Tuskegee Moton Field

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    5 rmIn1997. ID r.6enjilmin f. fia~.President Qf 'iJ'uskeg:ee Urnv.e~,and 1U1T I1~~St:sm:es Flepr sentatwB 'B oo R ile y, 3mDi5-~riiJ~,Alatla.ma.re qu e ste c 'th a~ th eNatiooal ParkSe~lre (NFl'S) pfep[UB' 8 ~peolalIFte souriie ' 8~udyof how OOSl'IOim ~ rp rn t aM ccle lJ \ra l:e the role 9 4:~he'Th.~:ee AJrm el!ll in Wm ld Vila rIIIa n d 'LihC l:I~n[t!a liIIt 'lln ln c g l a ~ Mo o o J ! !I F iQ rd .itre, AI

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    aoo 100 ~d S taro~ ' l: \Ig .osrevli ll . Moreover, acc ::ordl llQ10nUm900ljJ~ aeeourus ,the FI1lnQ.: '1M :3M lnd A~h te .f'(1I"OOPii111:;'i'~Q'lCLS ta bOOlloo~iI:OI !nem) l '~ Igh tem,'htIllc,eSQmllng' l . lTJ1)'ll.5~nAJrFOI"t.1lQfiI oornt!IJlg mis sio ns . T lh ls e arn edlhe'' I i l I s 'k f lgt; e ,A ,Irill!l!fl I~}ff'~Sp8d: O " fAm:fh::!9Inb E l rm b e rCIlG'NS, ;! l I . I1JoooJ : I :d~hGF I i 1 Im ilUR!M: I " , t a l lAlilg~ls,na fo o r l oo .f: r,dlstlnc:1Were d~a i lma rk in gs " a sw. e 11a sthQ !3!~t.r~fil L.u~l'!Nalk!'.wlt! ! ! lIJIrrlGl'rreE lir tot h : lf '1 ' I :lfi la s ttle ~~'h\i'lartzeV 'QoZ Ie 'lm e~e n,~ or '"lI8 iQki ' ! .INifie 'J"i . '"Tlhe ~m ; p l i S h "m en ts e l'th e se a 1 rll1 1 ie n, a loc i ,I i 'ePN~nta peak In'1M's~nJlOOI'eby Alrr i IDanAmen"eans 1 :0 p;flFtQlpru:eIn theI L I. S . . a r rm oo '( i\ j'; jJ : s :t h e l~~ I ' J Ii flOO J :S!lE~S p r o v e d'wmilitary IOOrlQfcSt h a t , Ifg't 'Klii ' iltM~{If!pN~UTIlty,.A;FrlcanAmQfl(!ftnsCiDu'ldb~i]! 'Jr lOO1i\ ; 'QFI i 1l I~aryfiQafilFs:a o o combat vl~tm'aoo.

    TlilQ! '}1:oF'lfo t' '~h ieiliufi~iC!1J .A1rJ:nQfi land ltiC l:11'~flilplaryff'~CCijl:dl~ vlrtl l_all IIJl ilkncrwlil toI lK ! sA :Aml~~. F~schc! t~ li1 Iy works. doo ll w i th !iII1I@IhISitory {II' '~h)f!aJlrrlliflenandth ' l Ir tp rIFfl ;}~ fJlg'ln '~rnlndng a tIM a . 1O nF'1e'ld.Consequenlly"Nf'S h ls tm ia n sClonSlillleodvar lOIJ iSIPfll 'lilarry and!&eCOMaJryseureas such as.milita ry ~rds. Mws~a p ers, Ip liJG .W 'Q"1.tlptlS; dcetJlflitQmfl"ilQs"books. and film .oo~a@e.Thes-e.'tlisttlrla fls, a lso ,g athiflF tld ~n fm~llon l ~r{!1 i1 lth~ MO(!fland~pE fl~flI F tlJUa rch (:.:l::n [~r a tI F k I I N a r dIJJr1Il'i'~e'J:sl~.~e

    Na~iGna l Ard iJ i~e3 , I he 'Library o~Co .ng re ss , Ti .J=*e~eUfliver :s l~1f Ard 'l Il 'fe3, and'~hieAi r rForee FI~tor ir.. ta l Re~afAg,eooy ,B i tMaxwe ll A JriB . .A~aDama J. To' f ! . J r~he r riIltlJeirunder:nandillQO'~tlle T lUskeg~ Ai~m enJ '1M N PSs t ! Jd~ '' team

    ah !} oondoo te da ' f f ' l )mkSw ilh se ...erallairmen a~''theMig ttty [ lE igh th ,A ir Fo rcH e ri.a ;-g e M ~ 8 e 1J 1m !in~ nn ;(!lh, G .e iJ l~ ir:!. a nsent many af th e rurrnel!'!a ques.~ionli!airefor 'Ihe [;r '~np!Jta nd in sig htin.o this;IPro j; ec~ .From '1Mi l 'l f0! l"mlion g:a~hered,~eNruiooo!Fla:rkS~ire ":o:n~dedthat ~e "T l!s .k ~e e; A jrmc:t :per i'ence" ~oos I b e y otl ii e oomba te:~P'liJits0 'theIPlki ts !Mlo.S8IVBd in the99th fighter , sq ! J ' f : i dFO ' I Iand1h~ : a3at1d F Ig'h le r ~ ro !Jamll oooul ll :l IJ ilcl~d:e'~he

    ,a,1'7b'hBI)'fLIib,aIl'd_rMG ~ p . 'wtiliicn' f ouS I i r tf~r ~!J,JaJ ri,9ht$!N1i1 l1 l11i l~e ArrrnyA1J 'FiJi~QS S: ' ! fS ' l ' l ff i t ,3Jnd' ~hl ' lh , ( l lJS a l ! !ld10FJ i l en l:;Iillg1,~mell wllo ~n,re.d in ~ilian ,!;lIiidiliRili~1i)i'~j;I~iQltg ~ OO p s .This; smry 3 J : o odQals ~LiM1 00 hls!~_ ry a ndOOve torm e n t gfiT!,!I!;Ikli!'9~'~~tihl,J~~1I!ilg.wIk lnQ1, ' ! . ! r l9:;;'TiJ~eeIJ .Jf i l l ' i '~Q'J .s l~y.nd llts ' !lfklf~st(!oQs~ab l l s . hi9 Jfllg trl trantng pi{!;-wa rn 'fo r AMil;:a n,;!\JlineriC'~n~,The hi~tQry g~: the!;le Iffle-f1 ailieWOiil9F1a~ Itla tr'righi,'to , lElfr l1i'Kl,Arrm- ! /Air c.u~p.s(Almy,;!\iFf i. J lr c e 5 i') i ;I ln d t oPJQ'!e' l l t ieir'worth, to 'I t t i i ieirCOU!iftry.:;I!~w eii as thei~~lfli;ggi9i ' ih r 8-qU;:drtgh~ lin bcnh lhie t J n l lUa r yand :~iXie~1!OO s.~0'pre~eN~ 'K i r theAmefica n p ul:i!iG

    A l "r ie a n,Americans:in th e MUitaryAfric;anI"'AmElli~i3!nlm etl B iM i'wFn8n l n a w o o o lifiiiu a iiy1P ! ' ay ! e a. a~gli!iliC'a!ntl"(lilei'll '~h.e1 I1 l i l e di S~ate5l !1'1ili~aiI)! 'n~~ts ! k iA l a lpr'~eoe!3sors.Th e } ! '~i}.to n t y.rou : ,gn tto em:er'IM~j'ml'J'dlfO~i:OO; e u .'I kI a.n 11n~ l~ aooQptiJdby r t I1J( I ;{lO\i'{llflfl-1iinB:n1.'~h8Yhad! ttl 1NOrtl:lind'ai' s .a9 il ie~a~CI a li il dl Uf i' iE lJlla I,(:(I1liditi(J1iiI!;ia 'ng p:r{l '~retheir ~b:ili~ie!;i. Th~ lin.1emal b.a~leQ t in tim . !!e d " !"H1 ;! I!J g h l i L f1 !eI !3I_le~e:Vef" iteen 'i t! . ~9Ne,en1t! . andnlneteeruh 08.fTfturies,up Iintoth e '~ill"SthaMi O . :'1M 'IWen~jethiOOn1ltuF~,8 G 1 h'~rn81 a o oI9FL~!iOO A ' tF i :e a f '\ S a n dAfli'iioaJl.A.i"narioan!i. (ooghl.il'loo lO ' tl ia iw a~ aM O O O ' ll il i' iiU8 d11 .O$Uppr1 E . . , . Fp e a nna1il;J1Il!;l,ElJ 'II:;1th e l,,!IFllibe~sta~~ iin ~liieReo. l! !. J lio~ry W a,aJijlj ~e WaF of 18 12 . F orex.ampl'e, byi I I l I l l i;eM ii)1 RI!!l \l 'Cl I! iI~lMIary War; appi i'~~IFf ;lat~ .5X!lOO.A:frlcafl l~rioan!i, iliadMfwd] in ~li ' iIa.CotitiMffftaII . A tm : .. " a n drNa'!/Ij;while tiim;l\!,J!;Il;I!ni;.:l!;l'f(Jl!Iglir~' fQr ~hE;!'B~ir~i!;lh ~I!I~E;!'.A~liil)\Jgh ~I!!ieext.em!OI:$!;'fricaFl-,;i\meri'a:in 1P8rOO!pra~ionin ~l:le 'WaJrof

    1 6~2 i a . ! . !!Mi l e ' a il " ".$'Ch!O!;:IiFe,~tirna.te t~j; ~pg;iroxiirnelte!lfto 000%of ttle men n Ihe.'n avy 'We re 'b'1~ Mm'e0er.' ! /! ,! ,!A , l 'f Ii c . aF l~A f '" I iU : ! fi 'i c a f 'I ! ! .I n l ts m e i ' {j i9dro 't .om mlhe F f f i 9 1Ne g r oIElalt:illi:g1i'iiw hicn ., W ith lIila , a iD !, 1 ) '1 :Blr\(I~h.'EI~500blad l: : ro ldi8rhe!poedAndrew J!3I_c!

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    si.1lJi!9$e.scapsd ' f J i lOO1 ltM iGl l~ma ste rs, sou ght r l~4i : t9 ,e'W i1 t J lnU n io n Ih rrl!:ts , a m d o f'ft} rG d II-le l1.8 .Gol ' \ ' iC{ls~Cl1tJ1) e a u s e , El I a . ck .iIiIOops.,oo~r, w!:t:~~in l1 ii1lJ Iy pbccd l n non-oornb~~I f~ tiloie!;, sueh as C00i- ' ;s , ~1~.gfS, 'fIil'{i'7

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    A fr ican Amer icansill Avimt iO [ ( ] .AJtho~h the hist,griG 'flightO'~ONi le and'~Ioor Wlfightin~ 90 3 sp aIWe dS J1f18l!lioo-widemierest in ;( :IYiatioo, rBioiald i s -![ ;f imioo~ion hi~delfedAfliGa:IlAmericans, j'rom fti!lIy parttfd_pat-

    in g il'l!th~ n:;w 'fie!I~, IJke themilit~ry, m~rr~ Ameri~115~1ili~!;~N'~~~ i\f tr i~nlA!!rn!rlcan~,lacked U~ nnel'i '! ' talIr;afJ~bilitie~.i ; i !p1ib"II : ; le .aif ld l ref tle) le~ 10 'f l: ."~n de : : l ~ e . d l ~lt iei 'S!ei1 !nE! ! ' "a ndW(lnru;ln frQall'l ' f light il"!e.!!Uc~ion,T h e fe w ~; f l l ' iCS!n lAmer iCa ' I " ! ! e ,~ho"eS ! !T Ie< !~i) fly i!'ll'itle'e i! ir tytwefi-'iieth ~ rv Il4 ry we re se lf- ta lJ !9ntor !~Ied 8_bFO-!3IAo ' IFe.1eiveltIirnal. ! l'ai! 'l lin.g.A~ef Charleslind~e'({lt!':sfamous fligtn {I,f

    ~ ' 9 ~ 7 ', J i, lr ic a l i! i! i.m e r i'e r :i n sbeG"armei r u~ e , e ! e l e din avis :oon in il'M::Feas lngnl1.lmb~fSan dbeQa;f!. '0form ,al~rialioncluDs and scbeols so 'i}1fiIINSceuldlearn to ~!y,Howeve~. the ~ J i l i ~ e< ! : IStales . g : oV r nmen~dElino t a pC f ls or'~Iigh.t~ffiiJilil!)Q~QrAwic;3lnAmerh::ans lmlil193'9'wilt! '~he PB.~g!e of ttle Ci'ililianpm ! ) 1TilainingAd;. 'whichal,J!hI;Ifi~e

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    J .I ;_me~iGansw e re 'flloolly ~p be dl a ndoomiilissiofiiled a , ; sl l l r io; ts ,aru;i! GflIeer:s~F l i' 11111] ;Um o o aStltfiS AiI ' i ' i ' IT_1Meuccesstul t1J-.alnlll1l~1D~ t he se IP a .ts ,a t " fu sk flga~.tOoup:ledwith ~ l lT Ie l Jn i t ed.s~'M{lS"{imry i F i ~ :O\I'!roi'idw.~ i "Iii, 1 8d~lTIialml l im ryto e M p a.n d la s., ~ ; F r 1 c an - -AmGr1e aF i.a,'i'iatiOO'iprogi; ;1lr ' i f i i .Oi:ifJseqoorntly.~he AI'Ii1lYAir F fir.o es ; eSMi.I :! ii~8it I 8 ii'i! t! ~hlI fI J . j' ri c .a l il l-Am eO O a I1 l!JIIU~ t11 { l 3 B 2 r u r: iF "~mr l : e rG K tU fl, aMbegan p lans fo r 8 J sQgreg~tQd J 'I il ,{Ia ium OOf:WJ8if '~rDupmooJ las th e 4 i7 th iBomoon:ilmm i1 lt(;1~oop.

    ~spltQI iU1 J~~d~i')MS in AlfiearmAriiariC.a.ii1riiili!s1l"~'BV,ia1ron,iitglill l1I;!~illed IQ ~ eeelil 'iffl'ijei'tiiie'J''t hese 1P!k i~sWltilildlbe uaed lin!!)tim'battibeside'wh[ re p llotsaool seldlorsto dereM100 co!Jf tl ryInWorkiWaf'U.,Aithou,gn '~M ' O O ~ h iI F " I { l i i 1 i oo~~Sq[j.afiffiinha;ti eloriiplEibBfIits hsini'.ng tJ .ySprilii91'942, iI: 'W~i;i, 1lil1ii :~nti] ,~J;lri! 11 9 4 3t t1iMthe rum y sen tn.e '~nit ~:oNorilfhl Aw ica for comba .t duty, F ors{1Qf:J1moo~h!'1.In!,SqtladfOfi p~jf01i'Qdl N!ii 'thAtfiea .aFldl~liie,M\eClitEilfraliiieari,WilrIout,~DDriliil91; 11 ,sjjr)gle\ ii icbGr) ': Final ly.on .A lly2. 19d$,thE!u:nilSfiDi:OD'i'l'n~9 tli'r~ ; l i ! f le . '1 i I lYwrc~ !1 t. Thelad!: 91 'ci;!Iliflooi'!o'i~'Ories,hOWeeF, le d se ve r,a j m lImlllleaders'til ques.lion ~ l lT Iesquadronfs, aJj.Jll li ii lls;WheD ' lilJieutenafliColCine l 9 :QnJfrilanjalt3l1f'8CO!)ni1idrii1i1l.9i[he 'iigli'llbel'lliIiiIit" 'ltiey : s 1E i gE i a,M iil'll;port.ant(lrote~t ltIt"Elqual rig(h~a atFrEieriiarilFie~. In~ie!na_MeilJl!bere,of 1fleiilinln, frl,l$.lr~~~ 'lli1ti '~heir ' ' s epar, [3J1 :eoot , eqU lf: lI "Imi!!llillQIlXIl'lduti(lllliS, deciood to de~Qr~me ' ~h . eall-white of"fl)oo~~l,Ib a t Freeman lF ie r.d .'w lM ichw a s apatfllcllliarafil 'rlO iil 'tlSiillOOoffitiaJ, : i l l "m)"r.egul ' f l~IGns ,proltlb IDd'1ti9 segF9ga'tiOf'lo ~ re o re i: U llo o o lfa eIllUls. A ith0U{ i~ a s15'11iJ t .E1fi 'SweM pla '08Qu n d er < : IJ rr ( lS ~fmdis.ob;e~hf~g of'de-r~to . eave ~h.e club, theanll"l~merei:P.'Ii'E!prilTilCltll:ll8r1tiM riieriloii!nQGlrop(ied.he'~a.r 'giBaa ga in st 1 tli;m _Thi!;l ,~rty non-violentpretest wilhin,h eArmy A.ir IFQrGe'~ ~y~tep:nwas a ~ fgn i f !wa : f l IpreeedemIl;if ~e later ~il riWiISm0ement .

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    SlgmfficHlo 'ce of tlle'Iuskegee Airm.,t