Information Competence Development in Europe: trends and future prospectsSirje VirkusTallinn University/Manchester Metropolitan University1.07.2005
OutlineContext and ConceptsMy researchMethodologySurvey: preliminary findingsMultiple-case studies: preliminary findingsConclusions
Personal backgroundTPU student, Library and Information ScienceISTIER researcher, ICT, information systemsTPU, 1985 - teacher, administratorODL 1994 (WebCT, LearnLoop, IVA) learner, designer, teacher, tutorMMU, 2001 student, researcher, teacher, designer, tutor (distance mode)
CompetenciesDebate of competenciesTransferable skills, key or core competencies, [transversal skills, generic skills, soft skills, personal skills, general competencies, soft competencies]Creativity, analysis, problem solving, self development, learning skills, communication.Meta-competencies
Key CompetenceContribute to a successful lifeContribute to the development of the quality of societiesApply to multiple areas of life (Gilomen, 2002).
OECD surveys of competenciesAdult competencies
- International Adult Literacy Survey (IALS)- Adult Literacy and Lifeskills (ALL) surveyStudents at school (15-year-olds)
- Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA)
Complexity of the topic (Gilomen, 2002) Theoretical models and concepts Political negotiation, consensus formationVisions of society and individualsCultural context, biographical variabilityWHICH KEY COMPETENCIES?
HE and competenciesThe general move is clearly towards a greater attention to employment prospects and the acquisition of core or transversal skills.
Transmission of competencesNot exclusive responsibility of the education systemOther social institutions such as family, workplace, mass media or cultural organisations are important
but further research needed (Gilomen, 2002).
Assessment issues Assessment strategies should include assessment of social contextsMore importance should be given to the competencies of acting autonomously and joining groupsFocus on critical aspects of key competenciesCyclical structure of assessment program among adult populationAlternative methodologies have to be explored
....but further research needed
Importance of Information use
Importance of information handling and use Several reports have emphasized the importance of finding, evaluating, and using information in our modern society
Importance of Information use The knowledge-based economy is characterised by the need for continuous learning of both codified information and the competencies to use this information. the skills and competencies relating to the selection and efficient use of information become more crucial... Capabilities for selecting relevant and discarding irrelevant information, recognising patterns in information, interpreting and decoding information as well as learning new and forgetting old skills are in increasing demandOECD (1996). The knowledge based economy. Paris: OECD.
Importance of Information use The ability to produce and use information effectively is thus a vital source of skills for many individuals. So, the knowledge economy is based on the production and use of information and knowledge OECD (2001a). Educational policy analysis 2001. Paris: OECD, Centre for Educational Research and Innovation.
Importance of Information useHaving the competence to use information effectively has been suggested also by management gurus as essential to organizational success
Drucker, P. (1993). Post-capitalist society. New York, NY: Harper Business.Drucker, P.F. (1994). Managing in turbulent times. Oxford: Butterworth-Heinemann.Senge, P.M. (1994). The fifth discipline: the art and practice of the learning
organization. New York, NY: Currency Doubleday.Grainger, P. (1994). Managing information: your self-development action plan.
London: Kogan Page.
The report EU Policies and Strategic Change for eLearning in Universities Refers to the importance of using digital information: they [students] should be enabled to learn using digital information sources. Coimbra Group of Universities (2002). EU policies and strategic change for elearning in universities. Report of the project 'Higher education consultation In technologies of information and communication' (HECTIC). Brussels, Coimbra Group of Universities.
Information literacy Library and information professionals call these information-related competencies as information literacy.
Lots of definitions and models
Information Literacy Umbrella Patrica Senn Breivik.
DefinitionsIL cover the following experiences: the use of information technology;the use of information sources; executing a process; controlling information for retrieval; gaining knowledge; extending knowledge; gaining wisdom.
Bruce, C. S. (1997). The seven faces of information literacy. Adelaide: Auslib Press.
DefinitionsInformation literacy is the adoption of appropriate information behaviour to identify, through whatever channel or medium, information well fitted to information needs, leading to wise and ethical use of information in society
Webber S. & Johnston, B. (2002). Assessment for information literacy. Paper presented at the International conference on IT and information literacy, 20th-22nd March 2002, Glasgow, Scotland.
Information literate personRecognizes the need for informationIdentifies sources of informationDevelops successful search strategiesAccesses sources of informationIL PERSONEvaluates information and sources
Organizes informationProcesses information Uses and presents information
Definitions Information Literacy encompasses knowledge of ones information concerns and needs, and the ability to identify, locate, evaluate, organize and effectively create, use and communicate information to address issues or problems at hand; it is a prerequisite for participating effectively in the Information Society, and is part of the basic human right of life long learning. The Prague Declaration (2003).
Definitions Information literacy - the ability to recognise when information is needed and to locate, evaluate, and use effectively the needed information American Library Association. Presidential Committee on Information Literacy (1989). Final Report. Chicago: American Library Association.
The Concept of InformationInformation seems to be everywhere. We talk of its being encoded in the genes disseminated by media of communication exchanged in conversation contained in all sorts of things Libraries are overflowing with it, institutions are bogged down by it, and people are overloaded with it [yet] no one seems to know exactly what information is.
Christopher Fox (1983, p.3)
Donald O Case. Looking for Information, 2002.Case, D. (2002). Looking for Information: A Survey of Research on Information Seeking, Needs, and Behaviour. Academic Press
The Concept of InformationAnthropologist Gregory Bateson (1972) defines information as any difference that makes a difference to a conscious, human mind
Summarizing 30 years of commentary, Levitan (1980) declared that 29 different concepts had been associated with the term of information
LiteracyThe ability to read and write (Concise Oxford)Literacy has been seen as a concept, a process, a competency, a skill and a tool that has meaning in relation to the demand of the economy and society or individuals and communitiesalso a mode of behaviour, which enables individuals and groups to gather, analyse and apply written information to function in societyGilster sees it as a fundamental act of cognition (Gilster, 1997).
LiteracyThe International Adult Literacy Survey (IALS) defines literacy in terms of proficiency levels of usage information to function in society and economy. Literacy is defined as a particular capacity and mode of behaviour, the ability to understand and employ printed information in daily activities, at home, at work and in the community - to achieve ones goals, and to develop ones knowledge and potential (OECD/Statistics Canada, 2000a, p. 12).
LiteracyIn IALS literacy is measured operationally in terms of the three domains:Prose literacy Document literacyQuantitative literacy
Levels of literacyLevel 1 Level 2Level 3 is considered a suitable minimum for coping with the demands of everyday life and work in a complex, advanced society. It denotes roughly the skill level required for successful secondary school completion and college entry. Like higher levels, it requires the ability to integrate several sources of information and solve more complex problems. Level 4 and 5 describe respondents who demonstrate command of higher-order information processing skills (OECD/Statistics Canada, 2000a).
ConcernSeveral observers have expressed concern that putting two fuzzy terms together doesnt make the overall concept clearer. Others assert that it doesnt matter what you call or define it, as long as it gets done.
Competencies and skillsCompetence has two dimensions knowledge and skills. Knowledge may be seen as our understanding how our everyday world in constituted and how it works. Skills involve the ability to pragmatically apply, consciously or even unconsciously, our knowledge in practical settings. In this setting, skills can be conceived as the technical aspects of competence, emphasizing the aspect of how to do
Anttiroiko, A.-V., Lintil, L. & Savolainen, R. (2001). Information society competencies of managers: conceptual considerations, In: E. Pantzar, R. Savolainen & P. Tynjl, eds. In search for a human-centred information society. (pp. 27-57). Tampere: Tampere University Press.
CompetenceComplex cognitive skills (problem solving, qualitative reasoning, self-regulation, learning to learn);Highly integrated knowledge structures (e.g. mental models);Interpersonal skills and social abilities;Attitudes and values.
Kirschner, P., Vilsteren, P., van Hummel, H., & Wigman, M. (1997). A study environment for acquiring academic and professional competence. Studies of Higher Education, 22 (2), 151-171.
information competence information competency information mediacy information problem solving information problem-solving skillsinformation fluencyinformation masteryinformation literacy competence
information literacy competenciesinformation literacy and skillsinformation literacy skillsinformation handling skillsinformation handling competenciesskills of information literacyInfoliteracyinformation empowerment
SemanticsInformation literacy = information skills= information competenceIF information literacy = competence THEN information literacy competence = information competence competenceIF IL = competence AND competence = knowledge and skills and attitudes THEN WHAT is information literacy skills ???
Other terms and their relations with ILStudy skillsLearning skillsLearning to learn skillsAcademic skillsMedia literacyDigital literacy.
Information literacy and learningInformation literacy is about learning (Bruce, 1997)Information literacy is a way of learning (Kuhlthau, 1993)
In the literature the terms learning styles and cognitive styles are often used interchangeablyLearning style refers to how a learner perceives, interacts with, and responds to the learning environment, it is a measure of individual differencesCognitive style refers to a learners preferred way of processing information; that is, the persons typical mode of thinking, remembering, or problem solving
Terms for ILIn Finland informaatiokompetenssi,
informaatiolukutaitoIn Norway informasjonskompetanse In Denmark informationskompetence in Sweden informationskompetens In Estonia infopdevus, infokirjaoskus,
StatementIn modern society everyone needs to develop increasingly sophisticated skills for information handling and use
Information handling and useidentifying, locating, gathering, storing, retrieving and processing information from a variety of sources; using a range of information-retrieval and information-processing skills confidently and competently; organizing, analysing, synthesizing, evaluating and using information; presenting information clearly, logically, concisely and accurately.
Why there is an increasing interest in information literacy?New learning approaches and new focus on student learning in a lifelong learning contextExpanding quantity - information overload
- In different forms/places - E-everything - Uncertain quality - Plagiarism
Old and new paradigms of HE (Kathy Tiano)Old ParadigmTake what you can getAcademic calendarUniversity as a city Terminal degree University as ivory towerStudent = 18- to 25-year-oldBooks are primary medium Single productStudent as a painDelivery in classroomMulti-culturalBricks & mortarSingle disciplineInstitution-centricGovernment funded Technology as an expense
New ParadigmCourses on demandYear-round operationsUniversity as idea Lifelong learningUniversity as a partner in societyCradle to graveInformation on demandInformation reuseStudent as a customerDelivery anywhereGlobal Bits & bytesMulti-disciplineMarket-centricMarket funded Technology as differentiator
Responses of HE Institutions to ChangesNew technologies;Student-centred learning approaches and constructivist models of learning; Improve and innovate traditional HE education and to provide new and alternative learning opportunities (DE); On-line education and electronic learning environments; Open their doors to non-traditional learners and design new programmes and courses; Experiment with collaborative learning and teaching supported by ITC.
Collis & van der WendeThe traditional lecture has still remained the core medium for many HE institutions with ICT serving as a complement to already existing instructional tools
Collis, B. & Van der Wende, M. (2002). Models of Technology and Change in Higher Education: An International Comparative Survey on the Current and Future Use of ICT in Higher Education. Report, December 2002, Center for Higher Education Policy Studies (CHEPS), Twente.
Information overloadPersonal information overload - personal stress and loss of productivity at workOrganizational information overload - overall productivity of the organization
'information fatigue syndrome' (IFS)
Influence of overloadtime is wasted - 38% of managers decision-making is delayed - 43% of respondentsdistraction from the main tasks - 47% of respondents stress
42 % leading to tension with colleagues, loss of job satisfaction, illnness 61 % reduced social activity 60% tirednessInformation overload recognised as a critical problem
Reuters Business Informatio...