Think about the wonder material you

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<p>Think about the wonder material youalways dreamed about. That's graphene.</p> <p>Graphene is as strong as diamondbut as flexible as plastics.</p> <p>It's less than one millionth of thethickness of a sheet of paper.</p> <p>The thinnest possible, the lightest,the most conductive,</p> <p>the most impermeable,the most thermally conductive.</p> <p>I mean - is there anymaterial like that?</p> <p>Graphene is a dream.</p> <p>It's probably the biggest changein technology since silicon.</p> <p>This can change our life,change our world in the future.</p> <p>It's a simple material, it's just aone-atom thick layer of graphite.</p> <p>You can also think about itas just carbon atoms on a plane</p> <p>arranged into a hexagonal lattice.</p> <p>Drawing it with a pencil makes itrealistic - it is also made of carbon.</p> <p>The way we first came tographene is really simple.</p> <p>I saw a colleague cleaninggraphite with his STM experiment.</p> <p>He simply took scotch tape and pealedoff the top layer of graphite.</p> <p>I knew about this method, it's astandard way to clean graphite.</p> <p>But when you actually see it,it makes you think.</p> <p>I picked up the used scotch tape withflakes of graphite from the dust bin.</p> <p>And then if yousplit it in half repeatedly,</p> <p>eventually you might get to a monolayerof graphite, which is graphene.</p> <p>Within an hour, we had our first sample.</p> <p>Graphene offers a technological edge.</p> <p>Many different kinds ofproducts are being pursued.</p> <p>From touch panelsto conductive paints.</p> <p>Flexible batteries,flexible electronics,</p> <p>EMI shielding,the transparent electrode,</p> <p>different kinds of sensors,solar cells, batteries.</p> <p>You can do thingslike desalinate seawater.</p> <p>You can separate carbondioxide from nitrogen.</p> <p>That is a great advantagein combating carbon dioxide emissions.</p> <p>It's very difficult to predictwhere the key impact is going to be.</p> <p>You have to think about it as a processrather than a table carved in stone.</p> <p>Governments, companies and universitieshave realized the potential of graphene.</p> <p>And a lot of resourcesare being invested.</p> <p>More and more large companieslike Samsung or Nokia or Apple</p> <p>are interested in using graphenefor their future devices.</p> <p>So now the issue is the investment,</p> <p>and then we need to findthe killer application.</p> <p>One application can open all the doors</p> <p>to the real application of graphene.</p> <p>There is competition, it's pretty big.</p> <p>We have to move quickly.</p> <p>Our research is part of that race.</p> <p>The European countriesare very advanced in basic science.</p> <p>But the manufacturing industryis very advanced in Korea.</p> <p>In some ways, we can learn from others.</p> <p>Their ideas like this one,"Aha, I missed that."</p> <p>I kind of like that.</p> <p>I think it's about timeto make this graphene work.</p> <p>It's our duty to make it be thewonder material, the miracle material.</p> <p>We have to aim high.</p> <p>Dreaming is good.</p> <p>But if you dream too high,it's also a problem.</p> <p>It has potential, but wehaven't shown anything yet.</p> <p>We have been working on the nanoworldfor many years, many decades.</p> <p>I haven't seen any productthat is actually sold worldwide.</p> <p>We didn't make billions of dollars ortrillions of dollars from nanomaterial.</p> <p>We really want to see actual things.</p> <p>And graphene is actuallya good candidate</p> <p>from my point of view,from an industry point of view.</p> <p>It has better processabilitythan other nanomaterials.</p> <p>But we haven't shown anything yet.</p> <p>Any new technologyrequires a lot of work.</p> <p>The variety of different challengesis probably the beauty of this topic.</p> <p>Research is pursuit of new things.</p> <p>When pursuing new things, you neverknow what you will find along the way.</p> <p>There's another wonder of graphene,that it has basically opened a floodgate</p> <p>for other materialsto be discovered and studied.</p> <p>Those two-dimensional crystals behavedifferently from their 3D precursors.</p> <p>You can create stacks of those,and basically create a material</p> <p>that is not given by naturein the usual way.</p> <p>We are walking along a waythat nobody has walked before.</p> <p>There's a goal, so we are tryingto go in that direction.</p> <p>Then sometimes we finda better shortcut.</p> <p>Then maybe a different material.</p> <p>Or a different method, or a differentgoal, a better one, or a closer one.</p>