Birth of Venus Botticelli, 1485
Aim: Why did the Renaissance begin in Italy?
Explain how life was during the Greek and Roman civilizations.Explain Humanism and Secularism.Who was Leonardo DaVinci and what did he contribution to Art
Before the Middle Ages, beforethe Plague, there was the gloryof the ancient Greeks and Romans.3
After the damageof the BubonicPlague,WesternEuropeansocietychanged.
In Italy, people began to look tothe past, to the glories of earlycivilizations.5The Dark AgesRenaissance thinkers referred to the Middle Ages as the Dark Ages.
They believed that the light of learning had gone out in Europe at the fall of Rome.
Renaissance thinkers wanted to rediscover the ancient Greeks and Romans.6
What a pieceof workis man!7
In Italy, a new period of artisticcreativity and new interest inthe contributions of the Greeks and Romans developed.8
It was a rebirth.It wasthe Renaissance.9
The word Renaissance means rebirth.10
And why did theRenaissance beginin Italy?Italy hada great location for trade.It was king ofthe MediterraneanSea.It controlledEuropean tradewith Asia.11
Renaissance thinkers were interestedin discovering new ways of thinkingand seeing.12
During the Renaissance,humanismbecame popular.It was the beliefin the importanceand uniqueness of man.13SecularismDuring the Renaissance, secularism became popular.
Secularism is a non-religious viewpoint.
Secularists look to scientific thinking for answers as opposed to religion.14HumanismDuring the Renaissance, humanism became popular.
Humanism is the belief that human actions, ideas, and works are important.
Humanists rediscovered the ancient Greeks and Romans.15The RenaissanceThe Renaissance was a period of artistic creativity.
Artists rediscovered the ancient civilizations of the Greeks and Romans.
The word Renaissance means rebirth.16HumanismCelebrated the individualStimulated the study of classical Greek and Roman literature and cultureSupported by wealthy patrons
Wealth fromtrade allowedartists to find wealthypatrons tocommissionand sponsor their work.18
The rebirthand rediscoveryof learningof the Renaissancesoon spreadto other parts of Europe.19Medici Family
Medici FamilyThey were a family of bankers that became very wealthy and powerful.
Soon they were involved in politics and ran the City of Florence.
They were patrons of the Arts and commissioned many works of art.Literary Contributors
Gutenburg Printing PressMovable Type
Sir Thomas Moore: Utopia
Erasmus: The Praise of Folly
Petrarch: Sonnets, humanist scholarship
Machiavellis The PrinceAn early modern treatise on governmentSupports absolute power of the rulerMaintains that the end justifies the meansAdvises that one should not only do good if possible, but do evil when necessary
Secularists look to scientific thinkingfor answers.30Ideas of Machiavelli It is better to be feared than loved
The ends justifies the means
The PrinceAuthor: Niccolo MachiavelliCulture: Italian (another Florentine)Time: 1513 CEGenre: didactic prose handbookName to Know: Cesare Borgia
BackgroundSon of a lawyer.Received an ordinary literary education; read Latin but no Greek.Loved Roman history; studied law.Became a political writer & theorist.Worked as a clerk, then secretary to the second chancery of the commune in Florence (14 years).
Practical ExperienceAs secretary & Second Chancellor of Florence, in charge of internal and war affairs, he had knowledge of military & diplomatic matters; went on diplomatic missions.After arguing against mercenaries and for a national militia, he was given the job of forming one and leading it to battle. Did so successfully(1509).
Another Florentine Exile . . .He lost his position and was exiled from Florence when the republican regime went out of power; forbidden to leave Florentine territory, he was imprisoned and tortured, accused of conspiracy by the new Medici regime.After he was released, he retired with his wife and children, wrote The Prince, among other things. Later got into Medici good graces (1520s). Died in 1527.Reaction to ChangeMachiavellis life changed drastically when the Medici family took power in Florence.How does he react to this?Compare with how Abelard and Dante dealt with the unforeseen events in their lives (castration, exile). How would Marie de France judge their reactions to unexpected change, the test of unforeseen events ?His ImportanceAn historian summed Machiavelli up thus:Diplomat, historian, dramatist, philosopher; the most cynical thinker of his time, and yet a patriot fired with a noble ideal; a man who failed in everything he undertook, but left upon history a deeper mark than almost any other figure of the Renaissance. [Durant]Machiavelli was an independent and fearless thinker about ethics and politics:interested in states, not individuals[individuals are simply members of states]wants to know why states rise & fallwants to know how to delay state decayThe PrinceA manual teaching how to get and keep political power. The author assumes a pedagogical persona, seeks to persuade readers.The work is powerful for: subject matter rhetorical & technical brillianceAmong the most frequently reprinted books in any language.Dedicated first to Giuliano de Medici, then to Lorenzo, his nephew.
The presentation of an ideal character is a Renaissance tendency.
Authors premise: human nature is evil;human nature remains constant over time.
Authors goal: to liberate Italy from both internal warring and foreign oppression.The Prince, AlmostMachiavelli admired Cesare Borgia, son of Pope Alexander VI, makes him an embodied will to power, a model for supermen, beyond good and evil.
Borgias AccomplishmentsDestroyed his disloyal generals, having first made their supporters his own.Put Remirro de Orco in charge of Romagna. He pacified the province and united it (the bad guy); Borgia then instituted civil courts (good guy).Had Remirro killed and displayed in public square. The ferocity of this spectacle left those people at the same time gratified and awe-struck.The Art of theItalian RenaissanceArt and PatronageItalians were willing to spend a lot of money on art.Art communicated social, political, and spiritual values.Italian banking & international trade interests had the money.Public art in Florence was organized and supported by guilds.Therefore, the consumption of art was used as a form of competition for social & political status!CharateristicsofRenaissance Art1. Realism & ExpressionExpulsion fromthe GardenMasaccio1427First nudes sinceclassical times.
Perspective!Perspective!Perspective!Perspective!Perspective!First use of linear perspective!Perspective!Perspective!The TrinityMasaccio1427What you are, I once was; what I am, you will become.Perspective
Perspective!Betrothal of the Virgin Raphael15043. ClassicismGreco-Roman influence.Secularism.Humanism.Individualism free standing figures.Symmetry/Balance
The Classical PoseMedici Venus (1c)4. Emphasis on Individualism
Batista Sforza & Federico de Montefeltre: The Duke & Dutchess of UrbinoPiero della Francesca, 1465-1466.Isabella dEste da Vinci, 1499
1474-1539First Lady of the Italian Renaissance.Great patroness of the arts.Known during her time as First Lady of the World!5. Geometrical Arrangement of Figures
The Dreyfus Madonna with the PomegranateLeonardo da Vinci1469The figure as architecture!6. Light & Shadowing/Softening Edges
ChiaroscuroSfumato7. Artists as Personalities/CelebritiesLives of the Most Excellent Painters, Sculptors, andArchitects
Renaissance Florence The Wool Factoryby Mirabello Cavalori, 1570 1252 first gold florins minted
Florentine lion:symbol of St. MarkLorenzo the Magnificent
1478 - 1521
Cosimo de Medici1517 - 1574Florence Under the Medici
The Medici PalaceFilippo Brunelleschi1377 - 1436
Cuppolo of St. Mariadel Fiore
Filippo BrunelleschiCommissioned to build the cathedral dome.Used unique architectural concepts.He studied the ancient Pantheon in Rome.Used ribs for support.
Other Famous Domes Il Duomo St. Peters St. Pauls US capital (Florence) (Rome) (London) (Washington)
The Ideal City Piero della Francesca, 1470
A Contest to Decorate the Cathedral: Sacrifice of Isaac Panels
BrunelleschiGhibertiGhiberti Gates of ParadiseBaptistry Door, Florence 1425 - 1452
The Winner!David by Donatello1430First free-form bronze since Roman times!
The Liberation of Sculpture David
1473 - 1475
TheRenaissance'Individual'Vitruvian Man Leonardo daVinci1492TheLuomouniversale
The Renaissance ManBroad knowledge about many things in different fields.Deep knowledge/skill in one area.Able to link information from different areas/disciplines and create new knowledge.
The Greek ideal of the well-rounded man was at the heart of Renaissance education.1. Self-Portrait -- da Vinci, 15121452 - 1519ArtistSculptorArchitectScientistEngineerInventor
Leonardo, the Artist:From hisNotebooks of over 5000 pages (1508-1519)
Mona Lisa da Vinci, 1503-4
A Macaroni MonaParodyThe Best Form of Flattery?
A Picasso Mona
An Andy Warhol Mona
A Monaca LewinskyMona Lisa OR da Vinci??
The Last Supper - da Vinci, 1498& Geometry
Convent of Santa Maria delle Grazie
horizontalverticalPerspective!The Last Supper - da Vinci, 1498Detail of JesusThe Last Supper Leonardo da Vinci1498
DeteriorationA Da Vinci Code:St. John or Mary Magdalene?
Leonardo, the Sculptor
An Equestrian Statue
1516-1518Leonardo, the Architect:Pages from his Notebook
Study of a central church.
1488Leonardo, the Architect:Pages from his NotebookPlan of the city of Imola, 1502.
Leonardo, the Scientist (Biology):Pages from his Notebook
An example of the humanist desire to unlock the secrets of nature.Leonardo, the Scientist (Anatomy): Pages from his Notebook
Leonardo, the Inventor: Pages from his NotebookMan Can Fly?
A study of siege defenses.
Studies of water-lifting devices.Leonardo, the Engineer: Pages from his NotebookLeonardo da Vinci.O investigator, do not flatter yourself that you know the things nature performs for herself, but rejoice in knowing that purpose of those things designed by your own mind.Renaissance Rome
2. Michelangelo Buonorrati1475 1564
He represented the body in three dimensions of sculpture.
marbleThe Popes as Patrons of the Arts
The Sistine Chapel
1508 - 1512The Sistine Chapels CeilingMichelangelo Buonarroti1508 - 1512
The Sistine Chapel DetailsThe Creation of the Heavens
The Sistine Chapel DetailsCreation of Man
The Sistine Chapel DetailsThe Fall from Grace
The Sistine Chapel Details
The Last JudgmentThe School of Athens Raphael, 1510 -11One point perspective.All of the important Greek philosophers and thinkers are included all of the great personalities of the Seven Liberal Arts!A great variety of poses.Located in the papal apartments library.Raphael worked on this commission simultaneously as Michelangelo was doing the Sistine Chapel.No Christian themes here.
The School of Athens Raphael, 1510 -11RaphaelDa VinciMichelangelo
Aristotle:looks to thisearth [thehere andnow].Plato:looks to theheavens [or the IDEALrealm].The School of Athens Raphael, details
ZoroasterPtolemyEuclidA Portrait of Savonarola
By Fra Bartolomeo, 1498.Dominican friar who decried money and power.Anti-humanist he saw humanism as too secular, hedonistic, and corrupting.The Bonfire of the Vanities, 1497.Burned books, artwork, jewelry, and other luxury goods in public.Even Botticelli put some of his paintings on the fire!!The Execution of Savonarola, 1452