TECHNICAL TEXTILESBy Rachit Modi Arpan Rayate Gaurav Chopra L.D. College of Engineering
TECHNICAL TEXTILES A Technical textile is a textile product manufactured for nonaesthetic purposes, where function is the primary criterion. It is a large and growing sector and supports a vast array of other industries. Technical textiles include textiles for automotive applications, medical textiles (e.g., implants), geotextiles (reinforcement of embankments), agrotextiles (textiles for crop protection), and protective clothing (e.g., heat and radiation protection for fire fighter clothing, molten metal protection for welders, stab protection and bulletproof vests, and spacesuits). Over all, global growth rates of technical textiles are about 4% per year greater than the growth of home and apparel textiles, which are growing at a rate of 1% per year.
Fields of Technical Textile, Application and Statistical Analysis
AGROTECHTechnical textile products used in agriculture, horticulture (incl. floriculture), fisheries and forestry.
The technical textile products covered under Agrotech are given below:Shade-nets Crop-covers Bird protection nets Mulch-mats Anti-hail nets and Fishing nets
Technical textiles consumption under Agrotech in India is estimated at around Rs 487 Crore. Fishing nets - 90% valued at Rs 442 Crore in 2007-08
BUILDTECHBuildtech segment comprises of textiles or composite materials used in the construction of permanent and temporary buildings as well as structures. The products covered under Buildtech are given below:Architectural membranes Hoardings & signages Cotton canvas tarpaulins HDPE tarpaulins Awnings & canopies Scaffolding nets Floor & wall coverings Domestic consumption - Rs 1,726 crore HDPE tarpaulins -Rs 650 crore - 40% Utility: Buildtech products offer characteristics such as lightness, strength and creep, degradation by chemicals and pollutants in the air.
ClothtechComprises of textile components used for specific functional applications in garments and shoes. Shoe laces Interlinings Zip fasteners Velcro Labels Sewing threads Umbrella cloth ` Consumption - Rs 6,570 crore ` Sewing threads 60% followed by labels with about 19%. ` Interlining - 8% share and elastic narrow fabric tapes - 6%. ` Shoe laces and zip fasteners 5% ` Velcro and umbrella cloth - around 2% Utility: Clothtech Products ensure accurate fit and optimum wear comfort. It imparts stretcheability, shrink resistance
MeditechMeditech products include textile materials used in hygiene, health and personal care as well as surgical applications. Their use is based on a number of typical basic textile properties like softness and lightness, flexibility, absorption, filtering etc. The technical textile products covered under Meditech are as given below:Baby diapers Incontinence diapers Sanitary napkin Surgical sutures Disposables Surgical dressing Contact lens Artificial implants Advantages: Meditech products will prevent hospital acquired infection, cross-infection, and provide savings in overall healthcare costs due to reduced cross-infections. Improved Meditech products will provide comfort and quicker healing.
MobiltechMobiltech segment of technical textiles is used in the construction of automobiles, railways, ships, aircraft and space craft. The Mobiltech products can be broadly classified into two categories Visible components and Concealed components The technical textile products covered under Mobiltech are as given below:Nylon tyre cord Airbags Seat upholstery/fabric Car body covers Helmet Airline disposables Webbings for aircrafts Aircraft upholstery Railways seating fabrics
Nylon tyre cord accounts for over 60% of the total technical textile consumption in the segment followed by seat upholstery / fabric with a share of around 13%. Advantages: It provides good performance and safety, reduce the weight of the car, enhance the comfort and aesthetics and provide advanced insulation, fire retardancy.
OekotechOekotech or Ecotech segment refers to use of technical textiles in Environmental Engineering. The primary segment in this is Landfill waste management which refers to the use of Geosynthetic products to secure landfills against leakage of municipal or hazardous waste. Other areas include secondary protection in Chemical/Oil Industries, etc. Fishing nets constitute over 90% of the Agrotech technical textiles usage valued at Rs 442 crore in 2007-08 and are expected to grow at 5 % year on year for the next five years. Utility: The landfill is to bury the trash in such a way that it will be isolated from groundwater, will be kept dry and will not be in contact with air.
GeotechGeotech segment comprises of technical textile products used in Geotechnical applications pertaining to soil, rock, earth etc. The principal functions performed by Geotextiles are confinement /separation, reinforcement, filtration and drainage, and protection. Application areas include Civil, Marine and Environmental Engineering Other specialized Geotech products comprise. Geogrids (synthetic filaments and tapes etc formed into a very open, grid like configuration having large apertures) Geonets (extruded ribs set in net like fashion with small apertures), Geomembranes (impermeable fabric as barrier) Geocomposites (products using two or more Geotextiles e.g. Pre-fabricated Drains-PVD)
HometechHometech segment of technical textiles comprises of the textile components used in the domestic environment. They are made of both natural and synthetic fibres. The technical textile products covered under Hometech are as given below:Fiberfil Stuff toys Mattress and pillow components Filter cloth for vacuum cleaners Carpet backing cloth (Jute & Synthetic) Nonwoven wipes Mosquito nets Fiberfil and pillow and mattress together constitute over 50% of the usage under the Hometech segment stuffed toys with a share of 13% and carpet backing cloth with around 9% share. The HVAC and vacuum filter fabrics and non woven wipes segments constitute less than 1% of the total Hometech segment consumption.
IndutechIndutech includes technical textile products used in the manufacturing sector. The technical textile products covered under Indutech are given below:Conveyor belts (TT component) Bolting cloth Drive belts (TT component) AGM glass battery separators Cigarette filter rods Coated abrasives (TT component) Decatising cloth Ropes & cordages Printed circuit boards (TT componenT) Composites (technical textiles component) Computer printer ribbon Paper making fabrics Filteration Products
Indutech is expected to increase from around Rs 2,326 crore in 2007-08 to around Rs 4,090 crore by 2012-13 growing at a CAGR of around 12%. Utility: With advanced Indutech products like Nonwoven nano fibre filtration media is now filling the micro-filtration performance gap that had existed in the past, offering benefits such as enhanced air quality, reduced energy cost, and longer service life.
Packtech includes several flexible packaging materials used for industrial, agricultural, consumer and other goods. The technical textile products covered under Packtech are as given below:Polyolefin woven sacks Wrapping fabric Jute hessian and sacks Soft luggage products Lenobag
Woven sacks account for around 50% of consumption under Packtech followed by Jute hessian and sacks with around 30% share. Advantages: It provides Innovative packing solutions such as oxygen scavenging, packaging for foodstuffs and anti-static packaging for computer equipment. With the advantage of moisture proof quality they are used for packing moisture sensitive goods.
Protech is an ensemble of textile products and related material used in the manufacture of various protective clothing for personnel working in hazardous environment.
The technical textile products covered under Protech are as given below:Bullet-proof jackets Fire retardant apparels Radiation protection textile Chemical protection clothing Industrial gloves High altitude clothing Indian Defence Forces with a total strength of around 1.5 million individuals comprising the army, navy and air force, is one of the largest consumers of protective textiles. Advantages: Protective Textiles are used for protection from harmful chemical environment, extreme temperature environments, ballistic etc.
SportechSportech segment comprises of technical textile products used in sports and leisure The technical textile products covered under Sportech are as given below:Sports composites Artificial turf Parachute fabrics Sail cloth Ballooning fabrics Sleeping bags Sport shoes Tents Swimwear
The technical textiles usage in the Sportech segment is valued at Rs 2,632 crore in 2007-08. Domestic consumption of sports footwear components is valued at Rs 2,250 crore, accounting for around 85% of the total segment consumption. It is expected to grow at around 11% y-o-y over the next five years. Sport composites include inflatable balls (footballs, volleyball, basketballs, etc), cricket protective equipments and boxing equipments.
INTERNATIONAL TECHNICAL TEXTILESThe trend in the various sectors in the textile industry in many industrialized countries indicate that the use of conventional textiles has reached a static level and its manufacture has become highly competitive, often unviable and many companies are switching over to valueadded technical textiles with capability to meet functional demands for precision applications. As use of technical textiles is dictated by need, its pricing normally offers good margins. There is a steady growth of bot