The perfect fluid of quarks @RHIC

  • View
    36

  • Download
    3

Embed Size (px)

DESCRIPTION

The perfect fluid of quarks @RHIC. Milestones of quark matter research at the RHIC/PHENIX experiment. idő. hadron gáz. sQGP folyadék. nyaláb. Csanád Máté Atomfizikai Tanszék. Mire lesz szükség. Matematikai ismeretek: Alapműveletek :) Differenciálás, integrálás Differenciál-egyenletek - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Text of The perfect fluid of quarks @RHIC

Lvy exponent analysis

6A rszecskk Standard ModelljeElektron elemi rszecskeProton, neutron, hadronok nem azok kvarkokHrom klcsnhats, kzvett bozonok

Ers, gyenge, elektromgneses tltsErs tlts: szn QCD: kvantum-szn-dinamikauupccharmttopddownsstrangebbottomneelectron neutrinonmmuon neutrinonttau neutrinoeelectronmmuonttaukvarkokleptonokfermionokggluongphotonZZ bosonWW bosonbozonokklcsnh.erselektro-mgnesesgyenge

The perfect fluid of quarksMire lesz szksgMatematikai ismeretek:Alapmveletek :)Differencils, integrlsDifferencil-egyenletekFizikai ismeretek:KinematikaFolytonos kzegekTermodinamikaRelativitaselmeletKvantumelmeletekDe a fentieket mindet megtanuljuk kzbe2The perfect fluid of quarksMirl lesz sz?RszecskefizikaElemi rszecskk: kvark, lepton, fermion, bozonFolyamatokNagyenergis fizikatkzsek nagy energin (GeV)Rszecskekelts (nem rugalmas tkzs)NehzionfizikaAtommagokat tkztetnkKzeget akarunk ltrehozni3The perfect fluid of quarksKinematikai alapokAlapvet mennyisgek ismerete fontos, llandan hivatkozunk rjuk4

The perfect fluid of quarksKlcsnhatsok5

The perfect fluid of quarks16Kutatsi helysznek: CERNSPS: Pb+Pb @ Ecms = 17 GeV/nukleonh+p, p+p, p+Pb, Pb+Pb tkzsekKsrleti egyttmkdsek: NA44, NA45, NA49, NA50, NA52, NA57, NA60, WA98, NA61KFKI-ELTE rszvtel az NA49 s az NA61 ksrletben LHC: p+p (14 TeV) s Pb+Pb (5,5 TeV/nukleon)2009. okt.: fleg p+p fizika; ALICE, ATLAS, CMS, LHCb, LHCf, MoEDAL, TOTEM2010. nov.: nehzionfizika program is indul; ALICE, CMS

The perfect fluid of quarks7Ismert mezonok s barionok

The perfect fluid of quarksAz ers klcsnhatsKvantumtrelmlet, msodik kvantls, Fut csatols!

8

The perfect fluid of quarks19The RHIC complexTandem (1 MeV, +32)Booster (95 MeV, +77)AGS (9 GeV, +77)RHICProtons: Linac (200 MeV)Booster (95 MeV)AGS (9 GeV)RHIC

The perfect fluid of quarks1920RHIC geometry & numbersTwo rings (blue and yellow) 3.9 km eachSix crossings, four experiments57 bunches of ions at 99.995% of the speed of light1740 superconducting magnets at 4 K15 MW power consumption ~ 300 TJ/run (30 weeks)Luminosity: 2-31026 1/cm2/s

The perfect fluid of quarks2021The four CollaborationsBRAHMS (Broad Range Hadron Magnetic Spectrometer)Two small but distant spectrometers, detect charged hadrons precisely4 countries, 14 institutions, 60 participants, until 2006PHENIX (Pioneering High Energy Nuclear Interactions eXperiment)Many different detector-types, detect electrons, muons, photons, hadrons14 countries, 69 institutions, 600 participantsPHOBOSSmall silicon detectors, broad rapidity range, look for rare events, fluctuations 3 countries, 12 institutions, until 2006STAR (Solenoidal Tracker At RHIC)Time Projection Chamber, detect all hadrons12 countries, 46 institutions, 550 participants, 1200 tonsThe perfect fluid of quarks2123DetectorsTracking (momentum measurement)Drift Chamber (DC), Pad Chamber (PC)Calorimetry (energy measurement)PbSc, PbGl (EMCal)Identification (velocity measurement)Cerenkov-counters RICH, Aerogel, Time Of Flight (TOF), Hadron Blind Detector (HBD)Event characterisationBeam-Beam Counter (BBC), Zero Degree Calorimeter (ZDC), Reaction Plane Detector (RxNP)Muon detectorsMuon Tracker (MuTr), Muon Identifier (MuId)The perfect fluid of quarks2324Current setupPhysicsCharged hadrons ( , K, etc.)Photons, direct or decay ( , 0)Light mesons , and Single leptons heavy flavorDi-leptons heavy flavor, J/

The perfect fluid of quarks242426Event characterisationControl over the event geometry:When (time zero) and where (vertex)Overlap (centrality), number of participants (Npart)Orientation with respect to overlap (reaction plane)Central Au+AuNpart~300Peripheral Au+AuNpart~50d+Aup+pReaction PlaneThe perfect fluid of quarks2627Time zero + vertex: BBC & ZDCBBC & ZDC south and north at high rapidityBBC at h 3-4 particles from vertexZDC at h evaporating neutronsTime zero from Vertex from DTNorthSouthLLTNTSVertex position: (TS-TN) c/2Time zero: (TN+TS)/2 L/c

The perfect fluid of quarks2728Centrality determinationOverlapping region: participants

Evaporated neutrons: toward ZDC (charged wiped out)ZDC measures energy (calorimetry) ~ number of evaporated neutronsParticipants: new particles toward BBCSpectatorsParticipantsToward ZDCToward BBC

The perfect fluid of quarks2830

SimulationCentrality determinationMore central: more charge in BBCVery central or very peripheral: no energy in ZDCEZDC versus QBBC

Real dataGlauber model to simulate centrality vs physical parameters

The perfect fluid of quarks3032Results from a Glauber Monte CarlosNN=200 GeV Au+Au simulation in varios centrality classes

The perfect fluid of quarks3235Particle propertiesParticle = spatial track Set of hits in several detectors measuredMomentum measured via curvatureKnown magnetic fieldParticle type determined via mass & chargeCharge: curvature againMass: momentum & (velocity or energy)Measure all this for hadrons, g, leptons etcQuality assurance: matching of the aboveThe perfect fluid of quarks3536Tracking: DC+PCTrack particles, measure momentumHit Track Curvature MomentumWire chambersTrack reco: DC+PC1Matching: PC2-3

The perfect fluid of quarks3638Tracking processDC + PC1 Track modelInclination momentumPC2 + PC3: matchingReduces background

The perfect fluid of quarks3839Hadron identification by TOFTime Of Flight detectortime measurement120 ps resolutionAcceptance = /4|| 1/ncosq=1/nbe-: 0.02 4.9 GeV/c

e- (b > 1/n)qcL

The perfect fluid of quarks4142Lepton+ photon ID by EMCalEnergy + momentum massLeptons and photons to deposit all their energy in EMCalLead Scintillator and Lead Glass: light ~ energyHadrons: additional recalibration needed

Pb absorbergenerates showerScintillatorgenerates lightOptical fibercollects lightgPMTgPMTScintillatorgenerates -radPbScPbGlThe perfect fluid of quarks4252Nagyimpulzus rszecskk elnyelseNukleris modifikcis faktor: Mrs Au+Au, referencia: p+pNagyimpulzus rszecskk elnyeldnek (1. mrfldk)!Jet QuenchingEllenprba: d+Au Kzeg hatsa (2. mrfldk)2 PRL cmlap

Au+Aud+Au

Zajc, Riordan, Scientific AmericanThe perfect fluid of quarks5254Szisztematikus vizsglatGLV formalizmus: Gyulassy, Lvai, Vitevlers pQCD segtsgvel

SuppressedEnhancedPhys.Rev.C76:034904,2007

Centrlis Au+Au: elnyeldsPerifrikus Au+Au, d+Au: nincs elnyeldsThe perfect fluid of quarks5455Csak a hadronok nyeldnek el!Direkt fotonok tfnylenek az anyagonA pionok elnyeldse vltozatlan 20 GeV-igA kzeg fotonok szmra tltsz, hadronoknak thatolhatatlan

Ngy mrs:Foton- s pion-spektrumAu+Au s p+pSzisztematikus hibk ellenrzse tbb nagysgrenden keresztlThe perfect fluid of quarks5556Szgeloszlsok vizsglata: STARKifel men jet: p+p, d+Au, Au+Au hasonlBefel men jet: elnyelds csak Au+Au esetnNincs elnyelds p+p, d+Au esetnErsen klcsnhat kzeg, az anyag egy j formja2. mrfldk

pedestal and flow subtracted Nagyimpulzus rszecskk (jet) szgeloszlsnak vizsglataThe perfect fluid of quarks57

J/ suppression in Au+AuEven J/ suppressed!beyond extrapolations from cold nuclear matter effectsRAA ~ 0.3 for central collisionsLarger suppression at |y|>1.2Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 232301 (2007)The perfect fluid of quarks5762A folyadk kp megerstseAzimutlis aszimmetria sokdimenzis fggse:Transzverz impuzlusRapiditstkztets energijaCentralitsRszecsketpus

Hidrodinamikai elrejelzs: egy sklavltoz, egy sklagrbe

Az elrejelzs helyes!Csrg, Akkelin, Hama, Lukcs, Sinyukov (Phys. Rev. C67, 034904, 2003)Csand, Csrg, Lrstad, Ster (Nucl. Phys. A742:80-94,2004)Csand, Csrg, Lrstad, Ster et al. (Eur.Phys.J.A38:363-368,2008)

The perfect fluid of quarks6263A 3. mrfldkAz Amerikai Fizikai Intzet szerint 2005. legfontosabb esemnye: az ersen klcsnhat folyadk felfedezse a RHIC-nlNgy ksrlet t ves munkja, egybehangzan3350 hivatkozs az sszefoglal cikkekre

The perfect fluid of quarks6364Milyen tkletes folyadk ez?Tkletes idelis, tkletes nem ragads!Tkletes: elhanyagolhat viszkozits s hvezets,nyr erknek nem ll ellenIdelis: sszenyomhatatlanA nyr erknek val ellenlls h:Nyrfeszltsg:

Alacsony viszkozits nagy hatsk.m. ers csatolsKinematikai viszkozits: h/s Maldacena: CFTD AdSD+1A fekete lyuk (brane) felleteh = fellet/16pG, s = fellet/ 4Gh/s=1/4pGyantott als hatrminden relativisztikus kvantumtrelmletre, vges hmrskletre s nulla kmiai potencilra

The perfect fluid of quarks6465Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 172301 (2007)Even heavy flavour flow!Electrons from heavy flavour measuredEven heavy flavour is suppressedEven heavy flavour flowsStrong coupling of charm+bottom to the mediumSmall charm+bottom relaxation time in medium and small viscosity

The perfect fluid of quarks65Viscosity estimatesAdS/CFT lower bound:hep-th/9711200, gr-qc/0602037, hep-th/0405231MeasurementsR. Lacey et al., nucl-ex/0609025

H.-J. Drescher et al., arx:0704.3553

S. Gavin, M. Abdel-Aziz, nucl-th/0606061

A. Adare et al., nucl-ex/0611018

The perfect fluid of quarks664. mrfldk: szinte tkletes folyadkAdS/CFT als hatr Malcadena et al.: Adv.Theor.Math.Phys.2:231-252,1998Kovtun et al.: Phys.Rev.Lett. 94 (2005) 111601Mrsi eredmnyekR. Lacey et al., Phys.Rev.Lett.98:092301,2007

H.-J. Drescher et al., Phys.Rev.C76:024905,2007

S. Gavin, M. Abdel-Aziz, Phys.Rev.Lett. 97 (2006) 162302

PHENIX: Phys.Rev.Lett.98:172301,2007

The perfect fluid of quarks67685. mrfldk: kvarkok folyadkaRelevns vltoz: transzverz kinetikus energia, KEtAz elliptikus folys a konstituens kvarkok szmval sklz!Szabadsgi fokok: kvarkokPHENIX Collaboration, Phys.Rev.Letters 98:162301, 2007

The perfect fluid of quarks6869

Sklzs igaz d, D s esetre isA ritka s a bjos kvarkok is rszei a folysi kpnekD (bjos) s (ritka) esetn v2 a mezonokkaldeuteron esetn v2 az nq= 6 esetnek megfelelen

nucl-ex/0703024The perfect fluid of quarks6973