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TEA - Camellia sinensis Family - Theaceae Genus - Camellia Species - sinensis

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Text of TEA - Camellia sinensis Family - Theaceae Genus - Camellia Species - sinensis

  • TEA - Camellia sinensisFamily - TheaceaeGenus - CamelliaSpecies - sinensis

  • Related PlantsOrnamental Camellias

  • Groups of TeaChina type - C. sinensis var. sinensisNorthern slope of the Himalayan MtsElevated altitudes, semi-humid forestBush with small erect leaves with many serrationsFlowers are borne singlyGreater tolerance to drought and low temp.Main tea produced in China and Japan

  • Groups of TeaAssam type - C. sinensis var. assamicaSouthern slopes of the Himalayan MtsFound in humid dense forestTreeLeaves are larger with less serrations, less erect, and tend to droop at tipsLeaves lighter green colorFlower in clusters of 2-4

  • Origin and Domestication of TeaChinaAssam18331930sTrade with Europe1600s

  • Tea DomesticationChina type domesticated in south China4000 years ago?Spread throughout China and JapanTrading with Europe beginning in early 1600sEarliest maritime explorations by the Portuguese and DutchEngland enters trade with East India Co in mid to late 1600sEast India Trade Co monopoly on tea trade ends in 1833

  • Tea DomesticationTea growing in India investigatedSeed of China type were planted various locationsGrew best in Assam, NE India - so developed plantationsTea-like plants grew wild throughout forest in this area - these were the Assam type teaInitial plantings were mixtures of China and Assam tea plantsOutcrossing plantsSeed propagationHybrid tea populations were developed

  • Tea DomesticationAssam region initial area of domestication of Assam teaLate 1800s South IndiaSri Lanka (esp. after rust destroyed the coffee industry)Java and Indonesia1930sEquatorial highlands of Central and East AfricaCurrent Assam tea is a hybrid type derived from the initial mixed plantings in NE India

  • Origin and Domestication of TeaChinaAssam18331930s

  • Tea ProductionBy weight 50% total production of coffeeIncreasing

  • Tea ProductionMuch of production consumed locally

  • Tea ImportationsMuch of production consumed locally

  • The Tea PlantPerennial evergreen bush/treeHarvest young leaves

  • The Tea PlantUnderstorey treesAdaptationTemperature18-30CLeaf growth stops Below 13CAbove 35CShoot replacement cycle related to temp.Equatorial regionGrown in highlands (1000-3000 m)At low latitude/altitude need shade for best growth (Assam type)RainfallSoil type

  • The Tea PlantUnderstorey treesAdaptationRainfall1150 mm if evenly distributedSoil typeAcid soils (pH 4.0 to 5.6)Good drainageGood water holding capacity

  • Tea Plant PropagationSeedShort period of viabilityGerminate in sun and plant into pots once begin to emerge2-3 years before field planting sizeTraditional approach to propagationSeedlings are not uniformClonallySingle node cuttingsReady for field in 1 yearRooted cuttings are uniform

  • Tea PlantingDensity of planting10,000 to 15,000/haUse of shadeInitially all tea in Assam with shadeNow many areas without shadeHigher yields without shadeGreater response to fertilizer without shadeSome exceptionsHigh heat areas (lowlands of north India/Bangladesh)Low input system, in highlands of Kenya, shaded system is equal or better than unshaded

  • Tea Training and PruningTrainingHead back to 20 cm at plantingNext year to 40 cmFinal year at 60 cm to form a level plucking tablePruningNeed to cut back periodicallyPlucking table will slowly risePeriodically need to rejuvenatePrune below branchesBring to bear again

  • Tea HarvestingHarvest - Most done by handTipsBud only gives best productFine plucking - most commonBud plus 2 leavesCoarse pluckingBud plus 3 leavesImportant to begin processing quickly

  • Tea Harvesting

  • Types of TeaGreen TeaNot fermentedOnly China type tea Mainly China and JapanOolong TeaSemi fermentedProduced in TaiwanBlack Tea (highest production)Fermented

  • Tea Processing

  • Black Tea ProcessingWitheringThin layers of leaves in traysLeaves allowed to dry to lose turgidity18-24 hours50% weight loss

  • Black Tea ProcessingRollingTwists and breaks up leafExpresses leaf sapGood contact with flavanols and polyphenol oxidaseDone 3-5 times1st roll = dhools, most tender parts of the leaves2nd and 3rd rolls = mahls and finesSticks left over = big bulkNeed to keep temp between 27 - 32 CMechanical heatHeat generated by oxidation

  • Black Tea ProcessingFermentation = oxidationBegins with rollers, dhool stagesFlavor and aroma developsLeaves turn darkFlavanols >> colored theaflavins, thearubiginsLimit of 4-5 hours

  • Black Tea ProcessingDrying = stops oxidationTime of fermentation SubjectiveImportant in qualityIn at 82 - 94 C and finish at 53 CMoisture level54% to 3% moisture

  • Black Tea ProcessingGrading and SortingBroken Orange Pekoe (high % buds)Broken PekoeOrange Pekoe (twisted tender stalk)Pekoe - compact and denseSouchong - compact and denseBroken Orange Pekoe Fanning

  • Green Tea ProcessingPrevent fermentationInitial heating to destroy polyphenol oxidaseRolled at 90-100 C for 45-50 min - 50% moistureRolled without heat for 15 minDried at 50-60 C (30-40 min) - 30% moistureRolled on heated pan (80-90 C), 40 min.Dried at 80 C -
  • Quality ControlUse same weight of tea per cupAllowed to steep in hot water same timeGrade indicated by cup placement

  • Quality ControlJudge quality of tea samplesEnsure consistent flavor of blendsTea judged better gets higher price

  • Top Tea VarietalsDarjeelingFirst flush, light almondy, flowery scent, puckery mouthfeelSecond flush, darker, more body, hints of muscatFormosa OolongChampagne of teas, grown at lower altitudesAroma of peach blossoms, wisp of smokiness, almost no mouth pucker (astringency)

  • Top Tea VarietalsYunnanFull body, rich, wispy smokiness, hint of pepperinessEarl GreyFlavored teaBlack tea with bergamot (citrus of Sicilian origin)CeylonClean, bright flavor

  • Health Benefits of Tea

  • Health Benefits of TeaReduce risk of Coronary Heart DiseaseEpidemiological studiesLowers blood levels of LDL cholesterolFlavonoids are antioxidants95% polyphenols in tea are flavanoidsHigher anti oxidant activity than Vitamin A, C or E - but with less bioavailabilityCombat free radicals >> reduce risk of cancerMuch of benefits not experimentally confirmed

  • Any questions on tea?