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    INSTRUCTIONAL THEORYis a discipline that focuses on how to structurematerial for promoting the education of human beings, particularly youth. Originating in the

    United States in the late 1970s, instructional theory is typically divided into two categories

    the cognitive and behaviorist schools of thought. !nstructional theory was spawned off the

    19"# wor$ of %en&amin %loom, a University of 'hicagoprofessor, and the results of his

    (a)onomy of *ducation Ob&ectives+ one of the first modern codifications of the learningprocess. One of the first instructional theorists was obert -. agne, who in 19#" published

    Conditions of Learning for the /lorida State Universitys epartment of *ducational


    enowned psychologist %. /. S$inners theories of behavior were highly influential on

    instructional theorists because their hypotheses can be tested fairly easily with the scientific

    process. !t is more difficult to demonstrate cognitive learning results. 2aulo /reiresPedagogy

    of the Oppressedhad a broad influence over a generation of 3merican educators with his

    criti4ue of various 5ban$ing5 models of education and analysis of the teacher6student

    relationship.citation needed8

    !n the conte)t of e6learning, a ma&or discussion in instructional theory is the potential of

    learning ob&ects to structure and deliver content.citation needed8 3 stand6alone educational

    animationis an e)ample of a learning ob&ect that can be re6used as the basis for different

    learning e)periences. (here are currently many groups trying to set standards for the

    development and implementation of learning ob&ects. 3t the forefront of the standards groups

    is the epartment of efenses 3dvanced istributed earning initiative with its S'O-

    standards.citation needed8S'O- stands for Shareable Content Object Reference Model.

    INSTRUCTIONAL DESIGN:also called Instructional Systems Design (ISD;

    is the practice of ma)imi



    !n 19"#, a committee lead by %en&amin %loompublished an influential ta)onomyof what he

    termed the three domains of learning 'ognitive :what one $nows or thin$s;, 2sychomotor

    :what one does, physically; and 3ffective:what one feels, or what attitudesone has;. (hese

    ta)onomies still influence the design of instruction.>8

    uring the latter half of the >0th century, learning theories began to be influenced by thegrowth of digital computers.

    !n the 1970s, many instructional design theorists began to adopt an information6processing6

    based approach to the design of instruction. avid -errill for instance developed 'omponent

    isplay (heory :'(;,which concentrates on the means of presenting instructional materials

    :presentation techni4ues;.?8

    ater in the 19@0s and throughout the 1990s cognitive loadtheory began to find empirical

    support for a variety of presentation techni4ues.A8

    !n education, INSTRUCTIONAL TECHNOLOGYis 5the theory and practiceof design, development, utili



    technologists would counter that education will always re4uire human intervention from

    instructors or facilitators.

    -any graduate programsare producing instructional designers, who increasingly are being

    employed by industry and universities to create materials for distance education programs.

    (hese professionals often employ e6learning tools, which provide distance learners theopportunity to interact with instructors and e)perts in the field, even if they are not located

    physically close to each other.

    -ore recently a new form of !nstructional technology $nown as Buman 2erformance

    (echnology has evolved. B2( focuses on performance problems and deals primarily with

    corporate entities.

    Relation to learning theory

    (he purpose of instructional technology, of course, is the promotion of learning. earning

    theory :education; has influenced !nstructional design and !nstructional designers :the

    practitioners of !nstructional (echnology;. !nstructional (echnologies promote

    communication and interactivity. (hese two come together under the general heading of


    -oore :19@9;argues that there are three types of learner interaction :learner6content, learner6

    instructor, and learner6learner interactions;. !n the years since -oores article, several

    philosophical views have surfaced that relate !nstructional technology to these types of


    -ost traditional researchers :those subscribing to 'ognitivism; argue that learner6contentinteraction is perhaps the most important endeavor of !nstructional technology. Some

    researchers :those subscribing to constructivism; argue that -oores social interactions,

    :learner6instructor and learner6learner interactions;, are as useful as learner6content



    a00"; advocates that educational technology covers instructional technology. !t

    includes instructional technology and the field study in human teaching and learning. So

    educational technology is broader than instructional technology. !nstructional technology

    itself is consisted from two ma&or parts. One is teaching technology and another is learningtechnology. !n the education industry, the term 5instructional technology5 is fre4uently used

    interchangeably with 5educational technology.5

    Buman 2erformance (echnology :B2(; has a focus on corporate environments. earning

    sciencesare a growing area of focus dealing instructional techni4ues and learning theories

    EDUCATIONAL TECHNOLOGY:also called learning tec!nology; is thestudy and ethical practice of facilitating learning and improving performance by creating,

    using and managing appropriate technological processes and resources.518 (he term

    educational technology is often associated with, and encompasses, instructional theory andlearning theory. =hileinstructional technologycovers the processes and systems of learning




    and instruction, educational technology includes other systems used in the process of

    developing human capability. *ducational (echnology includes, but is not limited to, software,

    hardware, as well as !nternet applications and activities.

    E"#lanation an$ meaning

    *ducational technology is most simply and comfortably defined as an array of tools that

    might prove helpful in advancing student learning. *ducational (echnology relies on a broad

    definition of the word 5technology5. (echnology can refer to material ob&ects of use to

    humanity, such as machines or hardware, but it can also encompass broader themes, including

    systems, methods of organi



    (hree main theoretical schools or philosophical framewor$s have been present in the

    educational technology literature. (hese are %ehaviorism, 'ognitivism and 'onstructivism.

    *ach of these schools of thought are still present in todays literature but have evolved as the

    2sychologyliterature has evolved.


    (his theoretical framewor$ was developed in the early >0th century with the animal learning

    e)periments of !van 2avlov, *dward (horndi$e, *dward '. (olman, 'lar$ . Bull, %./.

    S$inner and many others. -any psychologists used these theories to describe and e)periment

    with human learning. =hile still very useful this philosophy of learning has lost favor with

    many educators.

    Skinner's Contributions

    %./. S$innerwrote e)tensively on improvements of teaching based on his functional analysisof Derbal %ehavior,"8 and wrote 5(he (echnology of (eaching5,#8 an attempt to dispel the

    myths underlying contemporary education, as well as promote his system he called

    programmed instruction. Ogden indsley also developed the 'eleration learning system

    similarly based on behavior analysis but 4uite different from Eellers and S$inners models.


    'ognitive sciencehas changed how educators view learning. Since the very early beginning

    of the 'ognitive evolution of the 19#0s and 1970s, learning theory has undergone a great

    deal of change. -uch of the empirical framewor$ of %ehaviorism was retained even though a

    new paradigm had begun. 'ognitive theories loo$ beyond behavior to e)plain brain6basedlearning. 'ognitivists consider how human memory wor$s to promote learning.

    3fter memory theories li$e the 3t$inson6Shiffrin memory model and %addeleys =or$ing

    memorymodel were established as a theoretical framewor$ in 'ognitive 2sychology, new

    cognitive framewor$s of learning began to emerge during the 1970s, @0s, and 90s. !t is

    important to note that 'omputer Science and !nformation (echnology have had a ma&or

    influence on 'ognitive Science theory. (he 'ognitive concepts of wor$ing memory :formerly

    $nown as short term memory; and long term memory have been facilitated by research and

    technology from the field of 'omputer Science. 3nother ma&or influence on the field of

    'ognitive Science is Coam 'homs$y. (oday researchers are concentrating on topics li$e

    'ognitive loadand !nformation 2rocessing(heory.


    'onstructivism is a learning theory or educational philosophy that many educators began to

    consider in the 1990s. One of the primary tenets of this philosophy is that learners construct

    their own meaning from new information, as they interact with reality or others with different


    'onstructivist learning environments re4uire students to utili



    learners can construct their own $nowledge. 'onstructivist educators must ma$e sure that the

    prior learning e)periences are appropriate and related to the concepts being taught. Gonassen

    :1997; suggests 5well6structured5 learning environments are useful for novice learners and

    that 5ill6structured5 environments are only useful for more advanced learners. *ducators




    3 sometimes utili18.




    2. Instructional De&elo#ment Learning System (IDLS

    3nother instructional design model is the Instructional De&elo#ment Learning System

    (IDLS>>8. (he model was originally published in 1970 by 2eter G. *sseff, 2h.. and -ary

    Sullivan *sseff, 2h.. in their boo$ entitled$%LS&Pro rainer '( Ho) to %esign* %e#elop*

    and +alidate $nstructional Materials8>?8.

    2eter :19#@; H -ary :197>; *sseff both received their doctorates in *ducational (echnology

    from the 'atholic University of 3merica under the mentorship of r. abriel Ofiesh, a

    /ounding /ather of the -ilitary -odel mentioned above. *sseff and *sseff contributed


    !nstructional theories also play an important role in the design of instructional materials.

    (heories such as behaviorism, constructivism, social learning and cognitivism help shape anddefine the outcome of instructional materials.




    Ste# rocess

    !n the 3!* concept, each step has an outcome that bleeds into the subse4uent step.

    3nalysis J esign J evelopment J !mplementation J *valuation

    Analysis !ase

    !n the analysis phase, the instructional problem is clarified, the instructional goals and

    ob&ectives are established and the learning environment and learners e)isting $nowledge and

    s$ills are identified. %elow are some of the 4uestions that are addressed during the analysis


    56o are t6e learners and 76at are t6eir c6aracteristics8 56at is t6e ne7 be6aioral outcome8

    56at t9pes of learning constraints e:ist8

    56at are t6e delier9 options8

    56at are t6e online pedagogical considerations8

    56at are t6e %dult $earning T6eor9 considerations8

    56at is t6e timeline for pro;ect completion8

    Design !ase

    (he design phase deals with learning ob&ectives, assessment instruments, e)ercises, content,

    sub&ect matter analysis, lesson planning and media selection. (he design phase should be

    systematic and specific. Systematic means a logical, orderly method of identifying,

    developing and evaluating a set of planned strategies targeted for attaining the pro&ects goals.

    Specificmeans each element of the instructional design plan needs to be e)ecuted with

    attention to details.

    (hese are steps involved in design phase

    )ocument t6e pro;ectcognitie= a?ectie= and ps9c6omotor@.

    )esign t6e user interfaceand user e:perience

    #reate protot9pe

    %ppl9 isual design >grap6ic design@

    De&elo#ment !ase




    (he development phase is where instructional designers and developers create and assemble

    the content assets that were blueprinted in the design phase. !n this phase, storyboards and

    graphics are designed. !f elearning is involved, programmers develop andFor integrate

    technologies. (esters perform debugging procedures. (he pro&ect is reviewed and revised

    according to the feedbac$ received.

    Im#lementation !ase

    uring the implementation phase, a procedure for training the facilitators and the learners is

    developed. (he facilitators training should cover the course curriculum, learning outcomes,

    method of delivery, and testing procedures. 2reparation of the learners includes training them

    on new tools :software or hardware; and student registration.

    (his is also the phase where the pro&ect manager ensures that the boo$s, hands6on e4uipment,

    tools, '6O-s and software are in place, and that the learning application or website is


    E&aluation !ase

    (he evaluation phase consists of two parts formative and summative. /ormative evaluation is

    present in each stage of the 3!* process. Summative evaluationconsists of tests designed

    for domain specific criterion6related referenced items and providing opportunities for

    feedbac$ from the users which were identified


    $iu= B. C. >AA3@. Innoating researc6 topics in learning tec6nolog9D 56ereare t6e ne7 blue oceans8.!ritis6 ournal of Educational Tec6nolog9= 4>/@=23-2/2.

    Folenda= F. >AA@. In searc6 of t6e elusie %))IE model. +erformanceimproement= />0@= /.

    StricGland= %.5. >AA1@. %))IE. Ida6o State Uniersit9 #ollege of EducationScience= Fat6 H Tec6nolog9 Education. Retrieed une 4= AA1.

    F%STER $E%RNINB-astery earning is an instructional method that presumes all children can learn if they are

    provided with the appropriate learning conditions. Specifically, mastery learning is a method

    whereby students are not advanced to a subse4uent learning ob&ective until they demonstrate

    proficiency with the current one.

    -astery learning curricula generally consist of discrete topics which all students begin

    together. Students who do not satisfactorily complete a topic are given additional instruction

    until they succeed. Students who master the topic early engage in enrichment activities until

    the entire class can progress together. -astery learning includes many elements of successfultutoring and the independent functionality seen in high6end students. !n a mastery learning




    environment, the teacher directs a variety of group6based instructional techni4ues, with

    fre4uent and specific feedbac$ by using diagnostic, formative tests, as well as regularly

    correcting mista$es students ma$e along their learning path.

    (eachers evaluate students with criterion6referenced tests rather than norm6referenced tests.

    -astery learning has nothing to do with content, merely on the process of mastering it, and is

    based on%en&amin %looms earning for -astery model, with refinements made by %loc$.

    -astery learning may be implemented as teacher6paced group instruction, one6to6one

    tutoring, or self6paced learning with programmed materials. !t may involve direct teacher

    instruction, cooperation with classmates, or independent learning. !t re4uires well6defined

    learning ob&ectives organi



    the best definition of 4uality instruction when the desired outcome is scores on standardi



    to the 'arroll variable of Opportunity. (hese two variables are incorporated in the

    -anagement subcategory in the S4uires et al. model.

    (hemodel of the teachingFlearning processpresented in this class is derived from these and

    other models related historically to 'arrolls model:-c!lrath H Buitt, 199";. =hile 'arroll

    proposed very specific variables related to school learning, which have since been e4uatedwith scores on standardi



    Out#utincludes the specific measurement or measurements of learning :e.g., student

    achievement, social s$ills, cognitive development, etc.;. Conte"tincludes the environmental

    or situational factors such as home environment and changing global conditions that influence

    the definition and measurement of important educational outcomes as well as levels of

    important input and process variables. In#utincludes the characteristics of teachers and

    students that they bring to the teachingFlearning process. rocessincludes the thin$ing,feelings, commitments, and actions of teachers and students within the classroom or learning

    situation as well as the interaction patterns and descriptions of the learning environment that

    result from those interactions.

    Aca$emic Learning Time

    3cademic earning (ime:3(; is the variable that has replaced 5time spent5 or 5engaged

    time5 identified in 'arrolls :19#?; model. !t is defined as 5t!e amount o3 time stu$ents are

    success3ully co&ering content t!at 9ill )e teste$.5 3( is a combination of three separate

    variables content o&erla#, in&ol&ement, and success. 'ontent overlap is defined as 5the

    percentage of the content covered on the test actually covered by students in the classroom5:%rady et al., 1977I 'ooley H einhart, 19@0; and is sometimes referred to as Time+on+

    Target:S4uires, Buitt H Segars, 19@?;. !nvolvement is the 5amount of time students are

    actively involved in the learning process5 and is often referred to as Time+on+Tas1:Stallings

    H Eas$owit;

    students are 5on6tas$5 most of the class periodI and ?; students are successful on most the

    assignments they complete.

    esearch has demonstrated that 3( is the most appropriate time variable on which to focus

    :e.g., %erliner, 197@;. =hile changes in 3( are most directly impacted by the teachers

    classroom performance in terms ofplanning,management, and instruction, it is ultimately the

    result of many decisions about how time is spent in schools and classrooms, as depicted in the

    graph below. Small increasesin a number of these factors can lead to large increases in 3(.





    %erliner, . :197@;. Changing ,cademic Learning ime( Clinical inter#entions in four

    classrooms. San /rancisco /ar =est aboratory for *ducational esearch and

    evelopment. %rady, -., 'linton, ., Sweeney, G. 2eterson, -., H 2oynor, B. :1977;.$nstructional

    dimensions study. =ashington, ' Eirschner 3ssociates, !nc.

    'arroll, G. :19#?;. 3 model of school learning. eachers College Record* -, 7>?67??.

    'ooley, =. =., H einhardt, . :19@0;. (he instructional dimensions study.

    "ducational "#aluation and Policy ,nalysis* /, 76>#.

    'ruic$shan$, . :19@";. 2rofile of an effective teacher."ducational Hori0ons, 9069>.

    /isher, '., /ilby, C., -arliave, ., 'ahen, ., ishaw, -., -oore, G., and %erliner, .

    :197@;. eaching beha#iors( ,cademic Learning ime and student achie#ement( 1inal

    report of Phase $$$23* 3eginning eacher "#aluation Study. San /rancisco /ar =est

    aboratory for *ducational esearch and evelopment.

    -c!lrath, ., H Buitt, =. :199";. he teaching4learning process( , discussion of

    models. Daldosta, 3 Daldosta State University. etruieve -ay 199# from


    2roctor, '. :19@A;. (eacher e)pectations 3 model for school improvement. he

    "lementary School 5ournal, A#96A@1.

    Slavin, . :>00#;."ducational psychology( heory and practice:@th ed.; >776>798.Ceedham Beights, -3 3llyn and %acon. :/irst edition published in 19@#;.




    S4uires, ., Buitt, =., H Segars, G. :19@1;. !mproving classrooms and schools =hats

    important."ducational Leadership* 67:?;, 17A6179. etrieved September >00#, from


    S4uires, ., Buitt, =., H Segars, G. :19@?;."ffecti#e schools and classrooms( ,

    research2based perspecti#e. 3le)andria, D3 3ssociation for Supervision and'urriculum evelopment. See 'hapter 1


    Stallings, G., H Eas$owit



    studying...the factor of se) was also included in the analysis due to its observed :although

    une)pected; effect :pp. ?"@, ?#?;.

    !nterestingly, the females in this study had a tendency to benefit more than males if they

    related the specifics of their pictures to the whole concept.

    -odels have been used e)tensively in educational psychology to help clarify some of the

    answers researchers have found that might shed light on such 4uestions as, 5Bow do students

    learn effectivelyM5 Or, 5=hat is happening in this classroom that facilitates learning better

    than in another classroomM5

    -. =o!n Carroll4s ,o$el

    -ost current models that categori



    :1; organi; develop specific learning ob&ectives for each unit,

    :?; develop appropriate formative and summative assessment measures, and

    :A; plan and implement group teaching strategies, with sufficient time allocations, practice

    opportunities, and corrective reinstruction for all students to reach the desired level of


    0. roctor4s ,o$el

    2rior to the si)ties the research on important school6 and classroom6related variables was

    directed toward the best traits or characteristics of teachers in an attempt to identify good

    teaching and the important characteristics of schools and communities that support good

    teaching. 2roctor :19@A; provides a model that updates this view by including important

    teacher and student behaviors as predictors of student achievement. !t is derived from other

    teacher6 and classroom6based models but is redesigned to emphasi



    (he interactions in 2roctors :19@A; model include the schools overall policy on allowing

    time for children to learn or promoting other forms of student6based help when needed. (his

    could include *uality o3 instruction :as in 'arrolls :19#?; model above; or teac!er

    classroom )e!a&iors :as in 'ruic$shan$s :19@"; model below;. (hese behaviors have an

    effect on student classroom performance :especially academic learning time and curriculum

    coverage; and self6e)pectations .

    /inally, the stu$ent4s ac!ie&ement le&el in 2roctors :19@A; model is an outcome of all

    previous factors and variables. !t is hypothesi. Cruic1s!an14s ,o$el

    (he model by 'ruic$shan$ :19@"; is more classroom6 and teacher6basedI he was heavily

    influenced by models created by -it



    %iddle constructed his models to help answer 4uestions he thought parents might as$, such as5Bow often does my child get individual attention from the teacherM5 Or, 5oes the teacher

    really understand Guniors special problemM5 :3dams H %iddle, 1970, p. #;. %iddle also

    helped define non6cognitive variables which contribute to the affective domain :i.e., self6

    concept and self6esteem of the students;. 3n e)ample of these variables would be teacher

    genuineness, 5teacher6offered conditions of respect...and modification of low self6concept5

    :ood, %iddle H %rophy, 197", p. 19";.

    /landers :as cited in 'ruic$shan$, 19@"; offered the variables of teacher6 and student6

    classroom6tal$ and devised an instrument which focused on this behavior. 5Bis was the most

    fre4uently used instrument. !t permitted observation of teachers use of verbal influence,

    defined as teacher tal$ and pupil tal$, in a variety of classroom situations5 :'ruic$shan$, p.

    17;. 'ruic$shan$ put them all together and added additional presage variables such as pupil

    characteristics, properties :abilities and attitudes; and school, community and classroom


    2. Gage an$ %erliner4s ,o$el

    age and %erliner :199>; developed a model of the instructional process that focuses on those

    variables that must be considered by the classroom teacher as she designs and deliversinstruction to students. (his model attempts to define more precisely what is meant by

    54uality instruction5 and presents five tas$s associated with the instructionFlearning process.

    (he model is classroom6 and teacher6based and centers around the 4uestion, 5=hat does a

    teacher doM5

    3 teacher begins with o)?ecti&es and ends with an e&aluation. Instruction connects

    ob&ectives and evaluations and is based on the teachers $nowledge of the stu$ents4

    c!aracteristicsand how best to motivate them. !f the evaluations do not demonstrate that the

    desired results have been achieved, the teacher re6teaches the material and starts the process

    all over again. 'lassroom management is subsumed under the rubric of motivating students.

    age and %erliner suggest that the teacher should use research and principles fromeducational psychology to develop proper teaching procedures to obtain optimal results.




    @. Huitt4s ,o$el

    (he most recently developed model to be discussed :Buitt, 199"; identifies the ma&or

    categories of variables that have been related to school achievement. (he model is not only

    school6, classroom6, teacher6, and student6based, but includes additional conte)tual influences

    as well. Buitts model attempts to categori



    categories appear superimposed in the model since it is proposed they are essentially

    intertwined in the learning process.

    (his model shows !nput and Output as the beginning and end of the teachingFlearning process.

    Buitt :199"; believes that educators must first identify or propose an end result :as stated by

    age H %erliner, 199>; because how you identify and measure the end product :Output; will

    influence the selection of important predictor variables :e.g., =hat ou -easure !s =hat ou

    et,Bummel H Buitt, 199A;. Until the outcome ob&ectives are $nown, nothing else can be

    considered. Once outcome measures are selected, educators can begin to focus on those

    variables that can e)plain fluctuation or variability in those measures. 'onsidering or

    changing specific goals or ob&ectives may change the predictor variables from each of the

    other three categories. (hus, the Output or Outcome category is the most important and the

    focus of Buitts model.

    !n the United States, the most often cited Output measures are scores on stan$ar$i/e$ tests

    o3 )asic s1illssuch as reading, language arts, and mathematics as well as science and social

    studies. Since the United States is ran$ed 1Ath out of 1" countries in mathematics $nowledge

    and 1?th in science :Office of 2olicy and 2lanning, 199>;, we need to ta$e a very close loo$

    at how we can improve achievement on these measures. /or e)ample, the federal government

    focused on the tas$ of increasing the Output measurements of students when it adopted oals>000 :Swanson, 1991;.

    Bowever, student achievement in basic s$ills is not the only desired outcome of 3merican

    education. (he Secretary of abor presented additional re4uirements in the report by the

    Secretarys 'ommission on 3chieving Cecessary S$ills :S'3CSI =het;. (he

    S'3CS report focuses on the s$ills necessary for students to find wor$ in the information

    economy. !t addresses two categories of s$ills foundations :)asic s1ills8 t!in1ing s1ills an$

    #ersonal *ualities; that provide the platform on which the other s$ills will be built and

    competencies :!an$ling resources8 inter#ersonal s1ills8 in3ormational s1ills8 system s1ills8

    an$ tec!nology utili/ation s1ills; that more closely describe what wor$ers will actually be

    doing. Cote Buitt :1997; provides a criti4ue of the S'3C report that addresses importantoutcomes that were omitted.8

    (he most direct impact on important measures of school learning are those variables related to

    Classroom rocesses. (his category includes two ma&or subcategories :Teac!er %e!a&ior

    and Stu$ent %e!a&ior;, and an Ot!er :or miscellaneous; subcategory that includes such

    variables as classroom climate and student leadership roles..

    (he category of (eacher %ehavior includes the subcategories of #lanning:getting ready for

    classroom interaction;, management :getting the class under control;, and instruction

    :guiding the learning process;. !n general, planning activities have little predictable

    relationship to student achievement :age H %erliner, 199>;. %oth management andinstructional variables are moderately related to achievement, but the lac$ of a strong



    relationship may be due to be a factor of teacher inconsistency :osenshine H Stevens, 19@#;.

    (hat is, teachers often change their management and instructional practices based on the time

    of day or the characteristics of a particular group of students. (hree single variables, teachers

    providing corrective feedbac$ :e.g., give an e)planation of what is correct or incorrect and

    why;, teachers use of reinforcement, and level of student6teacher interaction :a variable

    developed from the wor$ of /landers, as cited in 'ruic$shan$, 19@"; seem to be the bestsingle classroom predictors of student success :osenshine H Stevens;. irect or e)plicit

    instruction :osenshine, 199"; appears to be the best model of instruction when scores on

    standardi;. Cone of theseadditional time variables were included in 'arrolls :19#?; model.




    =hat teachers and students do in the classroom will depend to some e)tent on the

    characteristics or 4ualities they bring to the teachingFlearning process. !n Buitts :199"; model

    these are labeled In#utvariables. (he subcategory of Teac!er C!aracteristicsincludes such

    variables as values and beliefsI $nowledge of students and the teachingFlearning processI

    thin$ing, communication and performance s$illsI and personality. =hile each of these is

    important to the classroom environment, teac!er e33icacy is one of the best predictors of

    student success from this subcategory :2roctor, 19@AI 3shton, 19@A;. !f a teacher believes

    that, in general, students can learn the $nowledge or s$ills, and that, specifically, he can teach

    them, then that teacher is more li$ely to use the $nowledge and s$ills he has and the students

    are more li$ely to learn.

    3 second subcategory of !nput is Stu$ent C!aracteristics. (his includes all of the

    descriptions of students that might have an influence on the teachingFlearning process and

    student outcome. Study BabitsI earning StyleI 3geI Se)FenderI aceF*thnicityI

    -otivationI and -oral, Socioemotional, 'ognitive, and 'haracter evelopment all become

    important in the relationship of classroom processesFbehavior and school achievement :Buitt,

    199";. Bowever, student aptitude andFor prere4uisite s$ills are probably the best student

    characteristic predictors :%loom, 197#;. !f time is held constant, then intelligence or ability to

    learn academic content will be a better predictor than prior $nowledge because the amount of

    content learned in the classroom is allowed to vary. (hat is, if everyone has the same amountof time in which to learn, then the speed at which one learns :aptitude; will be the best

    predictor of achievement. Bowever, if we vary the time students have to learn and $eep the

    content to be learned constant :such as in -astery earning;, then prior $nowledge is more

    salient. (hough we do not initially modify the student characteristics that each student brings

    to the classroom, as 2roctor :19@A; pointed out the teacher can arrange the teachingFlearning

    process and modify each students e)perience. (his results in different Outcomes, which in

    turn becomes the !nput for the ne)t learning cycle.

    /inally, Buitt :199"; includes the category of Conte"t that includes such subcategories as

    Sc!ool rocesses an$ C!aracteristics8 5amily, Community, State an$ 5e$eral

    Go&ernment, T7,o&ies, and the Glo)alEn&ironment. /or e)ample, research shows thatstudent achievement is impacted by class si



    3n simple e)ample of how some of these variables might interact is shown in the following

    model. (he si



    3lesandrini, E. :19@1;. 2ictorial6verbal and analytic6holistic learning strategies in

    science learning.5ournal of "ducational Psychology* 86:?;, ?"@6?#@.

    3shton, 2. :19@A;. (eacher efficacy 3 motivational paradigm for effective teacher

    education.5ournal of eacher "ducation* 6



    2erelman, . :199>;. School@s out( Hyperlearning* the ne) technology* and the end of

    education. Cew or$ =illiam -orrow.

    2roctor, '. 2. :19@A;. (eacher e)pectations 3 model for school improvement. he

    "lementary School 5ournal, A#96A@1. etrieved -ay >009, from


    osenshine, %. :199";. 3dvances in research on instruction. he 5ournal of

    "ducational Research* ;;:";, >#>6>#@.

    osenshine, %., H Stevens, . :19@#;. (eaching functions. !n -. =ittroc$ :*d.;,

    Handbook of research on teaching:?rd ed.; :?7#6?91;. Cew or$ -acmillan.

    osenthal, ., H Gacobson, . :19#@;.Pygmalion in the classroom.Cew or$ Bolt,

    inehart H =inston.

    S4uires, ., Buitt, =., H Segars, G. :19@?;."ffecti#e classrooms and schools( ,

    research2based perspecti#e. =ashington, .'. 3ssociation for Supervision and'urriculum evelopment.

    (offler, 3.,H (offler, B. :199";. Creating a ne) ci#ili0ation. Cew or$ (urner


    Doel$l, E. :199?;. 3chievement and e)pectations among 3frican63merican students.

    5ournal of Research and %e#elopment in "ducation* /8:1;, A>6"".

    =het, -arch;. he Secretary of Labor@s Commission on ,chie#ing

    Aecessary Skills. *!' igest. *!' ocument * ??97A98. etrieved October

    199", from httpFFteach.valdosta.eduFwhuittFFfilesFscansrpt.html

    =oolfol$, 3., H Boy, =. :1990;. 2rospective teachers sense of efficacy and beliefs

    about control.5ournal of "ducational Psychology* ;/:1;, @1691.

    Qill, C. :199>;. rends in family life and children@s school performance. =ashington,

    ' 'hild (rends, !nc. :*!' eproduction Co. *?7@>"7;.


    3 fundamental change in thin$ing about the nature of instruction was initiated in 19#? when

    Gohn %. 'arroll argued for the idea of mastery learning. -astery learning suggests that thefocus of instruction should be the time re4uired for different students to learn the same

    material. (his contrasts with the classic model :based upon theories of intelligence ; in which

    all students are given the same amount of time to learn and the focus is on differences in

    ability. !ndeed, 'arroll :19@9; argues that aptitute is primarily a measure of time re4uired to


    (he idea of mastery learning amounts to a radical shift in responsibility for teachersI the

    blame for a students failure rests with the instruction not a lac$ of ability on the part of the

    student. !n a mastery learning environment, the challenge becomes providing enough time and

    employing instructional strategies so that all students can achieve the same level of learning

    :evine, 19@"I %loom, 19@1;.




    (he $ey elements in matery learning are :1; clearly specifying what is to be learned and how

    it will be evaluated, :>; allowing students to learn at their own pace, :?; assessing student

    progress and providing appropriate feedbac$ or remediation, and :A; testing that final learning

    critierion has been achieved.

    -astery learning has been widely applied in schools and training settings, and research showsthat it can improve instructional effectiveness :e.g., %loc$, *fthim H %urns, 19@9I Slavin,

    19@7;. On the other hand, there are some theoretical and practical wea$nesses including the

    fact that people do differ in ability and tend to reach different levels of achievement :see 'o)

    H unn, 1979;. /urthermore, mastery learning programs tend to re4uire considerable

    amounts of time and effort to implement which most teachers and schools are not prepared to


    (he mastery learning model is closely aligned with the use of instructional ob&ectives and the

    systematic design of instructional programs :see agne, -errill;. (he 'riterion eferenced

    !nstruction :'!; model of -ageris an attempt to implement the mastery learning model. !n

    addition, the theoretical framewor$ of S$innerwith its emphasis on individualiA6>9.

    evine, . :19@";. !mproving Student 3chievement (hrough -astery earning 2rograms.San /rancisco Gossey6%ass.

    Slavin, .*. :19@7;. -astery learning reconsidered. eview of *ducational esearch, "7:>;,






    (R. GAGNE


    (his theory stipulates that there are several different types or levels of learning. (he

    significance of these classifications is that each different type re4uires different types of

    instruction. agne identifies five ma&or categories of learning verbal information, intellectual

    s$ills, cognitive strategies, motor s$ills and attitudes. ifferent internal and e)ternal

    conditions are necessary for each type of learning. /or e)ample, for cognitive strategies to be

    learned, there must be a chance to practice developing new solutions to problemsI to learn

    attitudes, the learner must be e)posed to a credible role model or persuasive arguments.

    agne suggests that learning tas$s for intellectual s$ills can be organi; informing learners of the ob&ective :e)pectancy;

    :?; stimulating recall of prior learning :retrieval;

    :A; presenting the stimulus :selective perception;

    :"; providing learning guidance :semantic encoding;

    :#; eliciting performance :responding;

    :7; providing feedbac$ :reinforcement;

    :@; assessing performance :retrieval;

    :9; enhancing retention and transfer :generali;.


    =hile agnes theoretical framewor$ covers all aspects of learning, the focus of the theory is

    on intellectual s$ills. (he theory has been applied to the design of instruction in all domains

    :agner H riscoll, 19@@;. !n its original formulation :agne, 1 9#>;, special attention was

    given to military training settings. agne :19@7; addresses the role of instructional technology

    in learning.





    (he following e)ample illustrates a teaching se4uence corresponding to the nine instructional

    events for the ob&ective, ecogni. !dentify ob&ective 6 pose 4uestion 5=hat is an e4uilateral triangleM5

    ?. ecall prior learning 6 review definitions of trianglesA. 2resent stimulus 6 give definition of e4uilateral triangle

    ". uide learning6 show e)ample of how to create e4uilateral

    #. *licit per formance 6 as$ students to create " different e)amples

    7. 2rovide feedbac$ 6 chec$ all e)amples as correctFincorrect

    @. 3ssess performance6 provide scores and remediation

    9. *nhance retentionFtransfer 6 show pictures of ob&ects and as$ students to identify


    agne :19@", chapter 1>; provides e)amples of events for each category of learning



    1. ifferent instruction is re4uired for different learning outcomes.

    >. *vents of learning operate on the learner in ways that constitute the conditions of learning.

    ?. (he specific operations that constitute instructional events are different for each different

    type of learning outcome.

    A. earning hierarchies define what intellectual s$ills are to be learned and a se4uence of



    agne, . :19#>;. -ilitary training and principles of learning. 3merican 2sychologist, 17,


    agne, . :19@";. (he 'onditions of earning :Ath ed.;. Cew or$ Bolt, inehart H =inston


    agne, . :19@7;. !nstructional (echnology /oundations. Billsdale, CG awrence *rlbaum3ssoc.

    agne, . H riscoll, -. :19@@;. *ssentials of earning for !nstruction :>nd *d.;. *nglewood

    'liffs, CG 2rentice6Ball.

    agne, ., %riggs, . H =ager, =. :199>;. 2rinciples of !nstructional esign :Ath *d.;. /ort

    =orth, (P B%G 'ollege 2ublishers.





    (R. ,AGER


    (he 'riterion eferenced !nstruction :'!; framewor$ developed by obert -ager is a

    comprehensive set of methods for the design and delivery of training programs. Some of the

    critical aspects include :1; goalFtas$ analysis 66 to identify what needs to be learned, :>;

    performance ob&ectives 66 e)act specification of the outcomes to be accomplished and how

    they are to be evaluated :the criterion;, :?; criterion referenced testing 66 evaluation of

    learning in terms of the $nowledgeFs$ills specified in the ob&ectives, :A; development of

    learning modules tied to specific ob&ectives.

    (raining programs developed in '! format tend to be self6paced courses involving a variety

    of different media :e.g., wor$boo$s, videotapes, small group discussions, computer6based

    instruction;. Students learn at their own pace and ta$e tests to determine if they have mastered

    a module. 3 course manager administers the program and helps students with problems.

    '! is based upon the ideas of mastery learning and performance6oriented instruction. !t also

    incorporates many of the ideas found inagnes theory of learning:e.g., tas$ hierarchies,

    ob&ectives; and is compatible with most theories of adult learning :e.g., Enowles, ogers;

    because of its emphasis on learner initiative and self6management.


    'riterion referenced instruction is applicable to any form of learningI however, it has been

    applied most e)tensively in technical training includingtroubleshooting.


    '! has been applied to a wor$shop that -ager gives about '!. (he wor$shop consists of a

    series of modules :mostly print materials; with well6defined ob&ectives, practice e)ercises,

    and mastery tests. 2articipants have some freedom to choose the order in which they complete

    the modules, provided they satisfy the prere4uisites shown on the course map. /or e)ample, in

    one module on Ob&ectives, the student must learn the three primary components of anob&ective, recogni. Students study and practice only those s$ills not yet mastered to the level re4uired by the




    ?. Students are given opportunities to practice each ob&ective and obtain feedbac$ about the

    4uality of their performance.

    A. Students should receive repeated practice in s$ills that are used often or are difficult to


    ". Students are free to se4uence their own instruction within the constraints imposed by the

    pre6re4uisites and progress is controlled by their own competence :mastery of ob&ectives;.


    -ager, . :197";. 2reparing !nstructional Ob&ectives :>nd *dition;. %elmont, '3 a$e

    2ublishing 'o.

    -ager, . H 2ipe, 2. :19@A;. 3nalynd *dition;. %elmont, '3 a$e 2ublishing 'o.

    -ager, . :19@@;. -a$ing !nstruction =or$. %elmont, '3 a$e 2ublishing 'o.

    Algo-Heuristic Theory L! Lan"a#


    andas theory is concerned with identifying mental processes 66 conscious and especially

    unconscious 66 that underlie e)pert learning, thin$ing and performance in any area. Bis

    methods represent a system of techni4ues for getting inside the mind of e)pert learners andperformers which enable one to uncover the processes involved. Once uncovered, they are

    bro$en down into their relative elementary components 66 mental operations and $nowledge

    units which can be viewed as a $ind of psychological 5atoms5 and 5molecules5. 2erforming a

    tas$ or solving a problem always re4uires a certain system of elementary $nowledge units and


    (here are classes of problems for which it is necessary to e)ecute operations in a well

    structured, predefined se4uence :algorithmic problems;. /or such problem classes, it is

    possible to formulate a set of precise unambiguous instructions :algorithms; as to what one

    should do mentally andFor physically in order to successfully solve any problem belonging to

    that class. (here are also classes of problems :creative or heuristic problems; for whichprecise and unambiguous sets of instructions cannot be formulated. /or such classes of

    problems, it is possible to formulate instructions that contain a certain degree of uncertainty

    :heuristics;. anda also describes semi6algorithmic and semi6heuristic problems, processes

    and instructions.

    (he theory suggests that all cognitive activities can be analy



    =ith respect to se4uencing of instruction, anda proposes a number of strategies, the most

    important of which is the 5snowball5 method. (his method applies to teaching a system of

    cognitive operations by teaching the first operation, then the second which is practiced with

    the first, and so on.


    =hile this is a general theory of learning, it is illustrated primarily in the conte)t of

    mathematics and foreign language instruction. !n recent years, anda has applied his theory to

    training settings under the name 5andamatics5 :*ducational (echnology , 199?;


    anda :197#; provides the following e)ample of an algorithm for teaching a foreign spea$er

    how to choose among the *nglish verbs 5to offer5, 5to suggest5 and 5to propose5

    'hec$ to see whether something that one presents to another person is a tangible ob&ect orviewed as tangible. !f yes, use 5offer5. !f no, it is an idea about some action to be performed.

    'hec$ to see if this idea is presented formally. !f yes, use 5propose5, otherwise use 5suggest5.

    3pplying the snowball method would involve teaching the student the action of chec$ing the

    first condition and then the action of chec$ing the second condition followed by practice that

    re4uires both conditions to be chec$ed. anda e)plains that after sufficient practice the

    application of the algorithm would become automatic and unconscious.


    1. !t is more important to teach algo6heuristic processes to students than prescriptions

    :$nowledge of processes;I on the other hand, teachers need to $now both.

    >. 2rocesses can be taught through prescriptions and demonstrations of operations.

    ?. (eaching students how to discover processes is more valuable than providing them already


    A. %rea$ processes down into elementary operations of si





    /or more about anchored instruction, visit the web site of Gohn %ransford or the Gasper

    =oodbury pro&ect at Danderbilt University.


    %ransford, G.. et al. :1990;. 3nchored instruction =hy we need it and how technology canhelp. !n . Ci) H . Sprio :*ds;, 'ognition, education and multimedia. Billsdale, CG

    *rlbaum 3ssociates.

    %ransford, G.. H Stein, %.S. :199?;. (he !deal 2roblem Solver :>nd *d;. Cew or$


    '(D :1990;. 3nchored instruction and its relationship to situated cognition. *ducational

    esearcher, 19 :#;, >610.

    '(D :199?;. 3nchored instruction and situated cognition revisted. *ducational (echnology,

    ?? :?;, ">6 70.

    Cogniti$e Dissonance L! %estinger#


    3ccording to cognitive dissonance theory, there is a tendency for individuals to see$

    consistency among their cognitions :i.e., beliefs, opinions;. =hen there is an inconsistency

    between attitudes or behaviors :dissonance;, something must change to eliminate the

    dissonance. !n the case of a discrepancy between attitudes and behavior, it is most li$ely thatthe attitude will change to accommodate the behavior.

    (wo factors affect the strength of the dissonance the number of dissonant beliefs, and the

    importance attached to each belief. (here are three ways to eliminate dissonance :1; reduce

    the importance of the dissonant beliefs, :>; add more consonant beliefs that outweigh the

    dissonant beliefs, or :?; change the dissonant beliefs so that they are no longer inconsistent.

    issonance occurs most often in situations where an individual must choose between two

    incompatible beliefs or actions. (he greatest dissonance is created when the two alternatives

    are e4ually attractive. /urthermore, attitude change is more li$ely in the direction of less

    incentive since this results in lower dissonance. !n this respect, dissonance theory iscontradictory to most behavioral theories which would predict greater attitude change with

    increased incentive :i.e., reinforcement;.


    issonance theory applies to all situations involving attitude formation and change. !t is

    especially relevant to decision6ma$ing and problem6solving.


    'onsider someone who buys an e)pensive car but discovers that it is not comfortable on longdrives. issonance e)ists between their beliefs that they have bought a good car and that a