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The Neuron Neuron II Brain Parts The Nervous System

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Text of The Neuron Neuron II Brain Parts The Nervous System

  • The Neuron

  • Neuron II

  • Brain Parts

  • The Nervous System

  • The Endocrine System

  • More Brain Parts

  • $100$200$300$400$500$100$200$300$400$500$100$200$300$400$500$100$200$300$400$500$100$200$300$400$500$100$200$300$400$500Neuron INeuron IIBrain Parts The Nervous SystemThe Endocrine SystemMore Brain Parts

  • Covering of the axon that speeds up neural impulses

  • Myelin Sheath

  • Type of neuron that takes messages to the central nervous system

  • Sensory/Afferent

  • Type of neuron that processes information in the brain and spinal cord (CNS)

  • Interneuron

  • Location of receptor sites

  • Dendrites

  • Part of the neuron that contains neurotransmitters

  • Terminal buttons/presynaptic buttons

  • Phase of a neuron when it is polarized and ready to fire

  • Resting potential

  • Period where neuron is recharging and cannot release another action potential

  • Refractory Period

  • Type and location of ions when a neuron is ready to fire

  • Sodium (NA+) is outside of axon; Potassium (K+) is inside of axon

  • Type of cell that holds neurons in place, provide nourishment, and removes waste products; Also prevents harmful substances from passing the blood-brain barrier

  • Glial cells

  • Describe what happens electrochemically when a neuron fires (action potential)

  • Neuron becomes depolarized as NA+ ions flow into the neuron (happens step by step down neuron); K+ ions flow out of the neuron; Sodium-Potassium pump replaces ions in their correct spot

  • Sensory relay station (receives all sensory stimuli minus smell)

  • Thalamus

  • Life-support center: breathing, heart rate

  • Medulla

  • Helps us respond to situations based on our level of arousal; Alerts higher parts of the brain

  • Reticular Formation (also called Reticular Activating System)

  • Little brain; Balance, coordination, implicit procedural memories, judgment of time

  • Cerebellum

  • Registers and processes touch, taste, pain, and skin temperature

  • Sensory Cortex (in parietal lobe)

  • Components of the central nervous system

  • Brain and spinal cord

  • Division of the NS that transmits commands for voluntary movement from the CNS to the muscles

  • Somatic NS

  • Part of the autonomic nervous system that calms the body down

  • Parasympathetic NS

  • List the changes that occur in the body when the sympathetic NS is activated

  • Pupils dilate, heart beat accelerates, lungs constrict, digestion systems inhibit digestion, adrenal gland releases adrenaline and noradrenaline (epinephrine and norepinephrine)

  • Term used to describe systems that work in opposition to each other (like the autonomic NS)

  • Opponent Process

  • The endocrine system releases these into the blood stream

  • Hormones

  • How are hormones different than neurotransmitters?

  • Slower, but more long lasting

  • The master gland that controls all other glands; works in concert with the hypothalamus

  • Pituitary gland

  • Gland that helps regulate energy level and metabolism in the body

  • Thyroid

  • Regulates the level of blood sugar in the blood

  • Pancreas

  • Involved in coordination of movement, sleep, arousal, and facial expressions (bridge between cerebral cortex and medulla)

  • Pons

  • Fear and aggression, detects threats

  • Amygdala

  • Band of neural tissue that connects the two hemispheres of the brain

  • Corpus callosum

  • In between brainstem and limbic system

  • Midbrain

  • Areas of the brain that are involved in higher mental functioning

  • Association areas

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