The Renaissance Birth of Venus – Botticelli, 1485

  • Published on
    28-Dec-2015

  • View
    213

  • Download
    1

Embed Size (px)

Transcript

Slide 1

The Renaissance

Birth of Venus Botticelli, 1485

Aim: Why did the Renaissance begin in Italy?

Explain how life was during the Greek and Roman civilizations.Explain Humanism and Secularism.Who was Leonardo DaVinci and what did he contribution to Art

Before the Middle Ages, beforethe Plague, there was the gloryof the ancient Greeks and Romans.3

After the damageof the BubonicPlague,WesternEuropeansocietychanged.

4

In Italy, people began to look tothe past, to the glories of earlycivilizations.5The Dark AgesRenaissance thinkers referred to the Middle Ages as the Dark Ages.

They believed that the light of learning had gone out in Europe at the fall of Rome.

Renaissance thinkers wanted to rediscover the ancient Greeks and Romans.6

What a pieceof workis man!7

In Italy, a new period of artisticcreativity and new interest inthe contributions of the Greeks and Romans developed.8

It was a rebirth.It wasthe Renaissance.9

The word Renaissance means rebirth.10

And why did theRenaissance beginin Italy?Italy hada great location for trade.It was king ofthe MediterraneanSea.It controlledEuropean tradewith Asia.11

Renaissance thinkers were interestedin discovering new ways of thinkingand seeing.12

During the Renaissance,humanismbecame popular.It was the beliefin the importanceand uniqueness of man.13SecularismDuring the Renaissance, secularism became popular.

Secularism is a non-religious viewpoint.

Secularists look to scientific thinking for answers as opposed to religion.14HumanismDuring the Renaissance, humanism became popular.

Humanism is the belief that human actions, ideas, and works are important.

Humanists rediscovered the ancient Greeks and Romans.15The RenaissanceThe Renaissance was a period of artistic creativity.

Artists rediscovered the ancient civilizations of the Greeks and Romans.

The word Renaissance means rebirth.16HumanismCelebrated the individualStimulated the study of classical Greek and Roman literature and cultureSupported by wealthy patrons

Wealth fromtrade allowedartists to find wealthypatrons tocommissionand sponsor their work.18

The rebirthand rediscoveryof learningof the Renaissancesoon spreadto other parts of Europe.19Medici Family

Medici FamilyThey were a family of bankers that became very wealthy and powerful.

Soon they were involved in politics and ran the City of Florence.

They were patrons of the Arts and commissioned many works of art.Literary Contributors

Gutenberg Bible

Gutenburg Printing PressMovable Type

Sir Thomas Moore: Utopia

Erasmus: The Praise of Folly

Petrarch: Sonnets, humanist scholarship

Machiavellis The PrinceAn early modern treatise on governmentSupports absolute power of the rulerMaintains that the end justifies the meansAdvises that one should not only do good if possible, but do evil when necessary

Secularists look to scientific thinkingfor answers.30Ideas of Machiavelli It is better to be feared than loved

The ends justifies the means

The PrinceAuthor: Niccolo MachiavelliCulture: Italian (another Florentine)Time: 1513 CEGenre: didactic prose handbookName to Know: Cesare Borgia

BackgroundSon of a lawyer.Received an ordinary literary education; read Latin but no Greek.Loved Roman history; studied law.Became a political writer & theorist.Worked as a clerk, then secretary to the second chancery of the commune in Florence (14 years).

Practical ExperienceAs secretary & Second Chancellor of Florence, in charge of internal and war affairs, he had knowledge of military & diplomatic matters; went on diplomatic missions.After arguing against mercenaries and for a national militia, he was given the job of forming one and leading it to battle. Did so successfully(1509).

Another Florentine Exile . . .He lost his position and was exiled from Florence when the republican regime went out of power; forbidden to leave Florentine territory, he was imprisoned and tortured, accused of conspiracy by the new Medici regime.After he was released, he retired with his wife and children, wrote The Prince, among other things. Later got into Medici good graces (1520s). Died in 1527.Reaction to ChangeMachiavellis life changed drastically when the Medici family took power in Florence.How does he react to this?Compare with how Abelard and Dante dealt with the unforeseen events in their lives (castration, exile). How would Marie de France judge their reactions to unexpected change, the test of unforeseen events ?His ImportanceAn historian summed Machiavelli up thus:Diplomat, historian, dramatist, philosopher; the most cynical thinker of his time, and yet a patriot fired with a noble ideal; a man who failed in everything he undertook, but left upon history a deeper mark than almost any other figure of the Renaissance. [Durant]Machiavelli was an independent and fearless thinker about ethics and politics:interested in states, not individuals[individuals are simply members of states]wants to know why states rise & fallwants to know how to delay state decayThe PrinceA manual teaching how to get and keep political power. The author assumes a pedagogical persona, seeks to persuade readers.The work is powerful for: subject matter rhetorical & technical brillianceAmong the most frequently reprinted books in any language.Dedicated first to Giuliano de Medici, then to Lorenzo, his nephew.

The presentation of an ideal character is a Renaissance tendency.

Authors premise: human nature is evil;human nature remains constant over time.

Authors goal: to liberate Italy from both internal warring and foreign oppression.The Prince, AlmostMachiavelli admired Cesare Borgia, son of Pope Alexander VI, makes him an embodied will to power, a model for supermen, beyond good and evil.

Borgias AccomplishmentsDestroyed his disloyal generals, having first made their supporters his own.Put Remirro de Orco in charge of Romagna. He pacified the province and united it (the bad guy); Borgia then instituted civil courts (good guy).Had Remirro killed and displayed in public square. The ferocity of this spectacle left those people at the same time gratified and awe-struck.The Art of theItalian RenaissanceArt and PatronageItalians were willing to spend a lot of money on art.Art communicated social, political, and spiritual values.Italian banking & international trade interests had the money.Public art in Florence was organized and supported by guilds.Therefore, the consumption of art was used as a form of competition for social & political status!CharateristicsofRenaissance Art1. Realism & ExpressionExpulsion fromthe GardenMasaccio1427First nudes sinceclassical times.

2. Perspective

Perspective!Perspective!Perspective!Perspective!Perspective!First use of linear perspective!Perspective!Perspective!The TrinityMasaccio1427What you are, I once was; what I am, you will become.Perspective

Perspective!Betrothal of the Virgin Raphael15043. ClassicismGreco-Roman influence.Secularism.Humanism.Individualism free standing figures.Symmetry/Balance

The Classical PoseMedici Venus (1c)4. Emphasis on Individualism

Batista Sforza & Federico de Montefeltre: The Duke & Dutchess of UrbinoPiero della Francesca, 1465-1466.Isabella dEste da Vinci, 1499

1474-1539First Lady of the Italian Renaissance.Great patroness of the arts.Known during her time as First Lady of the World!5. Geometrical Arrangement of Figures

The Dreyfus Madonna with the PomegranateLeonardo da Vinci1469The figure as architecture!6. Light & Shadowing/Softening Edges

ChiaroscuroSfumato7. Artists as Personalities/CelebritiesLives of the Most Excellent Painters, Sculptors, andArchitects

Giorgio Vasari

1550

Renaissance Florence

Renaissance Florence The Wool Factoryby Mirabello Cavalori, 1570 1252 first gold florins minted

Florentine lion:symbol of St. MarkLorenzo the Magnificent

1478 - 1521

Cosimo de Medici1517 - 1574Florence Under the Medici

Medici Chapel

The Medici PalaceFilippo Brunelleschi1377 - 1436

Architect

Cuppolo of St. Mariadel Fiore

Filippo BrunelleschiCommissioned to build the cathedral dome.Used unique architectural concepts.He studied the ancient Pantheon in Rome.Used ribs for support.

Brunelleschis Secret

Brunelleschis Dome

Comparing Domes

Other Famous Domes Il Duomo St. Peters St. Pauls US capital (Florence) (Rome) (London) (Washington)

The Ideal City Piero della Francesca, 1470

A Contest to Decorate the Cathedral: Sacrifice of Isaac Panels

BrunelleschiGhibertiGhiberti Gates of ParadiseBaptistry Door, Florence 1425 - 1452

The Winner!David by Donatello1430First free-form bronze since Roman times!

The Liberation of Sculpture David

Verrocchio

1473 - 1475

TheRenaissance'Individual'Vitruvian Man Leonardo daVinci1492TheLuomouniversale

The Renaissance ManBroad knowledge about many things in different fields.Deep knowledge/skill in one area.Able to link information from different areas/disciplines and create new knowledge.

The Greek ideal of the well-rounded man was at the heart of Renaissance education.1. Self-Portrait -- da Vinci, 15121452 - 1519ArtistSculptorArchitectScientistEngineerInventor

Leonardo, the Artist:From hisNotebooks of over 5000 pages (1508-1519)

Mona Lisa da Vinci, 1503-4

?

A Macaroni MonaParodyThe Best Form of Flattery?

A Picasso Mona

An Andy Warhol Mona

A Monaca LewinskyMona Lisa OR da Vinci??

The Last Supper - da Vinci, 1498& Geometry

Refractory

Convent of Santa Maria delle Grazie

Milan

horizontalverticalPerspective!The Last Supper - da Vinci, 1498Detail of JesusThe Last Supper Leonardo da Vinci1498

DeteriorationA Da Vinci Code:St. John or Mary Magdalene?

Leonardo, the Sculptor

An Equestrian Statue

1516-1518Leonardo, the Architect:Pages from his Notebook

Study of a central church.

1488Leonardo, the Architect:Pages from his NotebookPlan of the city of Imola, 1502.

Leonardo, the Scientist (Biology):Pages from his Notebook

An example of the humanist desire to unlock the secrets of nature.Leonardo, the Scientist (Anatomy): Pages from his Notebook

Leonardo, the Inventor: Pages from his NotebookMan Can Fly?

A study of siege defenses.

Studies of water-lifting devices.Leonardo, the Engineer: Pages from his NotebookLeonardo da Vinci.O investigator, do not flatter yourself that you know the things nature performs for herself, but rejoice in knowing that purpose of those things designed by your own mind.Renaissance Rome

2. Michelangelo Buonorrati1475 1564

He represented the body in three dimensions of sculpture.

DavidMichelangeloBuonarotti1504Marble

15c16c What

a

difference

a

century

makes!The Pieta

MichelangeloBuonarroti

1499

marbleThe Popes as Patrons of the Arts

The Sistine Chapel

Michelangelo Buonarroti

1508 - 1512The Sistine Chapels CeilingMichelangelo Buonarroti1508 - 1512

The Sistine Chapel DetailsThe Creation of the Heavens

The Sistine Chapel DetailsCreation of Man

The Sistine Chapel DetailsThe Fall from Grace

The Sistine Chapel Details

The Last JudgmentThe School of Athens Raphael, 1510 -11One point perspective.All of the important Greek philosophers and thinkers are included all of the great personalities of the Seven Liberal Arts!A great variety of poses.Located in the papal apartments library.Raphael worked on this commission simultaneously as Michelangelo was doing the Sistine Chapel.No Christian themes here.

The School of Athens Raphael, 1510 -11RaphaelDa VinciMichelangelo

Aristotle:looks to thisearth [thehere andnow].Plato:looks to theheavens [or the IDEALrealm].The School of Athens Raphael, details

AverroesHypatiaPythagoras

ZoroasterPtolemyEuclidA Portrait of Savonarola

By Fra Bartolomeo, 1498.Dominican friar who decried money and power.Anti-humanist he saw humanism as too secular, hedonistic, and corrupting.The Bonfire of the Vanities, 1497.Burned books, artwork, jewelry, and other luxury goods in public.Even Botticelli put some of his paintings on the fire!!The Execution of Savonarola, 1452