Twitter for teaching: Can social media be used to enhance the process of learning?
<ul><li><p>Twitter for teaching: Can social media be used to enhance theprocess of learning?</p><p>Chris Evans</p><p>Chris Evans is a senior lecturer in the Brunel Business School at Brunel University. His research interests includeinteractivity, Web 2.0 and social media, multimedia learning technology, and the adoption of innovative learningtechnologies. He is chair of the annual eLearning 2.0 international conference on social media for learning. Addressfor correspondence: Dr Chris Evans, Brunel Business School, Brunel University, Uxbridge, Middlesex UB8 3PH,UK. Email: email@example.com</p><p>AbstractCan social media be used to enhance the process of learning by students in highereducation? Social media have become widely adopted by students in their personal lives.However, the application of social media to teaching and learning remains to be fullyexplored. In this study, the use of the social media tool Twitter for teaching was consid-ered. Undergraduate students in Business and Management (n = 252) were encouragedto use Twitter for communicating with their tutor and each other during a 12-weekcourse. Their involvement was evaluated using a survey considering amount of Twitterusage and students attitudes and experiences. The data were analysed using factoranalyses, which revealed a single usage construct and three attitudinal factors. Threefindings emerged. Firstly, a positive correlation was found between amount of Twitterusage and student engagement in university-associated activities including organisingtheir social lives and sharing information. Secondly, course-related tweeting was notrelated to interpersonal relationships between students and their tutor. Thirdly, Twitterusage did not impact class attendance. The results are salient for educational practition-ers wishing to introduce social media into their teaching.</p><p>IntroductionEnhancing the process of learningThe changing demographic of todays students has led many educationalists to look at ways toenhance the learning process. In the past, university classes contained highly selected studentsat university by choice. The dramatic expansion of higher education has, however, resulted ina much more diverse student population. A higher proportion of todays students now goes touniversity not out of an academic love of the subject, but in order to gain a qualification necessaryto get a job (Biggs, 1999). Such students often adopt a very different, less academic approachto their learning, aiming to do enough to get through the examination. They are often char-acterised as surface as opposed to deep learners, passive rather than active learners, and as Biggs(1999) observed, dismissed by some as unmotivated, disengaged and among those who shouldperhaps not be at university at all.</p><p>If, as educationalists, a more constructive conclusion is to be reached, it is necessary to accept thatthe task is to change the way such students learn. Biggs (1999) argued that learning outcomesshould be seen more as a function of the learning process rather than fixed characteristics ofthe learner. It is then the tutors job to organise the learning context so that students are morelikely to adopt the learning processes which academic students use spontaneously. In that way,</p><p>British Journal of Educational Technology Vol 45 No 5 2014 902915doi:10.1111/bjet.12099</p><p> 2013 British Educational Research Association</p></li><li><p>our focus must be on ways in which we might enhance the learning process. Technology hascome to be regarded as one of the modern tools that might be used to enhance learning (eg, seeJisc and the Higher Education Academy, 2009). Of the most recent technological developments,social media are among the most widely experienced by the current generation of students.</p><p>The growth of social mediaSocial media are web-based or personal device-based applications that connect users with onlineresources or with each other. Among the best-known examples are Facebook and, more recently,Twitter. Social media have undergone an exponential growth over the last 6 years or so. At thetime of this study, Facebook had over 600 million and Twitter over 100 million active usersworldwide (Twopblog, 2011). Such social media have resulted in the current generationof students (termed the Net Generation or Generation Y) being constantly connected. Twitterposts, for instance, can be accessed over the Web on laptops, through receiving short messageservice (SMS) text messages on mobile phones and by using software applications on the growingrange of smart phones. The current study considers whether this connectivity can be transferredto the process of learning and teaching in order to enhance the learning process.</p><p>Social media in higher educationSocial media tools facilitate media and information sharing, collaboration and participation. Thismakes them obvious technologies for application to higher education. The growing base of onlineeducational resources includes websites, videos, podcasts, blogs and wikis. The challenge foreducationalists is to facilitate the connection between learners and relevant resources and to helplearners make sense of those resources. Use of social media in higher education is still at an earlystage and, as Junco, Heibergert and Loken (2011) note, very little empirical evidence is availableconcerning its impact on learning.</p><p>The two most popular social media networks are Facebook and Twitter (eBizMBA, 2013). Twitterwas selected for use in the current study for three reasons. Firstly, at the time of the study, the</p><p>Practitioner NotesWhat is already known about this topic</p><p> Social media such as Facebook and Twitter have been widely adopted by students intheir personal lives.</p><p> The influence of social media in education is largely unknown. Twitter usage has been found to improve some aspects of the learning process in</p><p>higher education.</p><p>What this paper adds</p><p> Attitudes to learning with Twitter can be captured by the dimensions of interpersonalrelations, engagement and the necessity of class attendance.</p><p> Course-related tweets do not affect perceived interpersonal relations with the tutor. The amount of Twitter usage has no impact on class attendance. Twitter usage is associated with an increase in student engagement.</p><p>Implications for practice and/or policy</p><p> Using Twitter for teaching may help students engage in course-related activitiesincluding organising their social lives and sharing information.</p><p> Tutors need not be concerned that Twitter obviates the need for students to attendclasses.</p><p>Twitter for teaching 903</p><p> 2013 British Educational Research Association</p></li><li><p>majority of the participants had no previous experience of using Twitter. This meant that moststudents had not developed preconceived ideas about the technology separate from their experi-ence of it as a teaching tool. Therefore, it was easier to evaluate Twitter in the context of teaching.Secondly, some students expressed reservations about tutors accessing their personal Facebookpages. Getting students to create separate Twitter accounts meant that they could easily maintainprivacy if they wished. Thirdly, Twitter appears to lend itself better to ongoing discussions withlearners (Ebner, Lienhardt, Rohs & Meyer, 2010).Among the noteworthy preliminary studies in the use of Twitter, Ebner, Lienhardt, Rohsand Meyer (2010) tracked the use of microblogging by 34 students over a period of 6 weeks. Theyfound that the average number of daily posts by each student increased from 3.5 to 5.5 as thecourse progressed. On average, 13 out of 53 posts per student per week were closely related toteaching and learning. The authors concluded that Twitter had great potential to expand teach-ing and learning beyond the classroom. Schroeder, Minocha and Schneider (2010) considered20 social software initiatives in UK-based higher and further education institutions. The authorsidentified several strengths and weaknesses of social media and made recommendations foreducationalists. Chen and Chen (2012) conducted a study of 39 trainees who used Twitter to givefeedback to their tutor after each class using direct messaging. Interviews revealed that studentsvalued the anonymity, accessibility and connectivity it afforded.Among the more in-depth empirical studies, Lowe and Laffey (2011) assessed the impact of usingTwitter in a marketing course by administering a 5-point Likert scale survey and conductinginterviews after 8 weeks of usage. They asked questions about the perceived usefulness, enjoy-ment and effectiveness of Twitter. They found that take up of Twitter was good with morethan 65% of their course voluntarily following the courses tweets. Using one-sample Studentst-tests, they found that of the 46 anticipated learning outcomes surveyed, 80% were statisticallydifferent from neutrality indicating overall positive attitudes to the use of Twitter. Post hocclassification revealed that Twitter had provided enhanced learning about the subject, greaterenjoyment of the module, concise and useful communication, timeliness, greater realism, greaterapplication of theory to real-world examples, and valuable career skills in the use of new tech-nology. While Lowe and Laffeys (2011) study revealed that perceived usefulness was a goodpredictor of intention to use Twitter for future courses, it did not examine the amount of Twitterusage and its relationship to student attitudes.Johnson (2011) investigated the impact of Twitter usage on the perceived credibility of thetutor. She compared the use of social and scholarly tweets and found that participants whoviewed only social tweets rated the instructor significantly higher in perceived credibility thana group that viewed only the scholarly tweets. Credibility was measured using a 3-item scalerelating to perceived competence, trustworthiness and level of care. The results indicated thatusing Twitter to share personal information increased the perceived credibility of the tutor.Junco et al (2011) conducted a study to see whether Twitter increases the level of engagement ofstudents. The authors used a survey to measure broad college engagement including questionsabout things such as how often students attended plays or spiritual activities as well as how oftenstudents discussed class topics with people other than their tutor. They divided students in a14-week health course into two groups, one of which used Twitter. The Twitter group was foundto score significantly higher in the survey. This suggests that Twitter increases general studentengagement. This is consistent with a previous study by Chen, Lambert and Guidry (2010)that found that the use of learning technology in general was positively related to studentengagement and learning outcomes. Similar results were found in a later study by Junco, Elavskyand Heiberger (2012) in which they also found that requiring regular Twitter usage by studentsand staff, rather than allowing infrequent usage, increased both engagement and performance inassessment.</p><p>904 British Journal of Educational Technology Vol 45 No 5 2014</p><p> 2013 British Educational Research Association</p></li><li><p>These studies in the use of Twitter continue the growing base of research into technology-enhanced learning. However, the development of social media, and the associated creation of theNet Generation, has also had an impact on current theories about what and how people learn.Gone are the days when large amounts of information had to be memorised by individualsin order to be at their fingertips when needed. Now, even larger amounts of information areaccessible at the press of a key or the click of a mouse. This knowledge distribution has led someauthors to advance a revised model of learning.</p><p>Theoretical contextPrior to the development of social media, the dominant learning theories were behaviourism,cognitivism and constructivism. According to Siemens (2005), the limitation of these theories isthat they all posit an individualistic notion of learning. By this is meant that despite their differ-ences, all theories consider knowledge to be located in individuals. According to Siemens, evensocial constructivism is individualistic: although knowledge is constructed through the process ofan individuals interactions within a group, it remains located in the minds of those individuals.Connectivism (Siemens, 2005), by contrast, is based on the premise that knowledge exists in theworld rather than in the mind of an individual. The theory was developed in an attempt to takeaccount of the impact of the information revolution and the shift in importance from whatan individual knows to what an individual knows how to find out through the connections theyhave created. As Stephenson (1998) characterised it: I store my knowledge in my friends. Thisreflects the fact that people increasingly operate and make decisions not on the basis of what theyknow but what they can find out when they so need.</p><p>While the present study does not attempt to validate Siemenss (2005) theory, it is in the spiritof the connectivist theory of learning in that it considers the experiences of a sample of learnersfrom the Net Generation adopting a social media tool designed to facilitate connectivity. Con-nectivism implies that technologies that facilitate connections between people and informationresources should enhance learning because knowledge is a product of these connections ratherthan simply what is in the head of the learner. Twitter is one such technology allowing learnersto connect with each other, with tutors and with other information resources.</p><p>General methodologyThe present study considers whether the use of social media can enhance the process of learningfor students in higher education. In particular, the aim was to investigate how the amount ofTwitter usage relates to aspects of the learning process. The study adopted a survey method basedon a convenience sample. Students undertaking a university course were encouraged to useTwitter to communicate with their tutor and each other and were later asked to evaluatethis experience by completing a short survey. This approach was taken to both understand andimprove the students experience during a real course. Although distinct, the design thus hassome characteristics in common with what has been referred to as action research (Argyris,Putnam & Smith, 1985; Coghlan & Brannick, 2010; Schein, 1999). It considers a real-worldteaching situation rather than an artificial setup, it involves the students as active researchparticipants, and it aims to bring about change rather than just make observations.</p><p>The specific aim of the study was to determine how the amount of Twitter usage relates to aspectsof the learning process. The interest was in quantitative aspects of Twitter usage rather thanqualitative features such as type of tweets. The attitudes and experience of students in usingTwitter during an undergraduate course were surveyed. Factor analysis was used to discern thekey dimensions in students attitudes and experiences. The...</p></li></ul>