Taking stock & projecting apiculture value chains .Taking stock & projecting apiculture value chains

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  • Bush/wild mango Irvingia spp.

    THINKING beyond the canopy

    KEY NOTE SPEECH

    Verina Ingram

    CIFOR &

    University Amsterdam

    Taking stock &

    projecting apiculture value chains

    into the future in West and Central Africa: Win wins for livelihoods & conservation?

    SNV-WCA Forestry Knowledge Network Event

    1-3 June 2010, Foumban, Cameroon

  • Taking stock

    w a x p r o c e s s i n g

    1. What is an apiculture value

    chain?

    2. What are the products of

    value chains?

    3. How do these chains work

    in WCA at the moment?

    4. How many people benefit

    from apiculture in WCA

    directly & indirectly?

    5. What income is realized

    from apiculture as % of

    household income and

    absolute amounts?

    6. How important is apiculture

    for the poorest ?

  • Looking forward....

    1. What is the potential to increase the

    number of people who benefit from

    apiculture?

    2. What % increase in income can be

    gained from improved knowledge and

    skills of apiarists?

    3. What are the challenges?

    4. Where are the opportunities?

    Propolis

    Candles

    Soaps

  • Me

    tho

    do

    log

    yBackground

    Literature review

    Production area selection

    Interviews

    Interviews service providers & support actors

    VCAs

    2007-2009

    Semi & structured interviews with actors all stages chains = 190 Zambia, 702 Cameroon, 379 DRC

    Action data

    Participatory action research: SWOT, Stakeholder analysis, working sessions

    Market price tracking; Cameroon

    Monitoring, training & capacity building events

    Analysis

    Data analysis SPSS and Excel

    Preliminary findings verified in meetings & peer cross-checked

    Outputs

    Value chain maps; representations & visualizations

    Reports

    Policy briefs & product sheets

  • Ngoundal

    North West

    Adamaoua

    Cameroon

    Zambia

    Europe, USA DRC

  • Whats a value chain ? The value chain describes the full range of activities required

    to bring a product or service from conception, through the

    different phases of production (involving a combination of

    physical transformation and the input of various producer

    services), delivery to final consumers, and final disposal after

    use. (Kaplinsky and Morris, (2000), A Handbook For Value Chain Research, IDRC, 113p)

    Broad definition concerning all activities and actors

    related to a marketed product in a chain, from production

    to consumption

    Can use to:

    Understand how relations and processes between actorsand product and markets work

    Calculate values, volumes, profits, distribution and margins

    Understand how costs-benefits are embodied anddistributed among actors

    Plan for interventions (development, conservation etc.) toenhance inclusion of specific groups (SMEs, women, pooretc.) in local, national and global value chains, andincrease production, income and employment opportunities.

  • Apiculture

    value

    chain

    products

    hiveRoyaljelly

    wax

    honeypropolis

    bee venom

    drone

    juice

    candles

    creamsmedicines

    cosmetics

    soap

    Wine/

    beer

    hive frames

    foods

    unknown

    untried

    under-used

    simple processing

    in-demand

    those that exist are often of:

    low & variable quality

    locally sold

    poorly labeled

    low quality

    untested/dubious claims

    uncompetitively priced

    crafts

    polish

    http://www.google.co.uk/imgres?imgurl=https://store.nexternal.com/armynavy/images/KIWI-Shoe-Polish1.jpg&imgrefurl=http://www.nexternal.com/armynavy/Product1420&h=370&w=350&sz=28&tbnid=kzO2UFpdvljAZM:&tbnh=231&tbnw=218&prev=/images?q=shoe+polish+tin+beeswax+photo&hl=en&usg=__ZXn2u71o7Z3b1jG51bsrgn2taH4=&ei=laP-S8WEH4_8_AbkpYStCw&sa=X&oi=image_result&resnum=1&ct=image&ved=0CAoQ9QEwAA

  • What do these apiculture chains

    look like & how do they work?

  • Beekeepers

    7 village

    beekeeper groupsNgaoundal

    >15 Beer

    brewers (local)Tabeken, Ndu

    >15 Processing

    companies

    EU, USA, SA.

    Urban consumers (>100km from source)

    Bamenda, Bafoussam,

    Buea, Ngoundere

    Urban consumers ( 20

    Buyam sellams

    Middlemen Bamenda, Belo, Oku,

    Douala

    >10

    Supermarkets &

    grocery shops Bamenda, Yaounde,

    Douala ,Bafoussam,

    Buea

    5x 10Market

    stalls (urban)Bamenda, Yaounde,

    Douala ,Bafoussam,

    Buea

    >75 Roadside and

    rail side tradersNgoundal, Ngoundere,

    Bamenda, Dschang,

    Bafoussam

    3 Producer

    Co-opsBamenda, Belo,

    Oku

    North West

    Adamoua

    Cameroon apiculture value chains; NW & Adamaoua 2008/2009

    4

    Producer

    shops

    Craftspeople>20 Bamenda,

    Foumban

    >200 Trad.Medicine

    practionnersOku, Bamenda,

    Fundong, Belo,

    Yaounde, Douala

    12 Processer/tradersMeiganga, Ngoundal

    >20 Traders/exporters Ctrl African Rep, Nigeria, Middle

    East

    honey

    wax propolis

    Others

    Consumers(International)

    > 5

    Importers/processors Europe, South Africa

    >8 Pharmaceutical/

    Cosmetic companiesEU, USA

    Products

    6 intermediary

    processer/trader &

    capacity builderNgoundal, Bamenda,

    Yaounde,

    Adamaoua

    >17,000

    North West

    >4600

    Beer/

    wine

  • B

    E

    E

    K

    E

    E

    P

    E

    R

    S

    Importing

    companies in

    Eastern and

    Southern

    Africa

    Urban

    consumers

    (>150km

    from source)

    Urban

    consumers

    (

  • Large registered

    companies

    Beer brewers

    (local)

    Importing companies

    in EU, USA

    Importing

    companies in

    Eastern and

    Southern Africa

    Urban consumers

    (>500 km from

    source)

    Urban consumersLocal

    consumers

    (within village)

    Middlemen

    (only trading)

    Market stalls

    (urban)

    Beer brewers

    (urban)

    Supermarkets and grocery

    shops

    Pc=K1988

    BK=86%

    Q=83%

    Pc=K2333

    BK=11%

    Q=10%

    Medium-small

    registered

    companies

    Pc=K1800

    BK=7%

    Q=7%

    B

    e

    e

    k

    e

    e

    p

    e

    r

    s

    Pl=K3500

    Pc=K3400

    Pl=K15000/kgPl=K16525

    Pl=K18992

    Pl=K11750

    Pl=K4487

    Pl=K2637

    Pl=K4487

    Salujinga, Mwinilunga NW Province Lusaka

    Pc= price per kg comb honey

    Pl= price per kg liquid honey

    BK= beekeepers selling to market

    Q= fraction of total volume produced, sold to market

    International

    Zambia apiculture value chains: Mwinilunga honey (2007)

    600-700 tons

  • Supermarkets/

    Hotels

    Sold to FamilyIn village

    Local markets KINSHASA

    Producer/Harvesters

    Wholesalers

    (markets)

    Retailers

    (Permanent)

    Consumers

    Retailers

    (temporary/roving)

    Average

    1135 Fc/L

    2.06 $/L

    Average

    2533 Fc /L

    4,6 $/L

    DRC apiculture value chains: Equatuer, Bas Congo et le Plateau Batk (2007)

    IMPORTED HONEY

    10 $/L

    Bas Congo et Plateau Batk Mampu

    Traditional

    Medical

    pracitionnerschurch

    500 1933 Fc /L

    1- 3.5 $/L

  • What and who benefits?

    LOCATION BENEFICARIES INCOME

    Country Region %

    household

    s in region

    Beekeeper

    s

    househo

    ld

    income

    from

    apicultur

    e %

    % male Average

    producer

    income

    apiculture

    US$

    Importance Average

    incomes in

    general

    Cameroon

    Ngoundal,

    Adamaoua68 48 86 433 Major cash

    source, primary

    activity 55%

    households

    17% > 1$

    day

    50% > 2$

    dayKilum Ijim, NW

    55 30-60 80 587

    DRC

    Bas Congo

    31 61 20

    36% income

    from NTFPs,

    52% of this

    from apiculture

    80% > 1$

    dayPlateau

    Batk

    Equateur

    Zambia

    Mwinilunga,

    NW50 25 83

    beekeepers

    25Brewer

    140 1st cash source

    2nd most impt.

    livelihood

    activity after

    farming

    63% > 1$

    day

    87% > 2$

    day

    Kapiri, Centre 29 20 100-

    400

  • Results: Cameroon

    History : Traditional (NW 88%, Ad 97%), project push 80s, market focus >5 years

    Production technologies: Basic & traditional, large volume, low quality, new

    technologies now emerging for wax processing & propolis collection

    Ecological conditions: rapid deforestation of montane forest, slower degrading

    savanna forest, forest protection/controls in NW, competing forest uses

    Institutional context: High level collective organization (NW n=284, Ad n=98), bio &

    ethical schemes at enterprise level, Geographical Indication scheme emerging

    Regulatory context: Unregulated national production & market, no standards, exports

    to Europe regulated since 2009, no interaction forestry & livestock a