The Nutritional Properties of Palm 2020. 4. 28.¢  (PKO) Palm Kernel. Composition of crude palm oil Triglycerides

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  • Nutritional Properties of Palm

    Oil and Minor Components

    DR KANGA RANI SELVADURAY

    MALAYSIAN PALM OIL BOARD

    POFP 2017

    Le Meridian Putrajaya

    21 August 2017

  • INTRODUCTION TO PALM OIL

    NUTRITIONAL BENEFITS OF PALM OIL

    CONCLUSIONS

    PALM PHYTONUTRIENTS

    PRESENTATION OUTLINE

  • ANATOMY OF OIL PALM FRUIT

    Mesocarp:

    Palm Oil (PO)

    Shell

    Kernel:

    Palm Kernel Oil

    (PKO)

    Palm Kernel

  • Composition of crude palm oil

    Triglycerides (TAG) 90%

    Diglycerides (DAG) 4.7%

    Monoglycerides (MAG) 0.8% Free Fatty Acid (FFA) 3.5%

    Phytonutrients 1%

  • • Enhances palatability and satiety of foods

    • Assists in determining the consistency,

    texture, mouthfeel and the melting

    behaviour

    • Acts as a cooking medium

  • • Macronutrient concentrated source of energy (9 kcal/g)

    • Source of essential fatty acids (EFA)

    • Carrier for the A,D,E,K vitamins

    • Essential for healthy skin and tissues

    • Functioning of nerve cells and brain

    • Functioning of steroid hormones (to regulate body

    process)

  • • Mainly made up of triglycerides

    • Fatty acids esterified to a glycerol backbone

    • Fatty acids differ in structure (chain length

    and bonding)

  • Fatty Acids • Saturated fatty acids (SFAs) have no double bonds between

    the individual carbon atoms of the fatty acid chain.

    • Monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs) have one double bond in the fatty acid chain and all of the remainder of the carbon atoms in the chain are single-bonded.

    • Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) contain more than one double bond in their carbon chain

    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Double_bond http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Carbon http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Atom http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Double_bond http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Carbon http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Atom http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Single_bond http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Double_bond

  • TOTAL FATTY ACID COMPOSITION

    OF OILS & FATS

    0 20 40 60 80 100

    rapeseed

    high oleic sunflower

    olive

    soybean

    groundnut

    lard

    palm olein

    cocoa butter

    %

    SFA

    MUFA

    PUFA

    Ong and Goh 2002 FNB

  • PALM OIL APPLICATIONS IN FOOD & BAKING SECTOR

  • THE UNIQUENESS OF PALM OIL

    based on

    SCIENTIFIC EVIDENCE

  • NUTRITIONAL RESEARCH

    ON PALM OIL

    • Great strides have been made over the last 25 years in elucidating a number of the health benefits of palm oil and its fractions

    • Malaysia has funded numerous nutritional research on palm oil at centers of excellence both locally and abroad

    • This has resulted in over 200 publications in high impact peer-reviewed journals

  • OVERVIEW OF PALM OIL LIPID NUTRITION

    RESEARCH

    13

    1981-1990 Animal and human studies on atherosclerosi s, thrombosis, lipidemia (N=16)

    1991-2000 Animal and human studies on Palm oil, fatty acids, hydrogenation, CVD

    (N=26)

    2001-2010

    Human studies on lipid metabolism, sn-2, inflammation, CHD

    (N=21)

    2011-2016

    Human studies on lipid metabolism, sn-2, lipidomics, red palm oil

    (N=21)

  • Palm oil is beneficial in lowering lipoprotein(a)

    which is associated with cardiovascular disease

  • Comparison of palm olein with

    monounsaturated edible oils

    (rapeseed, canola and olive

    oils) has shown that plasma

    LDL-C were not elevated by

    palm olein

  • HUMAN STUDIES ON LONG TERM INTAKE:

    PALM OIL/ OLEIN VS UNSATURATED OILS

    REFERENCES:

    1. Ng et al., 1992 J. Am Coll. Nutr.

    2. Truswell et al., 1992 Nutr. Res.

    3. Choudhury et al., 1995 AJCN

    4. Sundram et al., 1995 J. Nutr. Biochem.

    Groundnut/ Peanut Oil

    5. Ghafoorunissa et al., 1995 Lipids

    6. Zhang et al., 1997 Asia Pacific J. Clin. Nutr.

    7. Voon et al., 2011 AJCN

    8. MPOB Unpublished Data 2015

    Canola Oil

  • Palm olein and olive oil have similar beneficial effects

    on blood cholesterol

    CHRONIC PALM OLEIN STUDIES:

    PALM OLEIN VS MUFA OILS

    Choudhury N, Tan L, Truswell S. 1995 AJCN

    0.5

    1

    1.5

    2

    2.5

    3

    3.5

    4

    4.5

    5

    TC LDL-C HDL-C LDL-C/HDL-C

    Palm olein Olive oil

  • Palm olein and olive oil have similar

    beneficial effects on blood cholesterol

    CHRONIC PALM OLEIN STUDIES:

    PALM OLEIN VS MUFA OILS

    Voon et al. 2011 AJCNNg et al. 1992 AJCN

    0.5

    1

    1.5

    2

    2.5

    3

    3.5

    4

    4.5

    5

    TC LDL-C HDL-C LDL-C/HDL-C

    0.5

    1

    1.5

    2

    2.5

    3

    3.5

    4

    4.5

    5

    TC LDL-C HDL-C LDL-C/HDL-C

    Palm olein Olive oil

  • Wood et al. 1993 J Nutr Biochem

    CHRONIC PALM OLEIN STUDIES:

    PALM OLEIN VS MUFA OILS

    Palm olein is comparable with sunflower oil on lipid profile

    0

    0.2

    0.4

    0.6

    0.8

    1

    1.2

    1.4

    Apo-A1 Apo-B 0

    1

    2

    3

    4

    5

    6

    TC HDL LDL TAG

    Baseline sunflower oil

    0

    1

    2

    3

    4

    5

    6

    TC HDL LDL TAG

    Baseline 80% palm oil + 20% sunflower oil

    0

    0.2

    0.4

    0.6

    0.8

    1

    1.2

    1.4

    Apo-A1 Apo-B

  • CHRONIC PALM OLEIN STUDIES:

    PALM OLEIN VS MUFA OILS

    Ghafoorunissa et al. 1995 Lipids

    Palm olein is comparable with groundnut oil on lipid profile

    0

    20

    40

    60

    80

    100

    120

    140

    160

    TC HDL LDL TAG

    groundnut oil palm olein

    mg/dL

  • Stonehouse et al. 2015 Atherosclerosis

    STUDIES ON SHORT TERM INTAKE:

    PALM OLEIN VS MUFA OILS

  • LATEST ARTICLE:

    PALM OIL BEHAVES SIMILARLY TO OLIVE OIL

  • Palm

    PeanutRapeseed

    Olive

    Sunflower

    PALM OIL/ OLEIN VS UNSATURATED OILS

    =

    √ √

  • Ong and Goh, 2002. Food Nutr Bull., Vol. 23, no. 1, The United Nations University

    Food Nutr Bull, 2002 Mar:23(1):11-22

    Palm oil: a healthful and cost-effective dietary component

    A.S.H. Ong and S.H. Goh

    Institute of Advanced Studies, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

    Abstract:

    Palm oil is an excellent choice for food manufacturers

    because of its nutritional benefits and versatility. The oil is

    highly structured to contain predominantly oleic acid at

    sn2-position in the major triacylglycerols to account for the

    beneficial effects described in numerous nutritional

    studies.

  • METABOLISM OF TAG

    sn-2 C18:1

    G L

    Y C

    E R

    O L

    B A

    C K

    B O

    N E

    sn-3C16:0

    Lipase

    Lipase

    sn-1 C16:0

    Intestine cells

    Choo and Nesaretnam 2014 Eur. J. Lipid Sci. Technol. C16:0 = Saturated fatty acids

    C18:1 = Unsaturated fatty acids

  • TOTAL FATTY ACID COMPOSITION

    OF OILS & FATS

    0 20 40 60 80 100

    rapeseed

    high oleic sunflower

    olive

    soybean

    groundnut

    lard

    palm olein

    cocoa butter

    %

    SFA

    MUFA

    PUFA

    Ong and Goh 2002 FNB

  • sn-2 FATTY ACID COMPOSITION

    0 20 40 60 80 100

    rapeseed

    high oleic…

    olive

    soybean

    groundnut

    lard

    palm olein

    cocoa butter

    %

    SFA

    MUFA

    PUFA

    Ong and Goh 2002 FNB; Sanders et al. 2011 AJCN

    27

  • CHAPTER 10 OF WHO REPORT:

    FAT AND FATTY ACID INTAKE AND METABOLIC EFFECTS

    IN THE HUMAN BODY

    ‘There is possible evidence to suggest that the TC and LDL-C raising effects of

    palmitic acid are lower for vegetable than animal sources because it is present

    predominantly in the sn-1 and sn-3 position as opposed to sn-2 position as in

    animal fats such as lard (Ng et al.,1992; Choudhury et al., 1995; Zhang et al.,

    1997)

    References cited: Ng et al 1992 JACN; Choudhury et al. 1995 AJCN; Zhang et al. 1997 APJCN

  • Multi-country study on the effect of positional

    distribution of fatty acids on the triglyceride backbone

    on lipid profile and fat deposition

    29

    Australia

    On-going

    China

    On-going

    Malaysia

    On-goingIndia In discussion

    United

    Kingdom

    On-going

  • In the late 1950s, Ancel

    Keys postulated that fats

    cause heart disease and

    saturated fats raise cholesterol levels

    Often refer