World HistoryThe Romans: From Humble Beginnings to Conquest
Founders of Rome:Romulus and Remus
Importance of GeographyLocated on the Italian Peninsula, have good soil, and rivers (Tiber).
Origins Originally ruled by Cruel Etruscans, they fight for independence.They establish a republic after years of conflict between the Patricians (rich landowners) and Plebeians (commoners)See chart on page 157.
ROMAN REPUBLIC AND EMPIRERome expands outward from Italy through warfare and conquering her neighbors.Government by law and through elections.
Carthage vs. RomeThe Three Punic WarsRome from Italy and Carthage from North Africa fight for supremacy in the Mediterranean region in the Third Century BCE.After three wars, Rome finally wins and Carthage is destroyed.
The First Punic War (264-241 BCE)Expanding Roman Republic comes into conflict with Carthage. First Punic War (264 BCE) starts over Sicily. Romans build ships to fight superior navy of Carthage. Romans win and drive Carthaginians out of Sicily.
Military/Geographical ContextCarthage territories lost in the First Punic War.Rome and Roman Confederates.Carthage controlled territories.
The Second Punic War (218-201 BCE)The Carthaginian General Hannibal invades Italy from the north through Spain and the mountains of Switzerland.Hannibal destroys much of Italy for 15 years, but is unable to conquer city of Rome.
Romans attack Carthage, Hannibal returns to Africa to defend country, loses at the Battle of Zama.
Carthage loses war, agrees to pay large sum of money and give up all territories.
Hannibal in Alps.
2nd Punic WarRome Victorious2nd Punic War
Hannibal and troops pass through the Swiss Alps.
The Third Punic War (149-146 BCE)After 50 years of peace, Carthage begins to show signs of power again (although very slight), and the Roman senator Cato calls for an attack.Romans attack Carthage to crush it once and for all.They burn Carthage to the ground, plow salt into the ground, and kill or sell into slavery all the Carthaginians.Rome is leading power in the Mediterranean area.
With the last Punic War and the end of Carthage, Rome will be lords of the Mediterranean, and will build one of the most dominate empires the world has ever seen.
What makes this possible?
Spreads Roman laws and customs all over the empire.
Conquests lead to prosperity and wealth, as well as expansion.
It will not be long until the army realizes its true power.
Years of Prosperity (for some)Wealth flows into Rome in the years that follow the Punic Wars (but to whom)
Corruption and creed led to further conflict between the rich and the poor
Civil war Breaks out and leads to a drastic change in Rome
Julius Caesar (100-44 BCE)
Julius Caesar - RiseThe expansion of Rome brings problems: growing gap between rich and poor (plebes and patricians), economic problems, political instability. Patricians and plebes come into serious conflict.
Caesar enacts land reforms, improves calendar, makes more people citizens, encourages the freeing of slaves, improves government.
Julius Caesar - GovernanceA successful general in France, Julius Caesar comes back to Rome with a powerful army, pursues enemies, and defeats them. Popular with soldiers and people.In 46 BCE, Caesar is declared dictator of Rome.
Julius Caesar - FallCaesar did much for the Rome, but many Romans - especially patricians - were afraid of him and his almost unlimited power.
It is said that a soothsayer stopped Caesar on the way to the Senate and warned, Caesar, beware the Ides of March!He pays him no attention.
About 60 men, most of them senators, worked out a plan to kill Caesar. As he entered the Senate on March 15, 44 BCE, Caesar stabbed to death by conspirators.
Assassination brings more civil war and instability to Rome. Caesarism means end of the Republic and beginning of Empire; Emperors lead Empire after.
Pax RomanaThe Emperor Augustus came to power after Caesar (His name was Octavian, battled with Marc Antony and Cleopatra and won).
He made no new conquests, but brought peace and prosperity to the Roman Empire. Money through trade flowed to Rome and culture flourished.
Advantages/Disadvantages to Pax RomanaMust serve in Roman Army and pay numerous special taxes to Rome.Loss of independence.Advantages to Pax Romana: end to inter-tribal warfare, defense from external aggression, use of Roman public works (roads, bridges, aqueducts, etc.), economic unity, prestige of Rome.Become allies of Rome, with possibility of Roman citizenship and voting rights.
Extent of Roman Empire
Last Great Roman Emperor Stoic philosopher Marcus Aurelias
His death marks the end of the Pax Romana.
Rome would be on its heals from this point forward.