Topic: Language knowledge General objectives: Students will be able to teach vocabulary. Students will be able to teach grammar. Students will be able to teach pronunciation.
Lesson One Teaching Vocabulary Pre-task activities Step One: elicit ways of students knowing the meaning of new words. Step Two: the teacher sums up the ways of knowing new words. Step Three: elicit ways of consolidating new words. Step Four: the teacher sums up the ways of consolidating new words. While-task activities Step Four: students teaching new words to their group members. Step Five: students consolidating new words with their group members.. Post-task activities Step Six: students reporting their performances in their groups.
Ways of presenting new words Realia Pictures Mime, action and gesture Contrast (Synonym or antonyms) Enumeration Explanation Translation Context clues Symbol Numerals Lexical sets Word formation
Realia This is the word we use to refer to the use of real objects in the classroom. Thus the words pen, ruler, ball, postcard, etc. can be easily explained by showing students a pen or a ball or a ruler, etc. This is clearly satisfactory for certain single words, but the use of realia is limited to things that can easily be taken into the classroom.
Pictures Pictures are clearly indispensable for the language teacher since they can be used in so many ways. By pictures we mean blackboard drawings, wall pictures and charts, flash-cards etc. Pictures can be used to explain the meaning of vocabulary items: the teacher might draw pens, rulers and balls on the blackboard, or have magazine pictures of cars, bicycles, and trains stuck onto cardboard, The teacher might bring in a wall picture showing three people in a room which could be used for introducing the meaning of the sentence There are three people in the room. The same language could be introduced with a large street map (e. g. Theres a church in Green Street). A picture can also be used to create a situation or context.
Mime, action and gesture Mime, action and gesture It is often impossible to explain the meaning of words and grammar either through the use of realia or in pictures. Actions, in particular, are probably better explained by mime. Thus concepts like running and smoking are easy concepts to explain if the teacher pretends to run, or takes a drag on and etc..
Contrast (Synonym or antonyms) Contrast (Synonym or antonyms) Sometimes a visual element (e.g. realia, picture, mime, etc.) may not be sufficient to explain meaning and contrast can be used. Thus the meaning of full is better understood in the context of empty, big in the context of small, etc. The meaning of the past continuous is often explained by contrasting it with the past simple, e.g. I was having a bathe when the telephone rang.
Enumeration The word vegetable is a difficult word to explain visually. If, however, the teacher rapidly lists (or enumerates) a number of vegetables the meaning will become clear. The same is true of a word like clothes.
Explanation Explanation Explaining the meaning of vocabulary items can be extremely difficult just as grammatical explanation can be, especially at elementary levels. It will be important, if giving such explanations, to make sure that the explanation includes information about when the item can be used. It would be unsatisfactory just to say that mate was a word for friend unless you also pointed out that it was colloquial informal English and only used in certain contexts. Do means to perform, but information would have to be given about what words it is used with(as opposed to make).
Translation It seems silly not to translate if by doing so a lot of time can be saved. If the students dont understand a word and the teacher cant think how to explain it, he can quickly translate it.The big danger, though, is that not all words and phrases are easily translated from on e language to the other, and it takes a communicatively efficient speaker of both languages to translate well. Translation, then, seems a useful measure if used sparingly, but it should be used with caution.
Context clues Techniques for guessing vocabulary from context include activating background knowledge from the topic of a text, obtaining clues from grammatical structure, pronunciation and punctuation, and using the natural redundancy of surrounding words. For example, the reader should be able to guess the meaning of workaholic in the following sentence: My father was a workaholic. He worked so long and so hard that we rarely saw him.
Word formation Word formation Formformation--formal
Consolidating vocabulary Labelling Spotting the difference Describing and drawing Playing a game Using word thermometers Using word series Word bingo Word association Odd man out Synonym and antonym Using categories Using word net-work
Lesson Two Teaching Grammar Pre-task activities Step One: elicit ways of teaching grammar. Step Two: the teacher sums up the ways of teaching grammar. Step Three: elicit ways of consolidating new grammatical rules. Step Four: the teacher sums up the ways of consolidating new grammatical rules. While-task activities Step Four: students teaching grammatical rules to their group members. Step Five: students consolidating grammatical rules with their group members.. Post-task activities Step Six: students reporting their performances in their groups.
Ways of Teaching Grammar The role of grammar in ELT Grammar presentation methods Deductive method Inductive method Grammar practice Mechanical practice Meaningful practice Using prompts for practice
Grammar practice Mechanical practice Substitution drills Transformation drills
Grammar practice Meaningful practice
Grammar practice Using prompts for practice Using picture prompts Using mime or gestures as prompts Using information sheet as prompts Using chained phrases for story telling Using created situations
Lesson Three Teaching Pronunciation Pre-task activities Step One: elicit ways of pracitising sound, stress and intonation. Step Two: the teacher sums up the ways of pracitising sound, stress and intonation. Step Three: the teacher sums up the ways of pracitising sound, stress and intonation.. While-task activities Step Four: students pracitising sound, stress and intonation in groups. Post-task activities Step Six: students reporting their performances in their groups.
Teaching Pronunciation Realistic goals of teaching pronunciation Aspects of pronunciation Practising sounds Practising stress Practising intonation
Realistic goals of teaching pronunciation Consistency: The pronunciation should be smooth and natural. Intelligibility: The pronunciation should be understandable to the listeners Communicative efficiency: The pronunciation should help to convey the meaning that is intended by the speaker.
Aspects of pronunciation Sounds Syllables Stress Intonation rhythm
Practising sounds Focusing on a sound Perception practice Production practice
Focusing on a sound Say the sound alone Get students to repeat the sound in chorus Get individual students to repeat the sound. Explain how to make the sound Say the sound in a word Contrast it with other sounds. Say the sound in meaningful contexts.
Perception practice Using minimal pairs Which order? Same or different? Odd man out completion
Production practice Listen and repeat Fill in the blanks Make up sentences Use meaningful context Use pictures Use tongue twisters
Practising stress Using gestures Use the voice Use the blackboard
Practising intonation Using hand or arm movement Using rising or falling arrows Drawing lines