Text of The Holocaust 1933-1945. Who were the Victims of The Holocaust?
The Holocaust 1933-1945
Who were the Victims of The Holocaust?.
Who were the Victims of The Holocaust? o The Jews- used as scapegoats for everything that had gone wrong in Germany since WWI. They were seen by the Nazis as subhuman & worth less than animals. o Roma & Sinti Gypsies- like the Jews they were seen by the Nazis as racially inferior, degenerate & worthless. o Slavs, Poles & Russians- viewed as inferior & subhuman. o Mentally & physically disabled- thought of as useless & a financial burden on the state. o Homosexuals- seen as degenerate & against the Aryan ideal. o Political opponents- e.g. Communists, Socialists. These were people who disagreed with Nazi politics & policies. o Jehovahs Witnesses- their religious beliefs made them refuse to pledge their allegiance to the Third Reich.
T-4 Euthanasia Program o Designed to kill physically, mentally & emotionally handicapped people. The name comes from the address of the headquarters at Tiergartenstrasse 4 in Charlottenburg. o The process was carried out by doctors, nurses & physicians. o Children were killed by medication or were starved to death. o Adults were given lethal injections or gassed. o Doctors & nurses were given supplementary payments known as Schmutzgeld (dirty money). o In 1941 Hadamar celebrated the cremation of its ten thousandth patient in a special ceremony where everyone (secretaries, nurses & psychiatrists) received a bottle of beer. o Hitler ordered the program for adults to end in August 1941 but it continued as the wild euthanasia program. o Approximately 200,000 people were killed under the T-4 program.
T-4 Euthanasia Program Hartheim Castle, Austria a euthanasia killing centre where people with physical and mental disabilities were killed by gassing and lethal injection. Buses used to transport patients to Hadamar The windows were painted to prevent people from seeing those inside.. This image originates from a film produced by the Reich Propaganda Ministry. It shows patients in an unidentified asylum. Their existence is described as "life without hope." The Nazis sought, through propaganda, to develop public sympathy for the Euthanasia Program. Emmi G., a 16-year-old housemaid diagnosed as schizophrenic. She was sterilized and sent to the Meseritz-Obrawalde euthanasia centre where she was killed with an overdose of tranquilizers on December 7, 1942. A victim of the Nazi Euthanasia Program: hospitalized in a psychiatric ward for her nonconformist beliefs and writings, she was murdered on January 26, 1944. Friedrich Mennecke, a Euthanasia Program physician who was responsible for sending many patients to be gassed. Nazi physician Karl Brandt, director of the Euthanasia Program. Head nurse of the children's ward at the Kaufbeuren-Irsee euthanasia facility.
Chelmno o Constructed in Nov. 1941 o Victims were killed in gas vans. (one large gas van for 150 victims and two smaller ones for 80 - 100 victims) o Until spring of 1942, the bodies were buried in four long mass graves. o After that time the corpses were cremated. (Two crematoria were built, which were probably complemented by two mobile field ovens.) o 1 st phase: 7th Dec 1941- March 1943. o 2nd phase: June and July 1944 o Death Toll: 155,000-320,000 Jews of the Lodz Ghetto being marched to Chelmno death camp, 1942 A convoy arrives in Chelmno Chelmno: One of the three gas vans Chelmno: Jews before being sent to the gas chamber.
Belzec o Construction began on 1 st Nov. 1941 and was completed by the end of Feb. 1942. o Initially, there were three gas chambers using carbon monoxide housed in a wooden building. They were later replaced by six gas chambers in a brick and concrete building o Corpses were then dragged to burial pits. o During the early months of 1943, the corpses of the murdered Jews were disinterred and burned in open air pits. o 1 st phase: mid-March 1942 to mid-May 1942. o 2 nd phase: mid-July 1942 to the end of December 1942 o Death Toll: 600,000 Jews of the Lublin Province of Poland are deported to the Belzec death camp, March 1942. Gipsies in Belzec before being sent to the gas chamber Two Jews before execution in Belzec death camp A woman about to be executed in Belzec extermination camp. The soldier on the left is an SS guard, the soldiers in the background are Ukrainian guards. Picture found on an SS prisoner.
Treblinka Transports to the Camp Deportation from Siedlce, 22 nd August 1942 One of the very rare photographic documents of Treblinka: prisoners of the "Straflager preparing a pyre for the burning of the victims o Established in 1941 as a forced labor camp. o A second camp was built, opening for operation on July 23, 1942. This was to be the extermination camp. o Treblinka opened with three gas chambers in operation but quickly expanded to at least six. o The bodies would be dragged to mass graves for burial. o Starting in the Autumn of 1942, the corpses were disinterred and stacked on a grid of old railway tracks for burning. o Autumn of 1943 evacuation of the camp was begun & orders were given to destroy the camp. o Death Toll: 750,000- 850,000
Auschwitz Birkenau Birkenau arrival platform, known as the ramp.
Auschwitz Birkenau Awaiting the Selektion.
Auschwitz Birkenau The Selektion process.
Auschwitz Birkenau Deemed "unfit for work & sent almost immediately to the gas chambers.
Auschwitz Birkenau Jews who were classified as not fit for work waiting in a grove outside Crematorium IV before they were to be gassed. At this point, the Jews were exhausted and in a state of shock from the horrors of the journey and the selection process that they had just endured. The vast majority had no idea what fate Awaited them.
Auschwitz Birkenau Men & women fit for work, after the delousing process.
Auschwitz Birkenau Sorting out the personal Belongings of the recent arrivals at Auschwitz in a special section of the camp known as "Canada."
Auschwitz Birkenau Jewish children, kept alive in the Auschwitz II (Birkenau) concentration camp, pose in concentration camp uniforms between two rows of barbed wire fencing after liberation Sacks of human hair packed for dispatch to Germany. A warehouse full of shoes and clothing confiscated from the prisoners and deportees gassed upon their arrival. One of the warehouses in Auschwitz, which is stuffed to overflowing with clothes confiscated from prisoners. Corpses of women piled up on the floor of Block 11. (February 1945)
Prisoner badges at Auschwitz The same colored triangles were used throughout the camp system. On arrival each prisoner was registered & given a number that replaced his or her name. This number was tattooed on the prisoners forearm. A scrap of fabric with this number was worn at chest height on the left of the jacket. Below this was a coloured triangle which showed the prisoners category. This triangle or winkel was also worn on the hem of the right trouser leg. Re-education prisoners, whose sentences were officially limited to 46-52 days but often lasted 3-6 months, were identified by a large E rather than a triangle. politicalcriminal anti-social e.g. lesbian, prostitute Jehovahs Witness emigrantSinti & Roma gypsy homosexual Jew, with a different triangle over the yellow one according to reason of imprisonment, making a Star of David e.g. Red & Yellow political Jew From mid-1944 a yellow strip replaced the yellow triangle Prisoners in the punishment units also wore a black dot. Prisoners suspected of planning an escape wore a red dot & the letters iL for im Lager (in the camp)