The Influence of Perceived Organizational Support on Affective Commitment

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    THE INFLUENCE OF

    PERCEIVED ORGANIZATIONAL SUPPORTON AFFECTIVE COMMITMENT

    Nik Azida binti Abd GhaniDepartment of Commerce

    Tengku Ahmad b Raja Hussin

    Department of General Studies

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    Introduction

    Globalisation and Private Higher Education

    Institutions in Malaysia

    "Globally, education is a trillion-dollar business and

    the demand for higher education is growing. Thus,there are clear opportunities and benefits that we

    should take advantage of

    - Higher Education Minister

    Datuk Seri Mohamed Khaled Nordin

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    Lecturers in PHEIs

    A substantial number of part-time lecturers are hired

    to overcome the shortage of lecturers and to reduce

    costs.

    Most lecturers shift from one institution to another to

    take advantage of the higher salaries offered (Lee,

    2004).

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    Affective Commitment

    Is defined as the extent to which lecturers are

    attached and possess strong sense of belonging to

    the institution.

    reflects the lecturers desire to remain in theinstitution.

    The desire to remain in an institution resulted from

    the teaching experience that forms feeling of comfort

    and personal competence

    (Meyer & Allen,1991).

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    Perceived Organisational Support (POS)

    refers to the extent to which lecturers feel that they

    are recognized for their contributions and the extent

    to which the organization cares about their well-

    being (Eisenberger et al., 1986). would increase employees felt obligation to help the

    organization reach its objectives, their affective

    commitment to the organization, and their

    expectation that improved performancewould be rewarded.

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    Objectives of the study

    Identify the relationship between antecedents

    (trust, access to information and access to

    opportunity to learn and develop) and POS.

    Identify the relationship between POS and affectivecommitment.

    Identify the most effective predictor of POS and

    affective commitment.

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    Sampling

    Respondents: 312 lecturers from 25 private higher

    education institutions in three states in Malaysia i.e.

    Penang, Kedah and Kelantan.

    Gender: 46.2% male and 53.8% female. Academic achievement: 61.2% first degree, 27.2%

    masters, 10.3% Diploma (10.3%) and 1.3%

    doctorate.

    Teaching experiences: range of 1 to 40 years withthe mean of 6.3 years and standard

    deviation of 6.16 years.

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    Measurement

    Affective commitment

    Eight items modified from the organizational

    commitment instrument (Meyer andAllen,1984

    Trust:

    Omnibus T-Scale instrument by Hoy and

    Tschannen-Moran (2003).

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    Measurement

    Access to information

    Four items from the instruments of Spreitzer (1996).

    Access to opportunity to learn and develop

    Four items from Short and Rineharts (1992)

    Perceived Organizational Support

    Eight items based on the short-form scale

    (Eisenberger et al., 1986).

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    Findings:

    Reliability Analysis of scalesTable 1 Reliability analysis of scales

    Variables under study Number of items Cronbach alphaTrust 8 .891

    Access to information 4 .874

    Access to opportunity to learn

    and develop 5 .829Affective commitment 8 .718

    Perceived organizational

    support

    8 .897

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    Descriptive Statistics

    Table 2 Descriptive analysis of variables under study

    Variables SD

    1. Trust 4.52 1.18

    2. Access to information 4.98 1.22

    3. Access to opportunity to learn and develop 5.06 1.06

    4. Perceived organizational support 4.36 1.13

    5. Affective commitment 4.760.90

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    Analyses of results

    Ta le 3 Pearso correlatio coefficie ts

    Variables Affective commitment POS

    Trust 0.57 0.85

    ccess to in ormation 0.48 0.69

    ccess to opportunity 0.48 0.62

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    Analyses of results

    The multiple regression analysis shows that trust is themost important predictor of affective commitment ( =.38) followed by access to opportunity to learn anddevelop ( = .23).

    The multiple regression analysis shows that trust is themost important predictor of POS ( = .66) followed byaccess to opportunity to learn and develop ( = .22) andaccess to information ( = .10).

    Adjusted value of .767 shows that 76.7% of variance inPOS is explained by its linear relationship with trust,access to information and access to opportunity to learnand develop.

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    Conclusions

    POS receives the lowest evaluation from lecturers.

    Lecturers may not be satisfied with the administrator

    concern about their well-being and job satisfaction.

    Lecturers may also feel that their work performanceare not appreciated.

    The affective commitment level is moderate which

    implies that lecturers do not really love their

    institution and have little sense ofbelonging to the institution.

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    Suggestions

    The administrator can improve the lecturers accessto opportunity to learn and develop by encouragingmentoring among senior and novice lecturers.

    Lecturers should also be given opportunity to attendcourses, seminars and training - to develop new

    knowledge and develop networking with others.

    Discussions and forums - to facilitate sharing of

    knowledge and brainstorming of ideas amonglecturers.

    Open communication - to facilitate transparency indecision making and actions.

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    Suggestions

    The management also has to ensure that no

    discrepancy exist between the organizations vision

    and objectives with the real action taken. The

    management has to make sure that they fulfil alltheir promises and act as they say.

    The management also can increase the trust of

    lecturers towards them by creating a supportive

    work climate.

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    Thank you

    [email protected]

    [email protected]

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