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The Jacksonian Era w/Foner Ch 10 inc Faragher ch 11 etc.

The Jacksonian Era w/Foner Ch 10 inc Faragher ch 11 etc

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  • The Jacksonian Era

    w/Foner Ch 10inc Faragher ch 11 etc.

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  • The Triumph of DemocracyProperty and DemocracyBy 1840, more than 90 percent of adult white men were eligible to vote.

    By 1860, all but one state had eliminated property requirements for voting.

  • The Triumph of DemocracyAs suffrage is seen as male, womens participating in politics is seen as inappropriate by malesStill, widest suffrage in the world But Western Democracy is only one form compared to, e.g., Native American forms of participation. *Pt.2

  • The Triumph of DemocracyTocqueville (French observer) on Democracy

    Visited in 1830s, wrote Democracy in America:

    Democratic political institutions came to define the nations sense of its own identity.

    Tocqueville identified democracy as an essential attribute of American freedom.

  • The Triumph of DemocracyAn Information Revolution: the Penny PressSteam power helped the proliferation of the printing press.Reduction in printing costs also resulted in alternative newspapers by 1840.

    The Limits of DemocracyThe principle of universal suffrage meant that white males of age constituted the political nation.

  • The Triumph of Democracy?The Limits of DemocracyHow could the word universal be reconciled with barring blacks and women from political participation?A Racial DemocracyDespite increased democracy in America, blacks were seen as a group apart.Blacks were often portrayed stereotypically.

  • Dandy Jim, a piece of sheet music from 1843

    African Americans:Stereotyped asMINSTRALCharacters

  • Nationalism vs DiscontentsPres. Madisons American SystemA new manufacturing sector emerged from the War of 1812.

    1815 Pres. Madison proposed a plan for government-promoted economic development that became known as the American System.But 2 years later, he vetoed it!

  • Pres. Madisons American SystemThe American System included:New national bankTariffsFederal financing for better roads and canals (internal improvements)

  • Nationalism and Its DiscontentsThe American System

    By 1817 President Madison became convinced that allowing the national government to exercise powers not mentioned in Constitution would prove dangerous to individual liberty and southern interests. So he vetoed his own earlier idea,

  • The Bank of the United States

    Banks and MoneyThe Second Bank of the United States was a profit-making corporation that served the government

    On other hand, Local banks promoted economic growth.

    The Bank of the United States was supposed to prevent the over issuance of money (which would cause inflation.)

  • The Panic of 1819Banks and MoneyThe Bank of the United States participated in a speculative fever that swept the country after the War of 1812.

  • The Panic of 1819Early in 1819, as European demand for American farm products returned to normal levels, the economic bubble burst.

    The Panic of 1819 disrupted the political harmony of the previous years.Americans continued to distrust banks.

  • McCulloch v. Maryland Decision 1819The Supreme Court ruled in McCulloch v. Maryland that the Bank of the United States was constitutional.

    Significance: Marshall Court establishes precedent: rejected strict constructionist reading of Constitution.

    Affirmed implied powers in the constitution under the necessary and proper clause. (Also called the elastic clause)

  • The Missouri ControversyJames Monroes two terms as president were characterized by the absence of two-party competition (The Era of Good Feelings).

    The absence of political party disputes was replaced by sectional disputes.

    Missouri petitioned for statehood in 1819.Debate arose over slavery.

  • The Missouri Compromise 1820The Slavery QuestionThe Missouri Compromise was adopted by Congress in 1820.

    Missouri was admitted to the Union as a slave state and, to maintain sectional balance, Maine was admitted as a free state.

    Congress prohibited slavery north of the 36 30' latitude in remaining Louisiana Purchase territory.

  • Map 10.1 The Missouri Compromise, 1820

  • The Slavery QuestionThe Missouri debate highlighted that the westward expansion of slavery was a passionate topic that might prove to be hazardous to national unity.

    It will undo the nation after the US-Mexican War (1846-1848) by the 1850s.

  • The U.S. and the Latin American Wars of IndependenceBetween 1810 and 1822, Spains Latin American colonies rose in rebellion and established a series of independent nations.

    In 1822, the Monroe administration became the first government to extend diplomatic recognition to the new Latin American republics.

  • The U.S. and the Latin American Wars of IndependenceIn some ways, Latin American constitutions were more democratic than the U.S. Constitution.

    They allowed Indians and free blacks to vote.

  • The Monroe DoctrineFearing that Spain would try to regain its colonies, Secretary of State John Quincy Adams drafted the Monroe Doctrine.

    1) No new European colonization of the New World.

    2) The United States would abstain from European wars.

    3)Europeans should not interfere with new Latin American republics.

  • Elections 1824-1840A) Election of 1824 -J. Q. AdamsB) Election of 1828 A. Jackson C) Election of 1832 A. JacksonD) Election of 1836 - M. Van BurenE) Election of 1840 -Harrison/Tyler*

  • A) Election of 1824John Q Adams* v. Andrew Jackson (No Federalists, all Democratic Republicans)

    No candidate receives majority, House of Representatives decides2nd Party American System Mass participation & PARTY loyalty v. old personal loyalty & run by patriciansMass campaigns Giant national mens clubs *Pt.3

  • Andrew Jackson in the WingsThe Election of 1824Andrew Jackson was the only candidate in the 1824 election who had national appeal.John Quincy Adams got Presidency.

    (None of the four candidates received a majority of the electoral votes.The election fell to the House of Representatives.Henry Clay supported John Quincy Adams.)Clays corrupt bargain gave Adams the White House. This was a smear.

  • Map 10.3 The Presidential Election of 1824

  • The Nationalism of John Quincy AdamsJohn Quincy Adams enjoyed one of the most distinguished pre presidential careers of any American president.

    Adams supported the American system

  • John Quincy Adams in an 1843 daguerreotype

  • Nation, Section, and PartyLiberty Is Power: Adams view:

    Adams held a view of federal power far more expansive than most of his contemporaries.

    He stated that liberty is power.

    His plans alarmed many.

    Whig-ish ideas before he was a Whig

  • Nation, Section, and PartyMartin Van Buren of the Democratic PartyAdamss political rivals emphasized:Individual libertyStates rightsLimited government

    Martin Van Buren viewed political party competition as a necessary and positive influence to achieve national unity.

  • The Election of 1828By 1828, Van Buren had established the political apparatus of the Democratic Party.

    Andrew Jackson campaigned against John Quincy Adams in 1828.

    A far higher percentage of the eligible electorate voted in 1828 than before. Jackson won a resounding victory.

  • Broadside from the 1828 campaign

  • Map 10.4 The Presidential Election of 1828

  • Political IdeologyThe Second American Party SystemDemocrats vs. Whigs (founded 1833)(First was Federalists and Democrats [Democratic-Republicans])*

  • Politics in The Age of Jackson

    Politics had become a spectacle.

    Party machines emerged.Spoils system

    National conventions chose candidates.

  • Democrats vs. WhigsDemocrats and Whigs differed on issues that emerged from the Market Revolution.

    Democrats favored no government intervention in the economy.

    Whigs supported government promotion of economic development through the American System.

  • Public and Private Freedom:Democrats vs WhigsThe party battles of the Jacksonian Era reflected the clash between public and private definitions of American freedom and their relationship to governmental power.

    Democrats supported a weak federal government, championing individual and states rights.

    Whigs believed that a strong federal government was necessary to promote liberty & the Market Economy.

  • Politics and Morality:Democrats vs WhigsDemocrats opposed attempts to impose a unified moral vision on society.

    Whigs argued that government should promote morality to foster the welfare of the people.

  • Democrats vs. WhigsDemocrats: base: rural, Southern, urban workers.favored expansion, Indian removal Reduced expendituresReduced tariffsAbolished the National Bank

    Whigs: base: New England, Middle Class.support American System, support Bank. *Pt.4

  • Sectional Leaders 1) Daniel Webster: Massachusetts Supported high (protective) tariffSupported Northern commercial interests2) John C. Calhoun: South CarolinaSupported expansion of slavery3) Henry Clay: KentuckySupported the American System & sectional compromise.*Pt.4

  • Henry Clay - Kentucky*

  • Daniel Webster - Massachusetts *

  • Effects of the Transportation RevolutionFarmers dependent on the National economy & at mercy of market prices & the middlemanStrengthened influence of the NorthIncreased migration to West *Pt.5

  • Andrew Jackson: Personal HistoryBorn March 15, 1767 Fought in the Revolutionary War at age of 13Entire family died due to war (either killed in battle or of disease)Plantation owner -owned over 100 slaves


  • General Andrew JacksonThe Creek War: Battle of Horseshoe BendWas to avenge attack on Fort Mims by Red SticksAssembled army of militia and native American tribesAfter defeating Red Sticks, he dictated the Treaty of Fort Jackson, which forced the Creeks to cede 23 million acres of land to the U.S., including land that belonged to many of the Creek who fought for him.*

  • General Andrew JacksonWar of 1812: Battle of New Orleans:Was major-general in federal army Successfully defended from British attacksMost popular victory(Even though battle was after war had ended) It made him a national hero.


  • President Andrew JacksonPresident from 1829-1837Feared large and powerful governmentNo government involvement in economyTariff of Abominations: a tax as high as 1/3-1/2 of value on textiles and ironNullification crisisTariff Act of 1833*

  • Tariff of AbominationsTariff of 1828South Carolina was Anti Tariff of Abominations

    Doctrine of NULLIFICATIONOpposition led by John C. Calhoun of South Carolina.

    Remember South Carolina: Barbados transplantation style, rice, powerful planter elite*Pt.4

  • The Age of JacksonSouth Carolina and NullificationJacksons first term was dominated by a battle to uphold the supremacy of federal over state law.Tariff of 1828

    South Carolina led the charge for a weakened federal government in part from fear that a strong federal government might act against slavery.

  • The Age of JacksonCalhouns Political TheoryJohn C. Calhoun emerged as the leading theorist of nullification.Exposition and ProtestBecause states created the Constitution, each one could prevent the enforcement within its borders of federal laws that exceeded powers specifically spelled out in the Constitution.

  • The Age of JacksonThe Nullification CrisisJackson considered nullification an act of disunion.

    When South Carolina nullified the tariff in 1832, Jackson responded with the Force Bill.

    A compromise tariff (1833) resolved the crisis.Calhoun left the Democratic Party for the Whigs.

  • C) Election of 1832Andrew Jackson* (Democrat) v. Henry Clay (National Republican)William Wirt (Anti-Masonic Partyfirst 3rd Party) *Pt.3Henry ClayAndrew Jackson

  • Jackson & Indian Removal

    The expansion of cotton and slavery led to forced relocation of Indians.Indian Removal Act of 1830Five Civilized Tribes

    The law marked a repudiation of the Jeffersonian idea that civilized Indians could be assimilated into the American population.

  • Indian Removal

  • Cherokee Nation v. Georgia (1831)Worcester v. Georgia (1832)The Supreme Court and the IndiansThe Cherokee went to court to protect their rights.Cherokee Nation v. GeorgiaWorcester v. Georgia

    John Ross led Cherokee resistance.Trail of TearsThe Seminoles (in Florida) fought a war against removal (18351842).

  • A lithograph from 1836 depicts Sequoia (Cherokee)

  • Map 10.5 Indian Removals, 1830-1840

  • The Trail of Tears (winter 1838-39) Congress passed the Indian Removal Act (1830)Cherokees fought back by use of lawWon in Supreme CourtJackson ignored decision (now let him [the Chief Justice] enforce it.Cherokees and other Indian tribes were forced westTrail of Tears where the Cherokee being herded by thousands of American troops to Oklahoma.

  • Indian Removal:The Trail of Tears Cherokee Nation v. Georgia (1831) & Worcester v. Georgia (1832)Chief Justice John Marshall v. Jackson*Georgia couldnt force Cherokee to give up their landJackson refuses to enforce the Supreme Court decision Defies it.

  • The 2nd National BankJackson refuses to renew charter through his vetoes Opponents so angry, it leads to the formation of a new party, the Whigs1816 2nd Bank (chartered for 20 years)Private institution w/ government charter, sold bonds, made commercial loans, controlled currency through curbing inflation


  • The Bank War and AfterBiddles BankThe Bank of the United States symbolized the hopes and fears inspired by the market revolution.

    Jackson distrusted bankers as nonproducers.

    The Bank, under its president Nicholas Biddle, wielded great power.

  • National Bank FightOpponents:Land speculators and farmers: Didnt mind inflation and feared the wealthy elite*State bank directors: After the Panic of 1819, many haad blamed the Banks.Pt.6

  • President Jackson & the BankThe Second Bank of the U.S.Created to expand economy. Held federal money, sold bonds, and made commercial loansControlled over state banks and stabilized currencyThe Bank WarsJackson denounced the bank as being unconstitutional, harmful to states rights, and was benefiting only to the rich*

  • President Jackson & the BankFeared that the elites would use for their own advantageBank tried to recharter in 1832 (election year), got approved, but was vetoed by Jackson

    Jackson took out the $10 million from the bank and invested in state banksSecond Bank loses money and charter, and collapses and disappearsGreatest political victory*

  • The Downfall of Mother Bank

  • The Bank War and AfterUsing language resonating with popular values, Jackson vetoed a bill to renew the Banks charter.

    The Pet Banks and the EconomyJackson authorized the removal of federal funds from the vaults of the national bank and their deposit in state or pet banks.

  • An anti-Jackson cartoon from 1832

  • The Bank War and AfterThe Pet Banks and the EconomyPartly because the Bank of the United States had lost the ability to regulate the currency effectively, prices rose dramatically while real wages declined.

    By 1836, the American government and the Bank of England required gold or silver for payments.

  • The Times, an 1837 engraving that blames AndrewJacksons policies for the economic depression.

  • A Daily Insult to Native America?*

  • ConclusionThe Expansion of the franchise (rite to vote) to all white male citizens was a crucial step towards full democracy.

    Andrew Jackson was an important President.

    Does that mean he is a hero to valorize for the next generations?*?

  • Election of 1836Martin Van Buren* (Democrat) v. Sectional candidates (Whig) *Pt.3

  • The Panic of 1837With cotton exports declining, the United States suffered a panic in 1837 and a depression until 1843.

    Van Buren in OfficeMartin Van Buren approved the Independent Treasury to deal with the crisis.

  • The Election of 1840The Whigs nominated William Henry Harrison in 1840.Harrison was promoted as the log cabin candidate. (In fact he was wealthy.)His running mate was John Tyler.

    Selling candidates in campaigns was as important as the platform for which they stood.

  • E) Election of 1840Wm. Henry Harrison* (Whig) v. Martin Van Buren (Democrat)Tippecanoe & Tyler too slogan referring to burning of Prophets TownHarrison dies & VP Tyler takes presidency *Pt.3

  • Map 10.6 The Presidential Election of 1840

  • President TylerHis AccidencyHarrison died a month after taking office.

    Tyler vetoed measures to enact the American System.

    A Whig who was anti whig!

    This concludes the lecture presentation forFor more learning resources, head to our StudySpace at:http://www.wwnorton.com/college/history/give-me-liberty3-brief/

    2012 W. W. Norton & Company, Inc.Chapter 10: Democracy in America, 1815-1840

    *The career of Andrew Jackson, whose unprecedented inauguration drew a raucous crowd of 20,000 that crashed through the White House, represented major developments of his era. His life and presidency reflected the power of the market revolution, westward expansion, the spread of slavery, and the growth of democracy. He symbolized the self-made man, having risen from a humble frontier background in South Carolina and Tennessee and practiced law and served in the states legislature and courts, all before winning fame through triumph at the Battle of New Orleans. Most important, Jackson represented the rise of political democracy.Q: In Chapter 10 you discuss the rebellions in Spains Latin American empire that led to the creation of a number of independent nations between 1810 and 1822. To what degree did these anticolonial rebellions parallel or differ from the tensions that led to the American Revolution?A: Of course the history of every nation is different in some respects and the Latin American wars of independence, which created the independent nations of Latin American that we know today, arose out of local causes and local events. But in some ways they did parallel the causes of the American Revolution in both Spanish Latin America and the British North American colonies. It was the efforts of the mother country, the imperial country in Europe, to assert greater control over the colonies after a period of considerable autonomy that led local elites to resist and establish their own claim to local self-government. A lot of this had to do with taxation. Just as in the United States the American colonists resisted British efforts to raise money by taxing the colonists, so also Spain, a country which after the wars of the Napoleonic era and the wars of the French Revolution era was in dire need of money, began taxing their Latin American colonies more. That led to these local leaders, what we call Creoles, that is, people of Spanish ancestry but born and raised in the colonies, to assert their claim to local control. As in the United States, as in the American Revolution, the first claim is not to independence but to greater control of your own affairs, and when the mother country rejects that, then they move forward to eventually demanding their own independence. Now of course the Latin American revolutions came after the U.S. Revolution so they were influenced by what had happened here, and they picked up the language of national independence and local rights, which had circulated outward from the American Revolution, and applied it to their own circumstances. But of course the populations are very different. In Latin America youve got this vast indigenous population of Indian peoplesin the United States we didnt have anything nearly that largewho had to be mobilized to fight. So in fact the new Latin American nations established a broader concept of citizenship than the United States had at that time. They brought in the Indian populations as equal citizens, at least on paper, not in terms of their actual existence. The concept also led to the freeing of slaves and their incorporation as citizens. So in a way as the United States and the early republic move more and more toward a more racial boundary that is mainly for white people in citizenship, in Latin America they go the other way and try to create a concept of the people that is multiracial and multicultural. So in that sense they differ from what happens in this country.*Q: You say that American public life in the Jacksonian period was both expansive and exclusive. What do you mean by that, and what is the basis for exclusion changing in this period?A: The Jacksonian era is sometimes called the "era of the common man" or the "age of Jacksonian democracy." It was a time when participation in public life expanded enormously. By this time, virtually all white men had the right to vote; property qualifications for voting had been eliminated except in one or two places. Moreover, you had two very well-organized political parties: the Democrats and the Whigs, which were competing nationally for votes, and their competition brought people into politics, mobilized large numbers of people in political rallies and gatherings, and enhanced interest in politics. So it was a thriving democratic political system that encompassed a very large part of the population; but it also had, of course, its limits. Women could write things and take part in politics one way or another but they couldn't vote, they couldn't hold office, they couldn't attend political conventions. They were supposed to be outside the political realm. African-Americans were largely excluded; there were a few states in New England where blacks were only 1 or 2 percent of the population and they could vote (Massachusetts, for example). But even free African-Americans could not vote in most of the northern states, and of course a vast majority of the blacks were slaves who were completely outside of the body politic. So you might say that the line of exclusion for men had shifted. At the time of the Revolution it was property: people without property could not vote. Now it became race: people with property could vote as long as they were white, but race became the line of division of exclusion and inclusion in American politics.*Q: How did the Democrats and the Whigs differ in the conceptions of freedom that they advocated?A: To oversimplify it a little bit, but I believe it is largely true, the Democrats represented in the Jacksonian era the concept of what we might call "negative liberty." They believed liberty meant freeing the individual from outside restraint. That meant limited government, weak government, little regulation of economic life; the key to freedom was individual self-determination and individual action. The Whigs had a much more positive view of freedom, they thought freedom could be enhanced and promoted by governmental action. John Quincy Adams, who became a leading Whig, said in one of his presidential speeches that "Liberty is power." Liberty and power were not hostile to each other; they went together. A powerful national government could promote liberty, not simply trample on liberty. So the Whigs thought that you would actually expand freedom by having the government promote economic development, by having a tariff on industry, by promoting internal improvements. They also believed the government should regulate personal behavior, moral behavior. Many Whigs believed in banning liquor or in other ways regulating moral behavior, whereas the Democrats said no, no, no, it's up to each individual if you want to drink or not, that's your problem. The government should not tell you what moral behavior is. So negative freedom/positive freedomthat tension has always existed in American history and exists all the way up to the present day.*Q: How, then, was Jackson able to enlarge the powers of the presidency?A: Jackson was an interesting and in some ways contradictory figure, in that he was a Democrat who believed in a weak national government and many of his actions were to dismantle the federal government: breaking down the Bank of the United States, vetoing internal improvement measures. He wanted power to devolve to the states and localities. On the other hand, Jackson was a strong nationalist in the nullification crisis: he stood up for the integrity of the union. He threatened to send troops to South Carolina if they didn't abide by the law, and as a political leader Jackson developed this idea that the president was the sole representative of the peoplenot congress. He was the first one to tap the latent power of the presidential office and make the president the symbolic spokesman for the entire American population. So he was enhancing the power of the presidential office even while he was reducing the power of the government as a kind of administrative structure.*Because propertyless wage earners (e.g., factory workers) could not vote, the states labor movement pushed for reform at the Peoples Convention (October 1841).This extralegal convention adopted a new state constitution that enfranchised all white men.Reformers inaugurated Thomas Dorr as governor.President Tyler sent in federal troops and the Dorr movement collapsed.

    One basis of political democracy in this period was the challenge to property qualifications for voting. It began in the American Revolution but culminated in the early nineteenth century. After the Revolution, no new state required property ownership to vote, and in older states, constitutional conventions in the 1820s and 1830s abolished property qualifications, partly because the growing number of wage earners who did not own much property demanded the vote. In the South, however, where large slaveowners dominated politics and distrusted mass democracy, property requirements were eliminated only gradually and disappeared quite late, by 1860. The personal independence required of the citizen was henceforth located not in owning property but in owning ones self, a reflection of this periods individualism.

    The single exception to this democratizing trend was Rhode Island, which required voters to own considerable real estate or rental property. The state was a center of factory production, and many wage-earners could not vote. *By 1840, more than 90 percent of adult white men could vote. By then, America had a vibrant democratic system that engaged massive numbers of citizens. Lacking traditional bases of nationality such as ethnicity or religion, democratic political institutions imparted a sense of identity to Americans. Alexis de Tocqueville, a French writer who visited the United States in the early 1830s, wrote of this political culture in his classic book, Democracy in America. As an aristocrat, Tocqueville disliked democracy, but his key insight was that democracy was more than just voting or political institutions. Democracy, to Tocqueville, was a culture that encouraged individual initiative, affirmed equality, and a public sphere full of voluntary organizations that wanted to improve society. Democracy was new. The idea that sovereignty resided in the mass of ordinary citizens was a departure in Western thought, which traditionally had viewed democracy as the road to anarchy. But in the United States, pressure from those originally excluded from political participation created a democracy for white men that triumphed in the Age of Jackson. In America, the right to vote and participation in politics offered a sense of national identity.

    *The market revolution and political democracy expanded the public sphere and the world of print. This information revolution was facilitated in part by the invention of the steam-powered printing press, which printed much more matter at far less cost. A new style of sensational journalism catered to a mass readership, which was soon created in newspapers with a total circulation higher than that of all Europe. Low postal rates and the growth of political parties also sparked the expansion of print. Labor organizations, reformers, and even Native American tribes printed newspapers for the first time in American history, and the growth of print offered a new generation of women writers a venue for expression.

    As democratization expanded the number of people who participated in politics, it was necessary to define the boundaries of the political nation and define freedom and who could enjoy it. Antebellum American political life was both expansive and exclusive. Democracy absorbed native-born white men and white immigrants, but established barriers to womens and non-white mens participation.

    *As democracy triumphed, the grounds for political exclusion shifted from economic dependency to natural incapacity. Gender and racial differences were seen as part of a single, natural hierarchy of innate endowments. A natural boundary was not at all exclusive, many argued, and women and non-whites were deemed lacking in qualities necessary for democracy and self-government. While freedom for white men involved a process of personal transformation, of developing their potential to the fullest extent, democracys limits rested on the idea that the character and abilities of non-whites and women were fixed by nature. And the world of politics was partly defined against the feminine sphere of the home. Freedom in the public sphere in no way required freedom in the private sphere.

    In a nation obsessed with equality, democracy was more and more associated with whiteness. While white Americans of all social classes dressed similarly and mixed in public, blacks were increasingly excluded from public life. Racist depictions of blacks in the culture became widespread. An ideology of racial superiority and inferiority, with an allegedly scientific basis, took root where it had never before existed. After 1800, every state admitted to the United States, except Maine, limited voting rights to white males.

    In 1821, the New York state constitutional convention that removed property qualifications for white voters raised requirements for blacks to $250, effectively disenfranchising nearly all New York blacks. By 1860, blacks could vote on the same basis as whites in only five New England states, which had only 4 percent of the nations free black population. Whites of the Revolutionary era had considered blacks as potential members of the body politic, but in the nineteenth century, membership in the political nation was increasingly demarcated by race. No blacks had full equality before the law, and they were barred from schools, militia, and other public institutions. In effect, race replaced class as the boundary between American men with political freedom and those without, a process that incorporated many white immigrants into American democracy.

    *The War of 1812 showed how far the United States was from being an integrated nation. The Bank of the United States had expired, transportation was poor, and manufacturing had been required to counter the British embargo. Even though they wanted the United States to remain Jeffersons agrarian republic, Republicans led by Henry Clay and John C. Calhoun believed manufacturers needed protection if the United States was to become independent from Britain. In 1815, President James Madison proposed a plan for government-promoted economic development that became known as the American System.*This system would rest on a new national bank, a tariff on imports to protect and foster manufacturing, and federal financing of road and canal construction, called internal improvements.*Although the tariff and national bank became law in 1816, Madison, afraid that the national government, if given powers not expressed in the Constitution, would interfere with individual liberty and slavery in southern states, vetoed an internal improvements bill.

    The Second Bank of the United States (BUS), a private, profit-making corporation that served as the governments financial agent, soon became resented by many Americans. *Although the tariff and national bank became law in 1816, Madison, afraid that the national government, if given powers not expressed in the Constitution, would interfere with individual liberty and slavery in southern states, vetoed an internal improvements bill.

    The Second Bank of the United States (BUS), a private, profit-making corporation that served as the governments financial agent, soon became resented by many Americans. *The BUS was also tasked with regulating the volume of paper money printed by private banks to prevent fluctuations and inflation (at this point the federal government did not print money).

    Rather than regulating the currency and loans issued by local banks, the Bank of the United States contributed to widespread speculation, mostly in land, after the War of 1812. *When European demand for American farm goods decreased in 1819, this speculative bubble burst. Dropping land prices ruined farmers and businessmen who could no longer pay their loans, banks failed, and unemployment spread in eastern cities.

    The short-lived Panic of 1819 disrupted the political harmony established after the wars end. Some states controversially provided relief to debtors, much to the chagrin of creditors. Most important, the panic reinforced many Americans longstanding distrust of banks, and it undermined the reputation of the BUS, which was blamed for the panic. When states retaliated against the BUS by taxing its local branches, the Supreme Court under John Marshall ruled in McCulloch v. Maryland (1819) that the BUS was a legitimate exercise of congressional authority under the Constitution. This directly contradicted the strict constructionist view that Congress could use only those powers expressly in the Constitution.

    *When European demand for American farm goods decreased in 1819, this speculative bubble burst. Dropping land prices ruined farmers and businessmen who could no longer pay their loans, banks failed, and unemployment spread in eastern cities.

    The short-lived Panic of 1819 disrupted the political harmony established after the wars end. Some states controversially provided relief to debtors, much to the chagrin of creditors. Most important, the panic reinforced many Americans longstanding distrust of banks, and it undermined the reputation of the BUS, which was blamed for the panic. When states retaliated against the BUS by taxing its local branches, the Supreme Court under John Marshall ruled in McCulloch v. Maryland (1819) that the BUS was a legitimate exercise of congressional authority under the Constitution. This directly contradicted the strict constructionist view that Congress could use only those powers expressly in the Constitution.

    *In 1816, James Monroe became president, inaugurating a period of one-party Republican rule, an Era of Good Feelings, in which almost no Federalists won federal or state offices. In 1820, Monroe was re-elected almost unanimously. With no party opposition, however, politics was organized around competing sectional interests. Slavery was a sectional issue that threatened to disrupt national unity.

    In 1819, when Missouri applied for statehood, a New York Republican proposed that Congress force the new state constitution to ban the further importation of slaves and free slave children upon reaching age twenty-five. The Republican Party split along sectional lines on the Missouri question. Most northern Republicans supported the restrictions, while southern Republicans opposed them. *In 1820, a compromise was reached which allowed Missouri to adopt a constitution without the anti-slavery restrictions, and allowed Maine, which prohibited slavery, to become a free state, in order to maintain sectional balance between free and slave states in the Congress. And slavery would be prohibited in all remaining territory of the Louisiana Purchase north of latitude 36 30'.

    *The Missouri Compromise showed that sectional divisions over slaverys westward expansion seriously endangered the federal union. The domination of the presidency by Virginians since the founding, except for the term of John Adams of Massachusetts, reinforced northerners sense that southern slaveowners dominated national politics, and they knew that more slave states would mean more political power for the South in Congress. The issue eventually sparked the Civil War.

    *Between 1810 and 1822, Spains Latin American colonies rebelled and established independent nations, including Mexico, Venezuela, Ecuador, and Peru. By 1825, Spains empire in the Western Hemisphere contained only Cuba and Puerto Rico. Americans sympathized with these republican revolutions, and the United States was the first to recognize these new governments.

    **John Quincy Adams, Monroes secretary of state, feared that Spain might try to regain its former colonies, and in 1823 he drafted a speech for the president which became known as the Monroe Doctrine. This doctrine stated that the United States would oppose any future efforts by European powers to colonize the Americas, abstain from involvement in Europes wars, and prevent European nations from interfering in the new Latin American nations. This doctrine assumed that the Old and New World were separate political and diplomatic systems, and claimed for the United States the role of the dominant power in the Western Hemisphere. Adams also meant to secure the commerce of the region for U.S., as opposed to British, interests.

    *In the 1824 presidential election, only candidate Andrew Jackson, known for his military victories, had nationwide support. The other candidatesJohn Quincy Adams of Massachusetts, William Crawford of Georgia, and Henry Clay of Kentuckyfound support mostly in their regions. Though Jackson received the largest tally of the popular vote and carried all regions except for New England, none of the candidates received a majority of electoral college votes. Running last and eliminated, Henry Clay used his influence to lead the House of Representatives into electing John Quincy Adams as president, whom Clay believed would promote the American System. Clay was soon appointed secretary of state. This appointment led to charges that a corrupt bargain between Clay and Adams had secured the presidency for Adams, and laid the basis for the emergence of a Democratic Party behind Andrew Jacksons candidacy in the 1828 election. The alliance around Adams and Clay came to form the opposition Whig Party in the 1830s.

    *John Quincy Adams came from a privileged background as the son of former President John Adams and had experience as a diplomat and senator in the U.S. Congress. Despite his uncharismatic nature, John Quincy Adams was strongly nationalist. He supported the American System of government-sponsored economic development. Author of the Monroe Doctrine, he wanted to increase American commerce and power in the Western Hemisphere, and hoped that the United States would eventually incorporate Canada, Cuba, and part of Mexico.

    *Adams had a much larger view of federal power than many at the time. He thought the federal government should direct and sponsor internal improvements such as road and canals, pass laws to promote agriculture, manufacturing, and the arts, and he wanted to establish a national university and naval academy. When many Americans believed government power threatened freedom, Adams argued that liberty is power. His ideas horrified believers in strict construction who wanted a limited role for the federal government, and Congress approved few of his programs.

    *Adams rallied an opposition around Andrew Jackson dedicated to individual liberty, states rights, and limited government. Jacksons campaign, organized by Martin Van Buren, a New York senator, started immediately after Adams took office. While Adams typified an old politics in which elites ruled, Van Buren, the son of a tavern keeper, represented a new era in American politics, in which ordinary men could become party managers and professionals and wield great power. Van Buren believed political parties and party competition were legitimate and good for the republic, by checking the power of administrations and offering voters choice. He also believed parties would suppress sectionalism by brining together supporters and candidates from all across the country. Van Buren was alarmed by the sectionalism inspired by the slavery question in the Missouri debates, and he hoped to resurrect the Jeffersonian alliance between southern planters and northern farmers and urban workers. *By 1828, Van Buren had created a vibrant Democratic Party embodying this alliance, and by using new techniques to mobilize mass voter turnout, helped elect Jackson president in a huge majority over Adams.

    *Andrew Jackson was a man of contradictions. He was not well educated but he was eloquent; he championed the common man but excluded Indians and African-Americans from democracy; he rose from modest origins to become a rich man and slaveowner in Tennessee; he disliked banks, paper money, and some of the results of the market revolution; he was a strong nationalist who believed that states, not the federal government, should govern; and he opposed federal intervention in the economy and interference in private life.

    By Jacksons presidency, politics was a mass activity, engaging masses of Americans constantly and penetrating all spheres of life. It was a mass spectacle, with enormous meetings, party newspapers, parades, and celebrated politician orator. Large national conventions replaced congressional caucuses in nominating candidates. Political parties and urban political machines dispensed patronage in the form of jobs, assistance, and other benefits. Jackson himself introduced the spoils system, in which a new administration replaced previously appointed officials with its own partys appointees.

    *Politics in the age of Jackson concerned issues associated with the market revolution and tensions between national and sectional loyalties. Political debate centered on banks, tariffs, currency, internal improvements, and the balance of power between national and local authority. The market revolution shaped many party positions. Democrats tended to be alarmed by the growing gap between social classes, and warned that nonproducers, such as bankers, merchants, and speculators, were using connections with government to enhance their wealth to the disadvantage of producers, such as farmers, artisans, and laborers. They wanted government to avoid interfering with the economy and giving special favors to economic interests. Without government interference in the market, ordinary Americans would fairly compete in a self-regulating market, and the most meritorious would succeed. Democrats tended to be upcoming businessmen, farmers, and urban workers.

    Whigs supported the American system, believing the protective tariff, internal improvements, and a national bank could develop the economy and spread prosperity for all classes. They were strongest in the Northeast, the most modernized region. Many bankers and businessmen supported their program, as did farmers near rivers, canals, and other waterways. While many slaveholders supported the Democrats, who believed states rights protected slavery, the largest southern planters voted Whig.

    *Party battles of the Jacksonian Era reflected conflict between public and private definitions of American freedom and their relationship to government power. To Democrats, liberty was a private entitlement best protected by local governments and threatened by a powerful national state. With Jackson, the national governments power decreased. Weak federal power ensured private freedom and states rights, so Democrats under Jackson reduced spending, lowered the tariff, killed the national bank, and refused federal aid for internal improvements. States thus replaced the federal government as main economic actors, planning road and canal systems and chartering banks and other corporations.*Whigs believed that liberty and power reinforced each other. They thought an energetic federal government enhanced freedom, and liberty required a prosperous and moral America. Government would create the conditions for economic development, producing prosperity for all classes and regions. Like the Federalists, wealthy Whigs saw society as a hierarchy of social classes, but unlike the Federalists, they believed class status was not fixed; individuals through hard work could rise in society. Whigs also believed the government should intervene in individual life to ensure that they acted as free moral agents, and thus supported schools, temperance laws, and Sabbath laws.

    *Dedicated to states rights, Jacksons first term saw his efforts to uphold federal supremacy over states. The 1828 tariff, which raised taxes on imported goods, aroused opposition in the South, particularly in South Carolina, where it was called the tariff of abominations. Believing that the tariff punished southern consumers in order to benefit northern industry, South Carolinas legislature threatened to nullify it, that is, to declare it null and void in South Carolina. South Carolina had a higher percentage of slaves than any other state and was ruled by an oligarchic elite of large plantation owners alarmed by the Missouri controversy and growing federal power.

    *Jacksons vice president, John C. Calhoun of South Carolina, developed a theory of nullification. In it he argued that states had created the national government, and each state retained the right to prevent the enforcement of Congresss laws within its border that seemed to exceed powers written in the Constitution. Opponents such as Daniel Webster argued that the people, not the states, had created the Constitution and the federal government, and that nullification was illegal, unconstitutional, and treasonous.

    *While no other southern state threatened nullification, Calhouns theory offered the South a political philosophy to use when sectionalism intensified. Calhoun argued the theory did not threaten disunion but preserved it, allowing unique and diverse states to preserve their interests while remaining part of the federal union. To President Jackson, however, nullification was disunion. In 1832, when a new tariff was enacted, South Carolina declared it would be null and void the next year. In response, Jackson persuaded Congress to authorize him to use the military to collect the tariff in South Carolina. To avoid war, Henry Clay, along with Calhoun, created a compromise tariff in 1833 that reduced duties. South Carolina rescinded the nullification law, and Calhoun abandoned his Democratic Party and Jackson for the Whigs and Clay and Webster, where they were united only by their hatred for Jackson.

    Andrew Jackson, dedicated to states rights and limited government, had defended the power of the federal government and the idea of the union against states rights.

    *Jacksons nationalism and commitment to national sovereignty also showed in his Indian policy. The last Indian resistance in the old Northwest ended in American victory in the Black Hawk War in 1832. In the South, cottons spread introduced land-hungry white settlers into areas where civilized tribes such as the Cherokee, Choctaw, and Creek had long practiced white ways, including slavery. But in 1830 Jackson secured passage of the Indian Removal Act, which allowed for the removal of tens of thousands of Indians from the Southwest. The law repudiated Jeffersonian notions that Indians could be assimilated and eventually incorporated into white America.

    *The Cherokee in Georgia, threatened with expulsion by that states government, had their own constitution, schools, and English newspaper. They appealed to the Supreme Court to protect their land rights, which had been guaranteed in treaties with the federal government. In 1832, the Court decided that Indians did not in fact own their land, but rather were nomads who only had a right of occupancy. Another Supreme Court decision defined Indians as wards of the federal government who did not have full rights as citizens, and were not independent nations sovereign from state governments. A subsequent decision seemed to reverse this judgment, giving Indian nations a separate political identity to be dealt with by the federal government, not the states. But Jackson refused to enforce this last decision and let Georgia expel the Cherokee, with help from the federal government, which sent troops to forcibly remove them and other tribes in the 1830s. The Indians were forced to move to territories in the West with inferior land; thousands died on the way. In Florida, the Seminoles resisted removal for seven years by fighting a costly guerrilla war against American troops, but they too succumbed. By the 1840s, Indians had all but disappeared as a visible presence in the eastern states of America.

    *The most significant political fight of the Jacksonian era was Jacksons campaign against the Bank of the United States, which to many represented the hopes and anxieties caused by the market revolution. While bankings growth had spurred economic development, many distrusted bankers as non-producers who gave nothing to the nations real wealth, and profited from the labor of others. Banks also tended to over-issue paper money, whose deterioration in value reduced the real income of wage-earners. Jackson and others now thought that hard moneygold and silverwas the only honest currency. The aristocratic Nicholas Biddle directed the BUS, and he celebrated the banks power to control Americas financial system. This alarmed Democrats. In 1832, Biddles allies persuaded Congress to extend the BUSs charter for another twenty years, even though it was set to expire in 1836.

    *Jackson saw this as blackmail, since he believed the BUS would use its resources to defeat him in the 1832 election if he vetoed the bill. He did veto it, and his veto message resonated with popular values. He stated that Congress could not create an institution with such power and economic privilege unaccountable to voters. Exclusive privileges like the BUS charter widened the gap between the wealthy and humble farmers, mechanics, and laborers, whom Jackson claimed to defend. The Bank War allowed Jackson to enhance the power of the presidency. He was the first president to use the veto as a major weapon and directly address voters over the heads of Congress. Jacksons re-election in 1832 over Whig candidate Henry Clay assured the demise of the BUS.

    But what would replace the BUS? Jacksons veto was supported by two groups: state bankers who wanted to free themselves from Biddles regulations and issue more paper currency (called soft money), and hard money advocates who opposed all banks, whether chartered by states or the federal government, and thought gold and sliver was the only reliable currency. Jackson, wanting to dissolve the BUS before 1836, removed federal funds from the BUS and deposited them in local state banks. Political and personal connections often determined the choice of which pet banks got federal funds. *Without government deposits, the BUS lost its ability to regulate the state banks activities. State banks issued more and more paper money to finance economic development; the value of bank notes in circulation skyrocketed from $10 million in 1833 to $149 million in 1837. Prices rose, real wages declined, and speculators prospered.

    *The speculative bubble inevitably burst. The federal government sold 20 million acres of land in 1836, ten times the 1830 amount, and almost all of it paid for in paper money, which had questionable value. In July 1836, Jackson issued the Specie Circular, mandating land payments to the federal government to be made in hard currency. Simultaneously, British banks demanded that their creditors pay them in hard currency, and a recession in Britain dropped demand for American cotton. Together these events caused an economic crisis, the Panic of 1837, which was followed by a depression that lasted until 1843. Businesses failed, workers lost their jobs, farmers and others lost their lands. States that had taken up economic development projects defaulted on their debts.

    The new president in 1836 and Jacksons lieutenant, Martin Van Buren, represented the hard money, anti-bank wing of the Democratic Party. In 1837, Van Buren announced that he hoped to remove federal funds from pet banks and keep them in the Treasury Department, directly under federal control. Only in 1840 did Congress approve this policy, known as the Independent Treasury, which completely separated the national government from banking. It was repealed in 1841 but restored in 1846.

    *Van Buren was not as popular as Jackson, and by 1840 the Whigs had mastered the political techniques Democrats had used to mobilize voters. The Whigs nominated that year for president William Henry Harrison, a military hero from the War of 1812. He had no platform, but was portrayed as a common man who grew up in a log cabin and drank cider. His running mate was John Tyler, a states rights Democrat from Virginia who had joined the Whigs after the nullification crisis. The Whigs sold their candidate much better than the Democrats did Van Buren, and with a record voter turnout of 80 percent of eligible voters, Harrison won a sweeping victory.

    *But Harrison soon contracted pneumonia and died, making John Tyler an accidental president. When the Whig majority in Congress attempted to enact the American System into law, Tyler returned to his Democratic principles and vetoed every measure, including a new national bank and higher tariff. His cabinet resigned and the Whigs repudiated him. In the new age of Jacksonian democracy, presidents could not rule without parties, and Tyler accomplished little in his four years in office.