Teaching Social & Sustainable Entrepreneurship

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Academy of Mgmt PDW on teaching social & sustainable entrepreneurship -- see Jill Kickul's slides too!


  • Norris Krueger, PhD

    External Fellow, Max Planck Institute of Economics

    Entrepreneurship Northwest

    Academy of Management

    6 August 2010

    Teaching Social & Sustainable



  • So..

    What IS entrepreneurship anyway? What is it that entrepreneurs do?

    Its about making money?


    OK, then its about starting a business?

    Not really.

    Its about figuring out ways to create & deliver value?


  • Key issues?

    What We Teach

    How We Teach

    Why We Teach?


  • Mental Prototypes

    What do YOU think when I say:

    social entrepreneur?

    sustainable entrepreneur?

    even and especially opportunity?

    Impact of role models like instructors

    What we teach will reflect our own mental prototypes (& how we teach it)


  • My mental prototype?

    Its Not About You (www.soulshelter.com/fortune/entrepreneurship-why-its-not-about-you/)

    Entrepreneurs create & deliver value

    Harness passion (& skills) in service of

    creating & delivering value

    Residual claimant model (ec dev)


  • Entrepreneurship: Its Not About You

    Looking across the living room of his expansive flat in Hong Kongs tony Victoria Peak neighborhood, Peter Hamilton spoke in the

    calm, slightly world-weary voice of a man who will never again worry

    about earning a living. The ones who made it, he said softly, are the ones who werent in it for the money. The fortune-seekers couldnt sustain their passion through the hard timesand there were hard times.

    What, then, is entrepreneurship about?

    Exploiting a market opportunity? Fame? Fortune? Proving yourself?

    First, a tip as to what entrepreneurships not about: Entrepreneurship is not about you. Its not about you getting rich, you proving something to the world, you struggling to overcome the odds.

    Rather, its about you helping other people achieve their goals.

    Now the question is, what do you CARE about?


  • WHAT We Teach


  • Return of the Heffalump? Social & Sustainable Entrepreneurship:

    Is It Growing or

    Just Getting Bigger?

    Does It Matter?


  • Big Tent? The Welsh, et al. Data

    298 syllabi from around the world compiled in 2007 by Brock, Welsh, Steiner, and Krueger

    86 (29%) were from universities outside the U.S.

    2007 Worldwide survey - 269 faculty

    Compare mental models with pedagogy preferences

    What consistent patterns did we find?


  • Key Patterns

    Definitions all over the map

    Ask me how many syllabi mentioned ethics

    SE pedagogy also all over BUT

    Minimal experiential learning

    Surprisingly little entrepreneurship?


  • Patterns, continued

    No pattern in social entrepreneurship courses at best

    Entrepreneurship-trained instructors more project based but.

    Focusing on sustainable entrepreneurship yields a VERY different picture

    Decreasingly in b-schools?

    Design ethos


  • 12

  • HOW We Teach


  • Two Kinds of Schooling (http://sethgodin.typepad.com/seths_blog/2010/07/two-kinds-of-schooling.html)

    "Type 1. You can take a class where you learn technique, facts &


    Type 2. You can take a class where you learn to see, learn to lead &

    learn to solve interesting problems.

    The first type of teaching isn't particularly difficult to do & it's something

    were trained to absorb. The first type of schooling can even be done with self-discipline & a Dummies book. Important but not scarce.

    The second kind, on the other hand, is where all real success comes from.

    It's really tricky to find and train people to do this sort of teaching, and

    anytime you can find some of it, you should grab it.

    Over and over I see the same thing--organizations refusing to do the

    difficult work of teaching people to see. One college dean was so stuck

    in his type-1ness that he couldn't even bring himself to participate in a

    session run by a gifted type 2 teacher.


  • Novice Expert



    Critical Developmental


    Change in what we know (content)

    Change in how we know

    it (knowledge structures)

    Change in Deep Beliefs

    But what deep beliefs are we changing? That we intend to change?


  • Herb Simons (1963) Levels


  • Getting at Deep Cognitive Structures

    Understand cognitive change =

    Neuroscience perspectives?

    And Why Not Neuro-entrepreneurship?

    Ultimatum game? (Prisoners Dilemma??)

    Develop maps, scripts/schemas

    Results already, just not in SocEnt?

    Sahakian team 'hot' cognitions Social versus economic dimensions of opportunity

    (Grichnik, Welpe & Krueger)

    and semi-lexicographic preferencing!

    (Krueger & Kickul) 17

  • Ultimatum games: This is your brain on unfairness


  • Horses & Jockeys?

    All this means the who is critical

    Novice ----- Expert

    * Deliberate practice

    * Mentoring by


    New models: TechStars, Y-Combinator..

    (but what also happens of interest?) 19

  • Lean and (Not so) Mean? Lean doesnt mean cheap.. It means FAST

    Lean could just as easily be called Learn!

    WHEN to be Lean? Extreme uncertainty

    Significant ambiguity (Type III errors)

    Startups scalable startups

    New Product Development / Tech Transfer

    Also sounds like

    Social / Sustainable / BOTP

  • Minimize TOTAL time through the loop





    Source: Eric Ries,

    The Lean Startup

  • Failing fast is also a misnomer fail FORWARD which means

    Better your assumptions fail than your biz

    Forces attention on Value


    Build Test/Measure Learn (L,R,R)

  • OK, To YOU what IS.

    Social entrepreneurship?

    ..for that matter

    Sustainable entrepreneurship?


  • 24

  • But.

    "We should aim to not only become Ph.D's, but Ph.Do's too! The world needs leaders

    who act, more than ever." -John Hope Bryant

    For more info:



    www.Youtube.com/IgniteBoise - look for my video!


  • Extra backup slides hereafter

    To cover possible questions...

    Need to add back the other data slides

    from Krueger & Welsh on syllabi/survey)


  • Passion

    Are entrepreneurs passionate?

    Are social/sustainable entrepreneurs even more passionate (possibly about more


    Vallerands dichotomy?

    Entrepreneurial intensity?

    Passion as lexicographic preferencing?


  • Cingulate (yellow), orbitofrontal (pink), amygdala (orange), somatosensory (green), insula (purple)


  • One last neuro angle (last NYU conf) Passion:

    Semi-Lexicographic Preferences?

    Multiple attributes MCDM Heuristic thinking Bounded rationality (reduced evoked set)

    Categorization theory (simplifying)

    Effectuation theory? (starting with what you have)

    Human reality: Lexicographic preferencessort of

    Non-compensatory vs. compensatory preferences

    (tradeoffs vs. deal-breakers)

    Deal-breakers = sources/channel of passion?

    Are social/sustainable entrepreneurs even more passionate (possibly about more things?)


  • Mapping supraeconomic opportunity space

    Alternative supraeconomic opportunity spaces (2 domains)

    (intersection) (union)

    Alternative supraeconomic opportunity spaces (3 domains)

    (intersection) (union) (complex)


  • 31

  • Figure 4: Utilities by Attribute

    0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1

    Growing Very Fast

    Not Growing

    Competing on Quality

    Competing on Price

    High Tech

    Low Tech

    Seeking new product markets

    Defending existing product markets

    Funded through external capital

    Funded internally

    Seeking strong financial performance

    Not placing a high priority on financial performane

    Not emphasizing social responsibility

    Consciously focusing on being socially sustainable

    Intentionally seeking to be environmentally sustainable

    Not emphasizing environmental sustainability

    Competitive Conditions are chaiging rapidly

    Competitive conditions are stable