to pains, real and imagined, / to excuse what they have become. / I think I have always known about my memory. / I know when it is to be trusted / and when some dream or fantasy entered on the life, / and the dream, the need of dream, / led to distortion of what happened. (Source: Lilian Hellman, Julia. )Blank-filling1. for 2. features 3. just 4.of5. anniversary 6. as 7. roughly 8. rooted 9. urban 10. started 11. that 12. heart 13.being 14. whoTranslate the following passage into Chinese.The results of some surveys conducted in America show that most people tell lies to varying degrees, for various reasons. Sometimes they lie to make others happy. For example, one may pretend to be more positive of a friend or spouse than he or she really is. Sometimes they lie to promote themselves, which is getting popular. Sometimes they lie to avoid hurting others, particularly when the unvarnished truth is perhaps too hard to accept. Some people regard lies as a necessary social lubricant. Anyway, they lie to hide the truth. Views on lies vary from person to person. Some people hold that falsehoods, even if seemingly harmless, could have some unforeseen consequences. After the initial lie, one needs to tell more lies to cover up the first one, which may become a heavy mental burden in the end. One philosopher warns that one can put himself on a slippery slope if one lies, as his psychological barriers wear down. But some other people hold that we don't have to avoid all white lies at all costs, for a white lie could be only an exchange of the principle of trust with the principle of caring. What is your view?Text IITo Lie or Not to Lie? ------The Doctors Dilemma by Sissela BokMemorable QuoteWhile all deception requires secrecy, all secrecy is not meant to deceive. ---Sissela BokHow do you understand it?Sissela Bok Swedish writer, philosopher, and educator. Among her works are: Lying: Moral Choice in Public and Private Life (1978), Secrets: On the Ethics of Concealment and Revelation (1983), and Alva Myrdal: A Daughter's Memoir (1991).To Lie or Not to LieParody: v. to copy someones style or attitude n. a piece of writing or music that copies a particular well-known style in an amusing wayThe title is a parody of the famous soliloquy of Hamlet To be or not to be, that is the question.Questions for discussion1. According to the author, in what line of work is honesty sacrificed for greater needs?In medicine, law, politics, journalism, etc., is deception practiced for greater needs.2. What according to some doctors, is the fundamental principle of the medical profession? As far as possible do no harm.3. What are the negative effects of benevolent deception on patients?The patients may feel betrayed, and their autonomy is intruded. And they cannot make informed decisions about their health and life; and it can also prolong recovery and affect treatment.4. How will the medical profession and its staff be affected by benevolent deception?It may cause the erosion of integrity of the medical profession and affect those that do not tell lies to their patients. It may even induce lawsuits and the endless process of litigation.5.If you were a patient, would you like to know the truth that you would have only a few months to live? And if you were a doctor, how would you break the news to your patient?This is an open question. Ask students to Role play it in pairs.Oral activitiesGroup discussion---who do you think is in the wrong, the officer of the Foreign Affairs Office or the American professor?An American exchange professor is now teaching in a university in Southern China. The flat he is accommodated in by the school authority faces an open-air market and every morning he is woken up by the noise outside. He decides to move to the other end of the building and goes to the Foreign Affairs Office of the university. The reply he receives is We must give it more thought. he returns to his home and waits for two weeks, but no reply is given. He waits another two weeks, still without any answer. He feels cheated and decides to leave China the next semester.Writing practiceWrite an essay of about 300 words on the following topic:My View of Telling LiesTHANKS FOR YOUR ATTENTION!