Thesis Final Draft Kara Bennett

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<ul><li><p>POWER GENERATION POTENTIAL </p><p>FROM COPRODUCED FLUIDS IN </p><p>THE LOS ANGELES BASIN </p><p>A REPORT SUBMITTED TO THE DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY </p><p>RESOURCES ENGINEERING </p><p>OF STANFORD UNIVERSITY </p><p>IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE </p><p>DEGREE OF MASTER OF SCIENCE </p><p>By </p><p>Kara Bennett </p><p>June 2012</p></li><li><p> iii </p><p>I certify that I have read this report and that in my opinion it is fully </p><p>adequate, in scope and in quality, as partial fulfillment of the degree </p><p>of Master of Science in Energy Resources Engineering. </p><p>__________________________________ </p><p>Roland N. Horne </p><p>(Principal Advisor) </p></li><li><p> v </p><p>Abstract </p><p>There is potential to utilize oilfield infrastructure to produce geothermal electricity </p><p>profitably, in a process called coproduction. Although many oil reservoirs represent only </p><p>a low-to-mid temperature resource, utilizing oil infrastructure sidesteps the initial capital </p><p>investment for exploration and development making these low temperature resourced </p><p>profitable. Power generation from coproduced fluids using binary-cycle power plants has </p><p>been demonstrated at the Rocky Mountain Oilfield Testing Center in Wyoming, and at </p><p>Huabei Oilfield near Beijing, China. This research investigated the feasibility and </p><p>profitability of implementing coproduction at the oilfields of the Los Angeles Basin. The </p><p>Los Angeles Basin was selected because of the regions promising combination of giant </p><p>oilfields, including Wilmington Oilfield, high water cut, 97% water in 2011, and elevated </p><p>geothermal gradient, over 2.0F/100ft. The feasibility and profitability of coproduction in </p><p>the Los Angeles Basin was evaluated in three steps. First, a STARS simulation model for </p><p>each promising oilfield in the Los Angeles Basin forecasted reservoir and production </p><p>conditions over the lifetime of the coproduction project. Second, the produced fluid flow </p><p>rate and temperature, as predicted by the STARS model, was converted to an electricity </p><p>output by a specific power correlation curve created by consulting the literature on </p><p>current and past coproduction pilot test and low-temperature geothermal projects. Third, </p><p>economic analysis was performed to determine the net present value of these </p><p>coproduction projects considering the profits from avoided electricity purchase, initial </p><p>capital cost of the power plant and gathering system, continued costs for operation and </p><p>maintenance, and lost profits from the decrease in oil production due to increases in oil </p><p>viscosity with decreasing reservoir temperature. From the nine oilfields in the Los </p><p>Angeles Basin with sufficient production rates and reservoir temperatures for </p><p>coproduction, four coproduction projects were found to be both feasible and profitable, </p><p>one was deemed feasible but uneconomic due to lost oil production, and four were not </p><p>feasible due to wellbore heat losses. The four successful projects represented a combined </p><p>power generation potential of over 3 MW and a net present value exceeding $14 million. </p></li><li><p> vii </p><p>Acknowledgments </p><p>First and foremost I would like to acknowledge the phenomenal support and guidance of </p><p>my advisor, Professor Roland Horne and thank him for the opportunity to work in the </p><p>Stanford Geothermal Program and for greatly enriching my Stanford experience. </p><p>I would also like to thank my colleagues in the Stanford Geothermal Group, Mohammed </p><p>Alaskar, Morgan Ames, Carla Co, Egill Juliusson, Lilga Magnusdottir, Mark McClure, </p><p>Lawrence Valverde, and past member Sarah Pistone, for research advice and camaraderie </p><p>both in and outside the classroom. A particular thank you goes out to Kewen Li for his </p><p>expert advice on coproduction and instrumental help in building my STARS model. </p><p>I would like to thank Jeff Adams from the Department of Oil, Gas, and Geothermal </p><p>Resources for his guidance in navigating the DOGGR database. Also thank you to Jeff </p><p>Stewart and Franois Florence at Occidental Petroleum for sharing details of oil </p><p>operations in the Los Angeles Basin. </p><p>Lastly I would like to thank my fantastic officemates Carla Co, Chanya Thirawarapan, </p><p>and Whitney Sargent for a truly unforgettable year. </p></li><li><p> ix </p><p>Contents </p><p>Abstract ............................................................................................................................... v </p><p>Acknowledgments............................................................................................................. vii </p><p>Contents ............................................................................................................................. ix </p><p>List of Tables ................................................................................................................... xiii </p><p>List of Figures ................................................................................................................... xv </p><p>1. Introduction ............................................................................................................... 19 </p><p>1.1. Current Coproduction Projects ........................................................................... 19 </p><p>1.2. US Coproduction Potential................................................................................. 20 1.2.1. Gulf Coast States......................................................................................... 20 </p><p>1.2.2. California .................................................................................................... 20 1.3. Research Objective ............................................................................................. 21 </p><p>2. Los Angeles Basin Data ............................................................................................ 23 </p><p>2.1. Background ........................................................................................................ 23 2.1.1. Geology ....................................................................................................... 23 </p><p>2.1.2. History of Oil Production............................................................................ 23 2.2. Data .................................................................................................................... 25 </p><p>2.2.1. Temperature ................................................................................................ 25 2.2.2. Production and Injection Rates ................................................................... 26 </p><p>2.2.3. Viscosity ..................................................................................................... 27 2.2.4. Relative Permeability .................................................................................. 27 2.2.5. Other Data ................................................................................................... 28 </p><p>3. STARS Simulation.................................................................................................... 29 </p><p>3.1. Model Overview ................................................................................................. 29 3.2. Sensitivity Analysis ............................................................................................ 29 </p><p>3.2.1. Initial Water Saturation ............................................................................... 30 </p><p>3.2.2. Porosity ....................................................................................................... 31 </p><p>3.2.3. Reservoir Pressure ...................................................................................... 31 </p><p>3.2.4. Permeability ................................................................................................ 32 3.2.5. Oil Molecular Weight ................................................................................. 33 3.2.6. Liquid Compressibility ............................................................................... 33 3.2.7. Coefficient of Thermal Expansion .............................................................. 34 </p><p>3.3. Inputs .................................................................................................................. 37 </p><p>3.4. Outputs ............................................................................................................... 38 3.4.1. Wellbore Heat Loss Analytical Model ....................................................... 38 </p><p>4. Power Generation...................................................................................................... 41 </p></li><li><p> x </p><p>4.1. Binary Power Plants ........................................................................................... 41 </p><p>4.2. Net Thermal Efficiency as a Function of Geofluid Inlet Temperature .............. 42 4.3. Specific Power.................................................................................................... 43 4.4. Lower limits of power generation ...................................................................... 44 </p><p>4.4.1. Geofluid Temperature ................................................................................. 44 4.4.2. Power Plant Size ......................................................................................... 45 4.4.3. Reinjection Temperature ............................................................................. 45 </p><p>5. Economic Analysis ................................................................................................... 47 </p><p>5.1. Methodology ...................................................................................................... 47 5.2. Price of Electricity .............................................................................................. 47 5.3. Development and Operation Costs ..................................................................... 48 </p><p>5.4. Avoided Costs .................................................................................................... 49 </p><p>5.5. Not Considered ................................................................................................... 49 </p><p>6. Results ....................................................................................................................... 51 </p><p>6.1. Wilmington Oilfield ........................................................................................... 52 6.1.1. DOGGR Data .............................................................................................. 52 </p><p>6.1.2. STARS Simulation...................................................................................... 52 6.1.3. Power Generation........................................................................................ 54 6.1.4. Economic Analysis ..................................................................................... 54 </p><p>6.1.5. Operations ................................................................................................... 55 6.2. Beverly Hills Oilfield ......................................................................................... 55 </p><p>6.2.1. DOGGR Data .............................................................................................. 55 6.2.2. STARS Simulation...................................................................................... 56 6.2.3. Power Generation........................................................................................ 57 </p><p>6.2.4. Economic Analysis ..................................................................................... 57 </p><p>6.2.5. Operations ................................................................................................... 58 6.3. Inglewood Oilfield ............................................................................................. 59 </p><p>6.3.1. STARS Simulation...................................................................................... 59 </p><p>6.3.2. Power Generation........................................................................................ 60 6.3.3. Economic Analysis ..................................................................................... 60 </p><p>6.3.4. Operations ................................................................................................... 61 6.4. Long Beach Oilfield ........................................................................................... 62 </p><p>6.4.1. DOGGR Data .............................................................................................. 62 6.4.2. STARS Simulation...................................................................................... 62 6.4.3. Power Generation........................................................................................ 64 6.4.4. Economic Analysis ..................................................................................... 64 </p><p>6.4.5. Operations ................................................................................................... 65 6.5. Santa Fe Springs Oilfield ................................................................................... 65 </p><p>6.5.1. DOGGR Data .............................................................................................. 65 </p><p>6.5.2. STARS Simulation...................................................................................... 65 6.5.3. Power Generation........................................................................................ 67 6.5.4. Economic Analysis ..................................................................................... 67 6.5.5. Operations ................................................................................................... 68 </p><p>6.6. Seal Beach Oilfield............................................................................................. 68 6.7. Sawtelle Oilfield ................................................................................................. 69 </p></li><li><p> xi </p><p>6.8. Rosecrans Oilfield .............................................................................................. 70 </p><p>6.9. Huntington Beach Oilfield ................................................................................. 71 </p><p>7. Discussion and Conclusion ....................................................................................... 73 </p><p>7.1. Summary of Results ........................................................................................... 73 7.2. Discussion .......................................................................................................... 74 7.3. Other Applications ............................................................................................. 74 </p><p>7.4. Conclusion .......................................................................................................... 75 </p><p>Nomenclature .................................................................................................................... 77 </p><p>References ......................................................................................................................... 79 </p><p>A. Complete Oilfield Data ...................................................................................... 83 </p><p>B. STARS Model Custom Parameters .......................................................</p></li></ul>