The United Kingdom of Great Britain Wales, Northern Ireland, Scotland, and England

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  • The United Kingdom of Great BritainWales, Northern Ireland, Scotland, and England

  • Iberians (Old & New Stone Age)The first people to live in EnglandPhysical characteristics:ShortDark hair and skinLifestyle:Knew how to make bronze (an alloy)Stonehenge from the Saxon, meaning hanging stoneMay have been used by Druids for religious rites dealing with the lunar & solar cycles

  • Celts (Approx. 600 BC 55 BC)Physical characteristics:Tall, blondeWarriorsLifestyle:Cured ham, kept bees, made wooden barrelsSkilled artisans who introduced the use of iron to EuropeHad a legal system that specified individual rightsWoad a blue dyeCelts would dye their bodies to give themselves a terrifying appearance in battle.

  • More about CeltsAnimism religion of CeltsSaw spirits in everything (rivers, trees, stones, fire)These spirits controlled all aspects of existence and had to be constantly satisfiedDruids priestsActed as intermediaries between gods and people; they sometimes called for ritual dances or sacrifices

  • Romans (Approx. 55 BC 400 AD)Beginning of ChristianityJulius Caesar 55 BCConquered Gaul (a region of Western Europe comprising present day northern Italy, France, Belgium, Switzerland, and parts of the Netherlands and Germany)Then he sailed across the English Channel to learn about Britain

  • More about RomansContributions:Roads (5000 miles of stone road, some still in use today)WallsVillasGreat public bathsHadrians WallA 73-mile long defensive wall linking the North Sea & the Atlantic; separated England & ScotlandRomans left in 410 AD because of problems in Rome

  • Anglo-Saxons (450 AD)Germanic invaders: Angles, Saxons, JutesAlfred the Great:Led Angles, Saxons, Jutes against the invading Danes (Vikings) uniting Anglo-Saxon EnglandRevived interest in learning and in the English languageSt. AugustineConverted England to Christianity the second time by converting the Jute king

  • More about Anglo-SaxonsThe Anglo-Saxon Chronicle a lengthy running history of England instituted by Alfred the Great. Because of his efforts, English began to gain respect as a language.Class structure:Earls free menChurls unfree men (slaves or tenants)

  • And more about Anglo-SaxonsLifestyle:VERY SOCIAL!Mead drink of fermented honey, malt, & spicesMead hall center of family life; fire in the center; dias at one endEntertainment:Women needleworkMen played chess & backgammon; enjoyed fishing, hunting, gambling, drinking, & fightingFood meat & fish; primary vegetable cabbageDinner would last for several hours

  • And the last of Anglo-Saxon info Commerce:Families usually provided for themselves.Chapmen peddlersLiterature:Monks spent almost all of their daylight hours copying manuscripts by hand in a scriptorium (writing room)Scop (or bard) skilled storytellers who sang of gods and heroes; were revered as much as warriors

  • Hagar the Horrible


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