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Table of Contents Introduction................................................................................................................................................ xxix Module I Chapter 1: A Gateway to SAP ....................................................................................................................... 3 Architecture of SAP R/3 .......................................................................................................................................... 7 Component Service—Kernel and Basis .............................................................................................................................. 8 Component Service—ABAP Workbench ........................................................................................................................... 8 Component Service—Presentation...................................................................................................................................... 8 SAP Integrated—Analysis, Implementation, and Design................................................................................... 8 Three-Tier Architecture.......................................................................................................................................... 10 Presentation Layer ............................................................................................................................................................... 11 Application Layer ................................................................................................................................................................ 11 Database Layer ..................................................................................................................................................................... 12 Why Multi-tier Architecture? ................................................................................................................................ 12 Integrating Environments ...................................................................................................................................... 12 Conclusion ............................................................................................................................................................... 15 Chapter 2: SAP Easy Access ...................................................................................................................... 17 SAP User Menu ....................................................................................................................................................... 19 The Client Concept ................................................................................................................................................. 21 SAP Settings ............................................................................................................................................................. 22 Navigating in the Workplace Menu ..................................................................................................................... 24 Navigation Path ................................................................................................................................................................... 25 Navigating through Transaction Code ............................................................................................................................. 25 Getting Transaction Codes through History List ............................................................................................................ 27 Creating Favorites ................................................................................................................................................... 27 Actions within Favorites ..................................................................................................................................................... 28 Inserting an Item .................................................................................................................................................................. 30 Inserting a Transaction ........................................................................................................................................................ 30 Managing Favorites ............................................................................................................................................................. 31 Role of a User........................................................................................................................................................... 32 Assigning User Roles........................................................................................................................................................... 33

Table of Contents€¦ · Table of Contents iv Function of a System Administrator..... 37

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Page 1: Table of Contents€¦ · Table of Contents iv Function of a System Administrator..... 37

Table of Contents

Introduction................................................................................................................................................ xxix

Module I

Chapter 1: A Gateway to SAP ....................................................................................................................... 3 Architecture of SAP R/3 .......................................................................................................................................... 7

Component Service—Kernel and Basis .............................................................................................................................. 8Component Service—ABAP Workbench ........................................................................................................................... 8Component Service—Presentation...................................................................................................................................... 8

SAP Integrated—Analysis, Implementation, and Design................................................................................... 8Three-Tier Architecture.......................................................................................................................................... 10

Presentation Layer ............................................................................................................................................................... 11Application Layer ................................................................................................................................................................ 11Database Layer ..................................................................................................................................................................... 12

Why Multi-tier Architecture?................................................................................................................................ 12Integrating Environments...................................................................................................................................... 12Conclusion ............................................................................................................................................................... 15

Chapter 2: SAP Easy Access ...................................................................................................................... 17SAP User Menu ....................................................................................................................................................... 19The Client Concept ................................................................................................................................................. 21SAP Settings............................................................................................................................................................. 22Navigating in the Workplace Menu..................................................................................................................... 24

Navigation Path ................................................................................................................................................................... 25Navigating through Transaction Code............................................................................................................................. 25Getting Transaction Codes through History List ............................................................................................................ 27

Creating Favorites................................................................................................................................................... 27Actions within Favorites ..................................................................................................................................................... 28Inserting an Item .................................................................................................................................................................. 30Inserting a Transaction........................................................................................................................................................ 30Managing Favorites ............................................................................................................................................................. 31

Role of a User........................................................................................................................................................... 32Assigning User Roles........................................................................................................................................................... 33

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Function of a System Administrator .................................................................................................................... 37Creating Activity Groups.................................................................................................................................................... 38

Conclusion ............................................................................................................................................................... 39

Chapter 3: SAP User Interface .................................................................................................................... 43SAP GUI ................................................................................................................................................................... 45

Screen Header....................................................................................................................................................................... 46Screen Banner ....................................................................................................................................................................... 47Screen Body........................................................................................................................................................................... 47

The Menu bar .......................................................................................................................................................... 47The Standard Toolbar............................................................................................................................................. 49The Application Toolbar ........................................................................................................................................ 51The Status Bar.......................................................................................................................................................... 52

The Layout Menu................................................................................................................................................................. 53Table Controls ......................................................................................................................................................... 53

Creating Table Control Variants........................................................................................................................................ 54Activating Table Control Variants..................................................................................................................................... 55

Handling Lists ......................................................................................................................................................... 55Radio Buttons and Checkboxes............................................................................................................................. 56

Choosing Options with Radio Buttons ............................................................................................................................. 57Choosing Options with Checkboxes ................................................................................................................................. 57

Working with Dialog Boxes................................................................................................................................... 57Scrolling to View Information............................................................................................................................... 58Handling Multiple SAP Sessions.......................................................................................................................... 59

Creating a New Session ...................................................................................................................................................... 59Creating a New Session and a Task in One Step............................................................................................................. 60Moving among Sessions...................................................................................................................................................... 61Ending a Session .................................................................................................................................................................. 61

Conclusion ............................................................................................................................................................... 62

Chapter 4: Starting and Shutting the SAP System.................................................................................... 63Starting the SAP System......................................................................................................................................... 65Logging into SAP .................................................................................................................................................... 65The SAP Logon........................................................................................................................................................ 68

Adding a New Entry ........................................................................................................................................................... 69Changing an Entry............................................................................................................................................................... 70Removing an Entry .............................................................................................................................................................. 70Adding a New Logon User Group.................................................................................................................................... 70Adding an Application Server ........................................................................................................................................... 70

Configuring the SAP Logon .................................................................................................................................. 71Password .................................................................................................................................................................. 72

Changing the Password ...................................................................................................................................................... 73User Interface........................................................................................................................................................... 74

Standard Toolbar.................................................................................................................................................................. 75System Status Information.................................................................................................................................................. 76

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SAP Shortcuts .......................................................................................................................................................... 76Creating a SAP Shortcut...................................................................................................................................................... 76

Using SAP Shortcuts............................................................................................................................................... 78With no SAP Session Running ........................................................................................................................................... 78With SAP Session Running................................................................................................................................................. 79

Session Manager...................................................................................................................................................... 79Logging off............................................................................................................................................................... 79Conclusion ............................................................................................................................................................... 80

Chapter 5: Handling Tasks in SAP ............................................................................................................. 81Accessing Task in a SAP System........................................................................................................................... 83

Choosing Options from a Menu ........................................................................................................................................ 83Navigating SAP using Keyboard....................................................................................................................................... 85Selecting Tasks Using Transaction Codes ........................................................................................................................ 86

Entering Data on a Screen...................................................................................................................................... 89Fields Usage and Overview................................................................................................................................................ 90Clipboard Usage................................................................................................................................................................... 92Required Input Fields.......................................................................................................................................................... 93Holding and Setting Data ................................................................................................................................................... 93

Saving the Data ....................................................................................................................................................... 94Moving to Related Task ......................................................................................................................................... 95Ending a Task .......................................................................................................................................................... 95Conclusion ............................................................................................................................................................... 95

Chapter 6: Reports in SAP........................................................................................................................... 97Opening SAP Reports............................................................................................................................................. 99Report Execution................................................................................................................................................... 100

Executing a Report in Your Task ..................................................................................................................................... 100Tool-Based Reports ............................................................................................................................................................ 100

Accessing the Report by Name ........................................................................................................................... 102Finding the Name of a Current Report........................................................................................................................... 103

Selection Criteria ................................................................................................................................................... 104Entering Values for Selection Criteria............................................................................................................................. 104Multiple Selections............................................................................................................................................................. 105

Variants in Report ................................................................................................................................................. 105Creating Variants for a Report ......................................................................................................................................... 106Displaying Available Report Variants ............................................................................................................................ 108Using Report Variants ....................................................................................................................................................... 108

Listing Reports ...................................................................................................................................................... 109Displaying Report Lists..................................................................................................................................................... 109

Printing Options.................................................................................................................................................... 110The Print Screen ................................................................................................................................................................. 111Following the Print Request ............................................................................................................................................. 111The Output Controller....................................................................................................................................................... 112Saving the Printer name.................................................................................................................................................... 112Printing Report ................................................................................................................................................................... 114

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Conclusion ............................................................................................................................................................. 115

Chapter 7: Background Processing ......................................................................................................... 117Background Scheduling ....................................................................................................................................... 119

Advantages of Background Processing .......................................................................................................................... 120Scheduling Background Jobs............................................................................................................................... 120

Processing Scheduling ABAP Jobs .................................................................................................................................. 122Scheduling Standard Jobs ................................................................................................................................................. 122Identifying Your Job .......................................................................................................................................................... 124Specifying a Recipient ....................................................................................................................................................... 125Specifying ABAP Program to Run in Background ....................................................................................................... 125Options in Scheduling Background Jobs........................................................................................................................ 126

Status of a Background Job.................................................................................................................................. 128Policies for Background Processing ................................................................................................................................ 129Task and Roles for Background Processing ................................................................................................................... 130

Customizing Display Option in SAP ................................................................................................................. 130Configuring SAP GUI........................................................................................................................................................ 130Color Settings in SAP GUI................................................................................................................................................ 132Customizing Sound and Animation ............................................................................................................................... 136Setting the SAP Window................................................................................................................................................... 137Switching Auto-Tabbing On or Off................................................................................................................................. 138Cursor Position and Width............................................................................................................................................... 138Creating Screen Shots........................................................................................................................................................ 139

Conclusion ............................................................................................................................................................. 140

Chapter 8: SAP System Administration Utilities ..................................................................................... 141System Administration ........................................................................................................................................ 143

Consistency Checks ........................................................................................................................................................... 143Monitoring Instances and Application Server............................................................................................................... 143System Work Processes..................................................................................................................................................... 147Examining User Sessions .................................................................................................................................................. 150Displaying System Messages ........................................................................................................................................... 152

Managing Update Records .................................................................................................................................. 153Update Process Concepts.................................................................................................................................................. 153Status of Update Work Processes .................................................................................................................................... 154Monitoring Update Records............................................................................................................................................. 154Common Update Functions ............................................................................................................................................. 155Troubleshooting ................................................................................................................................................................. 156

Client Information in SAP ................................................................................................................................... 158Client Copy Functions’ Tools ........................................................................................................................................... 159New Client Creation.......................................................................................................................................................... 159Requirements for Creating Clients .................................................................................................................................. 162Copying a Client ................................................................................................................................................................ 165Deleting a Client................................................................................................................................................................. 165Client Copy Logs................................................................................................................................................................ 165Transporting Clients between SAP Systems.................................................................................................................. 166Copying Table Entries ....................................................................................................................................................... 167

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The SAP System logs ............................................................................................................................................ 167The System Log Selection Criteria Screen ...................................................................................................................... 168System Log Types .............................................................................................................................................................. 169Displaying Log Report ...................................................................................................................................................... 170Log Message Codes of Log Events .................................................................................................................................. 171Utilities of System Log Environment .............................................................................................................................. 171System Log Modes............................................................................................................................................................. 172

Dump Files Generated by ABAP........................................................................................................................ 173Basic Tracing Utilities........................................................................................................................................... 173

System Trace Functions..................................................................................................................................................... 174Developer Traces................................................................................................................................................................ 177

Conclusion ............................................................................................................................................................. 179

Chapter 9: SAP R/3 Basis System ............................................................................................................ 181The R/3 Position in the Basis System................................................................................................................. 183

Logical View ....................................................................................................................................................................... 183Software-Oriented View ................................................................................................................................................... 184Software-Oriented and Hardware-Oriented View ....................................................................................................... 186Advantages of the Multi-tier Architecture..................................................................................................................... 186Consequences for Application Programming ............................................................................................................... 187User-Oriented View........................................................................................................................................................... 187

Application Servers .............................................................................................................................................. 188Structure of an Application Server .................................................................................................................................. 188

Components of Application Server .................................................................................................................... 192Structure of an Application Program.............................................................................................................................. 192Screens ................................................................................................................................................................................. 193

Screens .................................................................................................................................................................... 194Selection Screens ................................................................................................................................................... 194Lists ......................................................................................................................................................................... 195Structure of ABAP Programs .............................................................................................................................. 195

Declaration Part for Global Data, Classes and Selection Screens ............................................................................... 196Declaration Part for Local Data in Processing Blocks................................................................................................... 196

Container for Processing Blocks ......................................................................................................................... 196Calling Processing Blocks .................................................................................................................................... 197Program Types and Execution ............................................................................................................................ 197

Type 1................................................................................................................................................................................... 198Type M................................................................................................................................................................................. 199Type F .................................................................................................................................................................................. 199Type K.................................................................................................................................................................................. 199Type J ................................................................................................................................................................................... 200Type S .................................................................................................................................................................................. 200Type I ................................................................................................................................................................................... 200

Processing Blocks in ABAP Programs ............................................................................................................... 200Dialog Modules .................................................................................................................................................................. 200Event Blocks for Selection Screens .................................................................................................................................. 201

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Event Blocks for Lists ........................................................................................................................................................ 202Event Blocks for Executable Programs (Reports).......................................................................................................... 202Subroutines ......................................................................................................................................................................... 203Function Modules .............................................................................................................................................................. 204Methods............................................................................................................................................................................... 204

ABAP Statements .................................................................................................................................................. 205Declarative Statements ...................................................................................................................................................... 205Modularization Statements .............................................................................................................................................. 205Control Statements............................................................................................................................................................. 205Call Statements ................................................................................................................................................................... 206Operational Statements ..................................................................................................................................................... 206Database Statements.......................................................................................................................................................... 206

Data Types and Objects........................................................................................................................................ 207Predefined and User-defined Elementary Types .......................................................................................................... 207Data Types for Reference .................................................................................................................................................. 208Declaring Data Objects...................................................................................................................................................... 208

Memory Structures of an ABAP Program......................................................................................................... 209Work Processors.................................................................................................................................................... 210

Structure of a Work Process ............................................................................................................................................. 211Types of Work Process ...................................................................................................................................................... 213

Conclusion ............................................................................................................................................................. 215

Chapter 10: Understanding ABAP Workbench ....................................................................................... 217Types in SAP System............................................................................................................................................ 219

Local and Global Types..................................................................................................................................................... 219Elementary Dictionary Types........................................................................................................................................... 220Local Data Types in Programs ......................................................................................................................................... 220

Data Objects ........................................................................................................................................................... 220Rules for Naming Data Objects........................................................................................................................................ 221Literals and Constants....................................................................................................................................................... 221

Data Types and Data Objects .............................................................................................................................. 221ABAP Dictionary................................................................................................................................................................ 222Database Objects in ABAP Dictionary............................................................................................................................ 223Type Definitions in ABAP Dictionary ............................................................................................................................ 224Services of ABAP Dictionary............................................................................................................................................ 224ABAP Dictionary Integration........................................................................................................................................... 225Tables in ABAP Dictionary............................................................................................................................................... 226

Data Types Defined in ABAP Programs............................................................................................................ 228Data Element....................................................................................................................................................................... 229Key Definition .................................................................................................................................................................... 229Key Type ............................................................................................................................................................................. 229Elementary Types .............................................................................................................................................................. 230Structured Types ................................................................................................................................................................ 230Table Types ......................................................................................................................................................................... 230

Performance During Table Access...................................................................................................................... 231Buffer Synchronization—Advantages and Disadvantages ......................................................................................... 234

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Internal Tables ....................................................................................................................................................... 234Types of Internal Tables.................................................................................................................................................... 234Processing Single Records ................................................................................................................................................ 235Processing a Set of Records .............................................................................................................................................. 236Filling Internal Tables Line by Line................................................................................................................................. 236Internal Tables with Header Line.................................................................................................................................... 236

Conclusion ............................................................................................................................................................. 237

Chapter 11: Data Type and Tables in ABAP ............................................................................................ 239Data Types ............................................................................................................................................................. 241

Existing Data Types ........................................................................................................................................................... 242Mapping of the Data Types .............................................................................................................................................. 244

Data Elements........................................................................................................................................................ 245Creating Data Elements .................................................................................................................................................... 246Documentation and Docu Status..................................................................................................................................... 247Field Labels ......................................................................................................................................................................... 248Headers................................................................................................................................................................................ 249

Domains ................................................................................................................................................................. 249Creating a New Domain ................................................................................................................................................... 251Changing Existing Domains............................................................................................................................................. 252Deleting Domains .............................................................................................................................................................. 253

Views ...................................................................................................................................................................... 253Join, Projection and Selection ........................................................................................................................................... 254Inner and Outer Join.......................................................................................................................................................... 256Foreign Key Relationship and Join Condition............................................................................................................... 257Maintenance Status............................................................................................................................................................ 258Time-Dependent Key Components................................................................................................................................. 258Insertions with Database Views....................................................................................................................................... 259Database Views .................................................................................................................................................................. 259Includes in Database Views.............................................................................................................................................. 260Technical Settings of a Database View............................................................................................................................ 260Creating Views ................................................................................................................................................................... 264Maintenance Attribute of a View Field........................................................................................................................... 268Delivery Class of a Maintenance View ........................................................................................................................... 269Maintaining Selection Conditions of Views................................................................................................................... 269Deleting Views ................................................................................................................................................................... 270

Search Helps .......................................................................................................................................................... 270Standard Input Help Process ........................................................................................................................................... 270Functions of Search Help .................................................................................................................................................. 271Elementary Search Help—Its Structure.......................................................................................................................... 271Structure of a Collective Search Help ............................................................................................................................. 273

Tables ...................................................................................................................................................................... 275Internal Tables .................................................................................................................................................................... 276Table Fields ......................................................................................................................................................................... 277Reference Fields and Reference Tables ........................................................................................................................... 277Includes ............................................................................................................................................................................... 277

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Foreign Keys ....................................................................................................................................................................... 279Technical Settings of Tables.............................................................................................................................................. 280Data Class............................................................................................................................................................................ 281Size Category ...................................................................................................................................................................... 282Buffering Permission ......................................................................................................................................................... 283Logging................................................................................................................................................................................ 283Converting Pooled Tables to Transparent Tables ......................................................................................................... 284Buffering Database Tables ................................................................................................................................................ 285Indexes................................................................................................................................................................................. 287Creating Tables................................................................................................................................................................... 287Creating Foreign Keys....................................................................................................................................................... 289Delivery Class..................................................................................................................................................................... 290

Activation Type..................................................................................................................................................... 292Making Changes to Tables................................................................................................................................................ 292Adding an Append Structure .......................................................................................................................................... 292Inserting an Include........................................................................................................................................................... 293Inserting New Fields ......................................................................................................................................................... 293Initial Values ....................................................................................................................................................................... 294Deleting Existing Field ...................................................................................................................................................... 295Changing Data Types and Existing Field Lengths........................................................................................................ 295Changing the Table Category........................................................................................................................................... 295Moving Fields ..................................................................................................................................................................... 296Copying Fields from another Table................................................................................................................................. 296Copying Fields from an Entity Type............................................................................................................................... 297Deleting Tables ................................................................................................................................................................... 297

Conclusion ............................................................................................................................................................. 297

Chapter 12: The ABAP Programming Language..................................................................................... 299Program Types ................................................................................................................................................................... 303Report Components........................................................................................................................................................... 304Program Runtime Objects................................................................................................................................................. 305Programming Naming Convention ................................................................................................................................ 305Types and Objects .............................................................................................................................................................. 305

All about Statements............................................................................................................................................. 309The First ABAP Program .................................................................................................................................................. 310The select Statement .......................................................................................................................................................... 313Work Area........................................................................................................................................................................... 315Explicit Work Area ............................................................................................................................................................ 316The where Clause............................................................................................................................................................... 317Working with System Variables ...................................................................................................................................... 317The Chain Operator ........................................................................................................................................................... 320The select single Statement............................................................................................................................................... 321Commenting Code and Formal Documentation........................................................................................................... 322Modularization Technique ............................................................................................................................................... 323Events................................................................................................................................................................................... 323Subroutines ......................................................................................................................................................................... 324

Introducing Function Modules ........................................................................................................................... 331

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Understanding Function Groups..................................................................................................................................... 332Conclusion ............................................................................................................................................................. 333

Chapter 13: ABAP User Dialogs................................................................................................................ 335Screens .................................................................................................................................................................... 337

Screen Elements.................................................................................................................................................................. 337Processing Screens ............................................................................................................................................................. 342Status Icons ......................................................................................................................................................................... 343Context Menus ................................................................................................................................................................... 345Subscreens........................................................................................................................................................................... 352Tabstrip Controls ............................................................................................................................................................... 357Flow Logic........................................................................................................................................................................... 359Handling in the ABAP Program...................................................................................................................................... 359Custom Controls ................................................................................................................................................................ 363Table Controls .................................................................................................................................................................... 368

Selection Screens ................................................................................................................................................... 369Function............................................................................................................................................................................... 369Selection Screens—Defining and Calling ....................................................................................................................... 369Defining Selection Screens................................................................................................................................................ 370

Calling Selection Screens ..................................................................................................................................... 372Calling Standard Selection Screens ................................................................................................................................. 372Calling User-Defined Selection Screens.......................................................................................................................... 373

Lists ......................................................................................................................................................................... 379List Creation and Displaying ........................................................................................................................................... 379Lists Details and User Actions ......................................................................................................................................... 379Lists and Screens ................................................................................................................................................................ 379

Messages Handling............................................................................................................................................... 379Message Management ....................................................................................................................................................... 380Messages.............................................................................................................................................................................. 380The Message Statement..................................................................................................................................................... 380

Message Processing .............................................................................................................................................. 382Message Types.................................................................................................................................................................... 382Messages without Screens ................................................................................................................................................ 382Messages on Screens.......................................................................................................................................................... 383Messages on Selection Screens......................................................................................................................................... 384Messages in Lists................................................................................................................................................................ 385Messages in Function Modules and Methods ............................................................................................................... 385

Macros .................................................................................................................................................................... 386Subroutines ............................................................................................................................................................ 387

Defining Subroutines......................................................................................................................................................... 388Calling Subroutines ........................................................................................................................................................... 388

Function Modules ................................................................................................................................................. 388Function Groups ................................................................................................................................................................ 389Calling Function Modules ................................................................................................................................................ 389Creating Function Modules.............................................................................................................................................. 393

Include Programs.................................................................................................................................................. 398

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Creating Your Own Include Programs........................................................................................................................... 399Using Include Programs ................................................................................................................................................... 399

Conclusion ............................................................................................................................................................. 400

Chapter 14: Running ABAP Programs ..................................................................................................... 401Programs Run Directly......................................................................................................................................... 403

Program Type 1 .................................................................................................................................................................. 403Program Type M ................................................................................................................................................................ 404

Programs Run Indirectly...................................................................................................................................... 404Program Type F.................................................................................................................................................................. 404Program Type K ................................................................................................................................................................. 404Program Type J................................................................................................................................................................... 404Program Type S.................................................................................................................................................................. 404Program Type I................................................................................................................................................................... 404

Programs Starting Directly in ABAP.................................................................................................................. 405Processing Blocks .................................................................................................................................................. 405

Event Blocks........................................................................................................................................................................ 405Dialog Modules .................................................................................................................................................................. 407

Reports—Running Programs Directly ............................................................................................................... 407Logical Database ................................................................................................................................................................ 408Report Transaction............................................................................................................................................................. 411Executable Program Event Blocks ................................................................................................................................... 412

Dialog-Driven Programs...................................................................................................................................... 412Overview of Dialog Programs ......................................................................................................................................... 413Maintaining Transactions ................................................................................................................................................. 415Screen Sequence ................................................................................................................................................................. 416

Calling Programs .................................................................................................................................................. 417Memory Organization....................................................................................................................................................... 418SAP LUWs and Program Calls ........................................................................................................................................ 418

Calling Executable Programs .............................................................................................................................. 419Calling Transaction............................................................................................................................................................ 419Calling Screen Sequences as Modules ............................................................................................................................ 420

Exchanging Data between Programs ................................................................................................................. 422Using Internal Memory Areas ......................................................................................................................................... 422Filling Input Fields on an Initial Screen.......................................................................................................................... 423

Modularization Techniques................................................................................................................................. 425Source Code Modules........................................................................................................................................................ 426

Procedures ............................................................................................................................................................. 429Conclusion ............................................................................................................................................................. 429

Chapter 15: ABAP Database Access........................................................................................................ 431Accessing R/3 System’s Database ...................................................................................................................... 433

SQL....................................................................................................................................................................................... 433Database Interface.............................................................................................................................................................. 433Open SQL ............................................................................................................................................................................ 434Native SQL.......................................................................................................................................................................... 435

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ABAP Dictionary................................................................................................................................................................ 435Authorization and Consistency Checks ......................................................................................................................... 435

Open SQL............................................................................................................................................................... 435Return Codes ...................................................................................................................................................................... 436Client Handling.................................................................................................................................................................. 436Reading Data ...................................................................................................................................................................... 436Changing Data.................................................................................................................................................................... 437Inserting or Changing Lines............................................................................................................................................. 443Performance Notes............................................................................................................................................................. 444DBMS Architecture............................................................................................................................................................ 445The Optimizer..................................................................................................................................................................... 446Rules for Efficient Open SQL Programming.................................................................................................................. 446

Native SQL............................................................................................................................................................. 446Native SQL Statements ..................................................................................................................................................... 446Native SQL Scope .............................................................................................................................................................. 447Stored Procedures .............................................................................................................................................................. 448Cursor Processing .............................................................................................................................................................. 448Data Types and Conversions ........................................................................................................................................... 449Logical Databases............................................................................................................................................................... 450Functionalities .................................................................................................................................................................... 451Structural Analysis ............................................................................................................................................................ 452Database Program.............................................................................................................................................................. 454Using Logical Databases ................................................................................................................................................... 456Editing Logical Databases................................................................................................................................................. 457

Programming Database Updates........................................................................................................................ 457Transactions and Logical Units of Work ........................................................................................................................ 457The R/3 Lock Concept ...................................................................................................................................................... 458Update Techniques ............................................................................................................................................................ 460Creating Update Function Modules................................................................................................................................ 460Calling Update Functions ................................................................................................................................................. 461Special LUW Considerations............................................................................................................................................ 461Error Handling for Bundled Updates ............................................................................................................................. 461

Conclusion ............................................................................................................................................................. 462

Chapter 16: ABAP Object Orientation ...................................................................................................... 463Object ................................................................................................................................................................................... 465Classes.................................................................................................................................................................................. 465Object References ............................................................................................................................................................... 465Uses of Object Orientation................................................................................................................................................ 465

ABAP Objects ........................................................................................................................................................ 466The Runtime Environment ............................................................................................................................................... 466The Object-Oriented Language Extension ..................................................................................................................... 467

All about Classes................................................................................................................................................... 467Local and Global Classes .................................................................................................................................................. 467Defining Local Classes ...................................................................................................................................................... 467Class Structure.................................................................................................................................................................... 468

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Object Handling .................................................................................................................................................... 471Objects.................................................................................................................................................................................. 471Object References ............................................................................................................................................................... 471Creating Objects ................................................................................................................................................................. 472Addressing the Components of Objects ......................................................................................................................... 472Creating More Than One Instance of a Class................................................................................................................. 472Assigning References......................................................................................................................................................... 472Lifetime of an Object.......................................................................................................................................................... 473

Declaring and Calling Methods .......................................................................................................................... 473Declaring Methods............................................................................................................................................................. 473Implementing Methods..................................................................................................................................................... 473Calling Methods ................................................................................................................................................................. 474Event Handler Methods.................................................................................................................................................... 475Constructors........................................................................................................................................................................ 475

Inheritance ............................................................................................................................................................. 476Redefining Methods .......................................................................................................................................................... 476Abstract and Final Methods and Classes ....................................................................................................................... 477References to Subclasses and Polymorphism ................................................................................................................ 477Namespace for Components ............................................................................................................................................ 477Inheritance and Static Attributes ..................................................................................................................................... 477Inheritance and Constructors........................................................................................................................................... 478

Interfaces ................................................................................................................................................................ 480Defining Interfaces............................................................................................................................................................. 480Implementing Interfaces ................................................................................................................................................... 480Interface References ........................................................................................................................................................... 481Addressing Objects Using Interface References............................................................................................................ 481Assignment Using Interface References—Casting........................................................................................................ 482

Triggering and Handling Events ........................................................................................................................ 483Triggering Events............................................................................................................................................................... 483Handling Events................................................................................................................................................................. 483

Conclusion ............................................................................................................................................................. 485

Chapter 17: ABAP Data Dictionary ........................................................................................................... 487Data Dictionary ..................................................................................................................................................... 489The Relational Data Model .................................................................................................................................. 489The ABAP Dictionary in R/3 System................................................................................................................. 490

Object Types in ABAP Dictionary ................................................................................................................................... 490ABAP Dictionary–The Integration Factor ...................................................................................................................... 491Starting the ABAP Dictionary .......................................................................................................................................... 491

Tables in the ABAP Dictionary ........................................................................................................................... 491What are Table Pools? ....................................................................................................................................................... 492What are Table Clusters? .................................................................................................................................................. 493What are Table Fields? ...................................................................................................................................................... 495Individual Fields and Includes ........................................................................................................................................ 495Working with Foreign Keys ............................................................................................................................................. 496Assigning Field to Foreign Key........................................................................................................................................ 496

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Value Check and Check Field .......................................................................................................................................... 497What are Text Tables? ....................................................................................................................................................... 497Technical Settings of a Table ............................................................................................................................................ 498Using Indexes ..................................................................................................................................................................... 499Appending Structures ....................................................................................................................................................... 499Customizing Includes........................................................................................................................................................ 501

What are Aggregate Objects? .............................................................................................................................. 501Primary Table of Aggregate Object ................................................................................................................................. 502View Types.......................................................................................................................................................................... 502What are Matchcodes ? ..................................................................................................................................................... 503What are Matchcode Objects? .......................................................................................................................................... 503What are Matchcode IDs? ................................................................................................................................................. 503Creating Matchcodes ......................................................................................................................................................... 504Creating Matchcode Objects............................................................................................................................................. 504Lock Objects ........................................................................................................................................................................ 508

Working with Data Utility................................................................................................................................... 508Editing Database Objects .................................................................................................................................................. 509Editing Tables and Indexes in the Database .................................................................................................................. 509Editing Pools and Clusters in the Database ................................................................................................................... 510Editing Matchcodes in the Database ............................................................................................................................... 510Processing Types................................................................................................................................................................ 512

Version Management in the ABAP Dictionary................................................................................................. 512Conclusion ............................................................................................................................................................. 513

Chapter 18: Batch Data Communication (BDC)....................................................................................... 515Data Transfer ......................................................................................................................................................... 517

Direct Input Method.......................................................................................................................................................... 518Call Transaction Method................................................................................................................................................... 518Batch Input Session Method............................................................................................................................................. 518Data Transfer Overview.................................................................................................................................................... 519

Call Transaction Method...................................................................................................................................... 522Syntax of CALL TRANSACTION Method .................................................................................................................... 523Error Handling in Call Transaction Method.................................................................................................................. 524

Recording Method (SHDB).................................................................................................................................. 525Conclusion ............................................................................................................................................................. 525

Module II: Materials Management (MM)

Chapter 19: Consumption Based Planning.............................................................................................. 529MRP and Lot-Sizing Procedures......................................................................................................................... 531

Reorder Point Planning..................................................................................................................................................... 532Forecast-Based Planning ................................................................................................................................................... 533Time-Phased Planning ...................................................................................................................................................... 533

Planning Run Intricacies ...................................................................................................................................... 534Lot-Sizing Procedure ......................................................................................................................................................... 535

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The Parameter of MRP ......................................................................................................................................... 536Maintaining MRP Parameters.......................................................................................................................................... 536PPC Planning Calendar..................................................................................................................................................... 537How System Calculates the Order Quantity.................................................................................................................. 537

The Forecast Parameter........................................................................................................................................ 538Forecast Models.................................................................................................................................................................. 538

Model Selection ..................................................................................................................................................... 538Model Initialization ........................................................................................................................................................... 538Ex-Post Forecast ................................................................................................................................................................. 539Parameter Optimization.................................................................................................................................................... 540Maintaining Forecast Parameters .................................................................................................................................... 540Creating Historical Data ................................................................................................................................................... 540Creating Forecast Values .................................................................................................................................................. 541

Maintaining Parameter Using Profile ................................................................................................................ 541Creating a Profile ............................................................................................................................................................... 541Displaying a Profile ........................................................................................................................................................... 542Changing a Profile ............................................................................................................................................................. 542Deleting a Profile................................................................................................................................................................ 543

The Forecast Procedure........................................................................................................................................ 543Calculating the Forecast Values....................................................................................................................................... 544Calculating the Safety Stock and the Reorder Level..................................................................................................... 544Ex-Post Forecast ................................................................................................................................................................. 545Monitoring the Selected Forecast Model ........................................................................................................................ 545

Forecast Result....................................................................................................................................................... 546Changing the Forecast Result........................................................................................................................................... 547

Carrying Out Planning Run ................................................................................................................................ 548Options for Carrying out the Planning Run .................................................................................................................. 548System Functions in a Planning Run .............................................................................................................................. 549

Planning Result ..................................................................................................................................................... 549MRP List .............................................................................................................................................................................. 549Displaying MRP Lists........................................................................................................................................................ 550

Current Stock/Requirement List ........................................................................................................................ 550Displaying and Processing the Stock/Requirements List ........................................................................................... 551

Planned Orders ..................................................................................................................................................... 551Displaying Planned Orders .............................................................................................................................................. 552

Maintaining the Planning File............................................................................................................................. 553Displaying Entries in the Planning File .......................................................................................................................... 553Creating Entries in the Planning File .............................................................................................................................. 555Planning File: Consistency Check.................................................................................................................................... 556

Forecast Formula................................................................................................................................................... 556Moving Average Model .................................................................................................................................................... 557Weighted Moving Average Model.................................................................................................................................. 557Principles of First-Order Exponential Smoothing......................................................................................................... 558Constant Model with First-Order Exponential Smoothing ......................................................................................... 558Trend and Seasonal Models with First-Order Exponential Smoothing..................................................................... 558

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Second-Order Exponential Smoothing ........................................................................................................................... 559Evaluating Forecast Accuracy.......................................................................................................................................... 560Safety Stock Calculation.................................................................................................................................................... 561Safety Stock (SS) Formulas ............................................................................................................................................... 561Reorder Level Calculation ................................................................................................................................................ 562

Conclusion ............................................................................................................................................................. 562

Chapter 20: Purchasing ............................................................................................................................. 563Simple Procurement Cycle .................................................................................................................................. 565All about Quota Arrangement ............................................................................................................................ 566Understanding Outline Agreement ................................................................................................................... 566Purchasing Customization .................................................................................................................................. 566Procurement in MM ............................................................................................................................................. 567What’s there in Purchasing Menu? .................................................................................................................... 567

Functions in Standard Menu............................................................................................................................................ 568What are Purchasing Documents? .................................................................................................................................. 568

Master Records from Purchasing View ............................................................................................................. 570Purchase Requisition ............................................................................................................................................ 571RFQ and Quotation............................................................................................................................................... 572

Structure of Request for Quotation ................................................................................................................................. 572What is Quotation? ............................................................................................................................................................ 573Creating RFQs .................................................................................................................................................................... 573Changing RFQ and Displaying Change Log ................................................................................................................. 574Entering Prices.................................................................................................................................................................... 575Order Price Unit (of Measure).......................................................................................................................................... 575Entering Code for Taxes.................................................................................................................................................... 575Creating an Info Record .................................................................................................................................................... 575Rejecting Quotations.......................................................................................................................................................... 575Monitoring RFQs and Quotations ................................................................................................................................... 576RFQ Analysis ...................................................................................................................................................................... 576

Understanding Purchase Order.......................................................................................................................... 577Options under Purchase Order........................................................................................................................................ 578Creating a Purchase Order ............................................................................................................................................... 578Handling Returns............................................................................................................................................................... 579Invoicing Plans ................................................................................................................................................................... 580Changing, Cancelling, and Blocking Purchase Orders ................................................................................................ 581

The Purchase Agreement with Vendor ............................................................................................................. 582Structure of an Outline Agreement ................................................................................................................................. 582Texts in Outline Agreements............................................................................................................................................ 582All About Contract............................................................................................................................................................. 582What is Scheduling Agreement?...................................................................................................................................... 583

Purchasing Information Records ........................................................................................................................ 584Conditions in Info Records............................................................................................................................................... 586Creating Info Records........................................................................................................................................................ 586

Optimized Purchasing ......................................................................................................................................... 587Determining Source ........................................................................................................................................................... 589

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Release Procedure ................................................................................................................................................. 591Conclusion ............................................................................................................................................................. 592

Chapter 21: External Service Management (ESM) .................................................................................. 593Master Record from ESM View .......................................................................................................................... 597

Service Master Record....................................................................................................................................................... 597Master Conditions for Services ........................................................................................................................................ 597Standard Service Catalogue (SSC)................................................................................................................................... 598Model Service Specifications ............................................................................................................................................ 599

The Process of Procuring Services ...................................................................................................................... 599Basic Process ....................................................................................................................................................................... 599Service Specifications ........................................................................................................................................................ 603Accelerated and Simplified Processes............................................................................................................................. 603

Data Interchange ................................................................................................................................................... 609Description of Interface..................................................................................................................................................... 610

Distribution of Service Master Records ............................................................................................................. 611Conclusion ............................................................................................................................................................. 612

Chapter 22: Inventory Management ......................................................................................................... 613Inventory Management Functions ..................................................................................................................... 615

Managing Stocks by Quantity.......................................................................................................................................... 615Special Stocks...................................................................................................................................................................... 615Goods Movements ............................................................................................................................................................. 615

Integration of Inventory Management in the Logistics System ..................................................................... 616Features Integration in Materials Management ............................................................................................................ 616Integration in Production Planning................................................................................................................................. 617Integration in Sales and Distribution .............................................................................................................................. 617Integration in Quality Management................................................................................................................................ 617Integration in Plant Maintenance .................................................................................................................................... 617Integration in the Logistics Information System ........................................................................................................... 617Inventory Management and Warehouse Management System.................................................................................. 617

Returnable Transport Packing ............................................................................................................................ 617Structure of Special Stock Data ........................................................................................................................................ 618The Stock Type ................................................................................................................................................................... 618Supported Goods Movements ......................................................................................................................................... 618

Consignment Materials ........................................................................................................................................ 618Physical Inventory of Consignment Material ................................................................................................................ 619

PipeLine Materials ................................................................................................................................................ 620Materials with Material Type PIPE ................................................................................................................................. 620Other Material Types......................................................................................................................................................... 620

Pipeline Withdrawal............................................................................................................................................. 620Creating a Pipeline Material............................................................................................................................................. 621

Special Inventory Management Features .......................................................................................................... 621Customizing Inventory Management Features ................................................................................................ 621Goods Movement.................................................................................................................................................. 622

Structure of Goods Movement......................................................................................................................................... 622

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The Document Concept..................................................................................................................................................... 622The Movement Type Concept............................................................................................................................. 624

Changing a Material Document....................................................................................................................................... 624Displaying a Material Document..................................................................................................................................... 625Cancelling a Material Document ..................................................................................................................................... 625

Goods Receipt........................................................................................................................................................ 626Planning Goods Receipts .................................................................................................................................................. 626Goods Receipts for Purchase Orders............................................................................................................................... 627Goods Receipts for Orders................................................................................................................................................ 628Other Goods Receipts........................................................................................................................................................ 629

Goods Issue............................................................................................................................................................ 630Goods Issues—General ..................................................................................................................................................... 630Goods Issue With Reference to a Reservation ............................................................................................................... 632Goods Issue with Reference to an Order........................................................................................................................ 632Reversing a Planned Goods Issue.................................................................................................................................... 633

Return Delivery..................................................................................................................................................... 633Return Delivery via Shipping .......................................................................................................................................... 634Posting a Return Delivery with Reference to the Material Document....................................................................... 634Posting a Return Delivery with Reference to the Purchase Order ............................................................................. 634Posting a Goods Receipt with Reference to a Return Delivery ................................................................................... 634Return Deliveries from Warehouse or Consumption................................................................................................... 635Return Deliveries from Goods Receipt Blocked Stock ................................................................................................. 635Return Delivery in Goods-Receipt-Based Invoice Verification................................................................................... 636

Stock Transfer and Transfer Posting .................................................................................................................. 636Transfer Postings and Stock Transfers—General.......................................................................................................... 636Planning Stock Transfers and Transfer Postings Using Reservations ....................................................................... 638Stock Transfer from Plant to Plant .................................................................................................................................. 638Entering a Transfer Posting from Stock to Stock........................................................................................................... 639

Reservation ............................................................................................................................................................ 639Planning a Goods Issue..................................................................................................................................................... 639Creating a Reservation ...................................................................................................................................................... 640Displaying a Reservation .................................................................................................................................................. 641Changing a Reservation .................................................................................................................................................... 641Managing Reservations..................................................................................................................................................... 642

Physical Inventory ................................................................................................................................................ 643Physical Inventory Procedures ........................................................................................................................................ 643Physical Inventory Process ............................................................................................................................................... 644

Carrying Out the Physical Inventory ................................................................................................................. 645Serial Numbers in Physical Inventory ............................................................................................................................ 645Information on Physical Inventory ................................................................................................................................. 646

Batch Handling...................................................................................................................................................... 647Material Handling in Batches........................................................................................................................................... 647Batch Determination.......................................................................................................................................................... 648

Stock Determination ............................................................................................................................................. 648Integration........................................................................................................................................................................... 649

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Creating Stock Determination Strategies........................................................................................................................ 650Starting Stock Determination ........................................................................................................................................... 651

Print Function........................................................................................................................................................ 651Archiving............................................................................................................................................................................. 651Displaying Archived Documents .................................................................................................................................... 651Archive Research with the Archive Information System (SAP AS) ........................................................................... 652Reporting in Inventory Management ............................................................................................................................. 652Storing Documents ............................................................................................................................................................ 653

Conclusion ............................................................................................................................................................. 654

Chapter 23: Costing and Material Ledger ................................................................................................ 655What is Actual Costing?.................................................................................................................................................... 657Multiple Currencies and Valuations ............................................................................................................................... 658Activation Options............................................................................................................................................................. 658

Price Determination.............................................................................................................................................. 658Single-Level Material Price Determination .................................................................................................................... 659Multi-level Material Price Determination ...................................................................................................................... 660Transaction-Based Material Price Determination ......................................................................................................... 661

Changing Material Price Determination............................................................................................................ 662Material Ledger Data............................................................................................................................................ 662

Material Ledger Data Display.......................................................................................................................................... 663Material Listing as per Period Status .............................................................................................................................. 664Prices and Inventory Values............................................................................................................................................. 664Material Ledger Data over Several Periods ................................................................................................................... 665Material Transaction History ........................................................................................................................................... 666Material Ledger Document............................................................................................................................................... 667

Periodic Valuation of Material ............................................................................................................................ 668Periodic Material Valuation: Single-Level Material Price Determination ................................................................. 669

Multi-level Actual Costing .................................................................................................................................. 669Updating the Actual Quantity Structure ........................................................................................................................ 669Costing Run ........................................................................................................................................................................ 670

Price Changes ........................................................................................................................................................ 670Debiting/Crediting Materials .......................................................................................................................................... 672Determining Future Prices................................................................................................................................................ 672Releasing Planned Prices .................................................................................................................................................. 673Dynamic Release of Planned Prices ................................................................................................................................ 674Changing Material Prices.................................................................................................................................................. 674Posting a Price Change...................................................................................................................................................... 675Price Change Document ................................................................................................................................................... 675

The Structuring of Value Chains ........................................................................................................................ 676Controlling Level .................................................................................................................................................. 677

Procurement Processes...................................................................................................................................................... 678Procurement Alternatives................................................................................................................................................. 679

Installation—Material Ledger and Actual Costing .......................................................................................... 680Checking Customizing for the Material Ledger............................................................................................................ 681Checking Exchange Rates ................................................................................................................................................. 681

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Preparing Data for the Material Ledger (Production Startup).................................................................................... 681Reconciling Accounts for the Material Ledger in Different Currencies and Valuation Categories ...................... 683Authorizations—Material Ledger/Actual Costing ...................................................................................................... 684

Conclusion ............................................................................................................................................................. 685

Chapter 24: Invoice Verification................................................................................................................ 687Basic Invoice Verification in SAP........................................................................................................................ 689

Methods for Invoice Verification ..................................................................................................................................... 689Logistic Invoice Verification................................................................................................................................ 690

Working with Logistics Invoice Verification ................................................................................................................. 691Difference between LIV and Conventional Invoice Verification ................................................................................ 692

Taxes, Cash Discounts and Foreign Currency .................................................................................................. 692Taxes .................................................................................................................................................................................... 692Cash Discount..................................................................................................................................................................... 694Foreign Currency ............................................................................................................................................................... 695

Variance Reasons .................................................................................................................................................. 696Blocking Reasons .................................................................................................................................................. 696

Variances in an Invoice Item ............................................................................................................................................ 697Cash Discount and Blocked Invoices .............................................................................................................................. 699

Delivery Costs ....................................................................................................................................................... 699Planned Delivery Costs..................................................................................................................................................... 699Unplanned Delivery Costs ............................................................................................................................................... 700

Subsequent Debits/Credits ................................................................................................................................. 700Posting Subsequent Debit/Credit ................................................................................................................................... 701

Credit Memos and Reversal ................................................................................................................................ 702Credit Memos ..................................................................................................................................................................... 702Credit Memos that Refer to a Purchase Order or a Goods Receipt ............................................................................ 702Posting a Reversal Document .......................................................................................................................................... 702Cancelling Invoice Documents ........................................................................................................................................ 703

Release Blocked Invoices ..................................................................................................................................... 703Selecting Invoices for Processing..................................................................................................................................... 703Processing the List of Invoices ......................................................................................................................................... 703Releasing Invoices.............................................................................................................................................................. 704Repercussions of Releasing Invoices............................................................................................................................... 705

Invoice Verification in Background.................................................................................................................... 706Invoice Verification in the Background Without an Item List .................................................................................... 706Invoice Verification in the Background with an Item List ........................................................................................... 706

GR/IR Account Maintenance.............................................................................................................................. 707Material Valuation ................................................................................................................................................ 707

Control of Material Valuation .......................................................................................................................................... 707Agency Business.................................................................................................................................................... 708Conclusion ............................................................................................................................................................. 710

Chapter 25: Vendor Evaluation Systems ................................................................................................. 711Levels in Organization Structure..................................................................................................................................... 715Master Data......................................................................................................................................................................... 716

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Vendor Evaluation Process............................................................................................................................................... 717Overall Score....................................................................................................................................................................... 717Main Criterion .................................................................................................................................................................... 718Subcriterion......................................................................................................................................................................... 718Scoring Range ..................................................................................................................................................................... 720Weighting of Scores ........................................................................................................................................................... 720

Calculating Scores by the System ....................................................................................................................... 720Calculating the Overall Score........................................................................................................................................... 720Smoothing of Individual Scores....................................................................................................................................... 722Calculating Scores for Automatic Subcriteria................................................................................................................ 723Calculating Scores for Semi-Automatic Subcriteria...................................................................................................... 724

Reports and Analysis in Vendor Evaluation..................................................................................................... 726Generating Reports and Analysis.................................................................................................................................... 726

Conclusion ............................................................................................................................................................. 728

Module III: Sales and Distribution (SD)

Chapter 26: Master Data and Basic Functions ........................................................................................ 731Organizational Structures in SD ......................................................................................................................... 733Organizational Structures in Accounting.......................................................................................................... 733Organizational Structures in Material Management ....................................................................................... 733Customers and Business Partners ...................................................................................................................... 734

Business Partners ............................................................................................................................................................... 734Customers ........................................................................................................................................................................... 734Vendors ............................................................................................................................................................................... 734Personnel ............................................................................................................................................................................. 734

Working with Customer Master Records.......................................................................................................... 734Structuring of Customer Master Record......................................................................................................................... 735

Maintaining Customer Master Records............................................................................................................. 735Creating a Customer Master Record............................................................................................................................... 735Changing a Customer Master Record............................................................................................................................. 739Displaying a Customer Master Record........................................................................................................................... 740Deleting a Customer Master Record ............................................................................................................................... 741

Customer Hierarchies........................................................................................................................................... 742Customer Hierarchy Type ................................................................................................................................................ 743Account Groups in Customer Hierarchies..................................................................................................................... 743Maintaining Customer Hierarchies................................................................................................................................. 744Customer Hierarchies in Sales Order Processing.......................................................................................................... 744Partner Determination for Customer Hierarchy Nodes............................................................................................... 745

Product and Services ............................................................................................................................................ 745Material Types.................................................................................................................................................................... 745Industry Sectors.................................................................................................................................................................. 746Sales and Distribution Screens in the Material Master Record ................................................................................... 747Grouping Materials............................................................................................................................................................ 747

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Units of Measure and Quantity Specifications .............................................................................................................. 748Delivering Plants................................................................................................................................................................ 750Item Category Groups....................................................................................................................................................... 750Agreements ......................................................................................................................................................................... 750

Customer Material Information Records........................................................................................................... 750Creating Customer Material Information Records ....................................................................................................... 751

Item Proposal......................................................................................................................................................... 751Creating Item Proposals.................................................................................................................................................... 752

Pricing and Condition .......................................................................................................................................... 752Material Determination........................................................................................................................................ 752

Creating Master Records for Material Determination.................................................................................................. 753Material Listing and Exclusion ........................................................................................................................... 753

Creating Master Records for Material Listing and Exclusion ..................................................................................... 754Partner Determination in Sales and Distribution ............................................................................................. 755

Using Other Components in Logistics............................................................................................................................ 755Using Financial Accounting (FI) ...................................................................................................................................... 755Using Human Resources (HR)......................................................................................................................................... 755Partner Control................................................................................................................................................................... 756Partners in the Sales and Distribution Process .............................................................................................................. 756

Texts in Sales and Distribution ........................................................................................................................... 757Conclusion ............................................................................................................................................................. 758

Chapter 27: Condition and Pricing ........................................................................................................... 759Introduction to the Condition Technique.......................................................................................................... 761

Condition Types................................................................................................................................................................. 761Condition Tables ................................................................................................................................................................ 763Pricing Procedures ............................................................................................................................................................. 766

Sales Documents—Pricing................................................................................................................................... 767Pricing Elements................................................................................................................................................................. 768Prerequisites for Automatic Pricing................................................................................................................................ 769Pricing Screens.................................................................................................................................................................... 770

Header and Item Conditions............................................................................................................................... 771Header Conditions............................................................................................................................................................. 771Item Conditions.................................................................................................................................................................. 771Displaying Header and Item Conditions ....................................................................................................................... 771Manual Pricing ................................................................................................................................................................... 772

Implementing a New Pricing Procedure ........................................................................................................... 773Pricing Analysis ................................................................................................................................................................. 773

Condition Records ................................................................................................................................................ 774Organizational Level for Condition Records................................................................................................................. 774Creating Condition Records with Reference ................................................................................................................. 774Maintaining Master Data Related to Pricing ................................................................................................................. 775

Condition Maintenance Interface ....................................................................................................................... 775Defining Pricing Scales......................................................................................................................................... 775

Basis of Pricing Scales........................................................................................................................................................ 775

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Procedure to Create Pricing Scales .................................................................................................................................. 776Specifying Pricing Scale Types......................................................................................................................................... 776Calculating the Scale Base Value: Group Conditions................................................................................................... 776

Copying Condition Records ................................................................................................................................ 776Different Copying Scenarios ............................................................................................................................................ 777

Special Condition Record Functions .................................................................................................................. 778Terms of Payment .............................................................................................................................................................. 778Tracking Cumulative Values with Condition Update ................................................................................................. 779Maximum Value................................................................................................................................................................. 779Maximum Quantity ........................................................................................................................................................... 779Maximum Number of Sales Orders ................................................................................................................................ 780

Special Pricing Functions..................................................................................................................................... 781Promotional Pricing Agreements .................................................................................................................................... 781Agreement Types in Promotional Pricing...................................................................................................................... 781

Customer Expected Price ..................................................................................................................................... 782During Order Entry ........................................................................................................................................................... 782System Reaction to Price Variation ................................................................................................................................. 783Controlled through Pricing Procedure ........................................................................................................................... 783Processing Sales Orders with Customer Expected Price.............................................................................................. 783

Data Determination in the Access ...................................................................................................................... 784Condition Interchange....................................................................................................................................................... 784Examples of Inbound Processes....................................................................................................................................... 784Examples of Outbound Processes ................................................................................................................................... 784

Pricing Information and Analysis ...................................................................................................................... 785Pricing Analysis ................................................................................................................................................................. 785The Pricing Reports ........................................................................................................................................................... 785Net Price Lists..................................................................................................................................................................... 787

Conclusion ............................................................................................................................................................. 788

Chapter 28: Availability Check and Requirements ................................................................................. 789Availability in SD Process.................................................................................................................................... 791

Functionality ....................................................................................................................................................................... 791Types of Availability Check ............................................................................................................................................. 791Controlling the Check ....................................................................................................................................................... 794Fixing Quantities and Dates in Sales Documents ......................................................................................................... 797Deferring Confirmation of Quantities in Sales Documents......................................................................................... 797Rescheduling of Sales Documents................................................................................................................................... 798Shortage Check................................................................................................................................................................... 798Displaying the Availability Situation in Sales Documents .......................................................................................... 799

Requirements in SD Processing .......................................................................................................................... 801Functions ............................................................................................................................................................................. 801Types of Transfer of Requirements in Sales and Distribution Documents ............................................................... 801Controlling the Transfer of Requirements in Sales and Distribution Documents ................................................... 802Displaying the Requirements/Stock Situation.............................................................................................................. 802

Availability Check in Shipping........................................................................................................................... 803Functionality ....................................................................................................................................................................... 803

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Controlling the Availability Check in Shipping............................................................................................................ 804Performing the Availability Check in Shipping ............................................................................................................ 804

Availability Check against Product Allocation ................................................................................................ 804Availability Check against Product Allocation during Order Entry SD ................................................................... 806Display Availability Check against Product Allocation............................................................................................... 806

Conclusion ............................................................................................................................................................. 806

Chapter 29: Credit and Risk Management ............................................................................................... 807Credit Monitoring ................................................................................................................................................. 809Credit Control Area .............................................................................................................................................. 810

Deriving the Credit Control Area.................................................................................................................................... 812Setting Credit Limits.......................................................................................................................................................... 813

Creating Credit Data ............................................................................................................................................ 813Credit Data Processing......................................................................................................................................... 815Sales and Distribution Functions in Credit Management ............................................................................... 816Sources of Information in Credit Management ................................................................................................ 816

Credit Management in Distributed Systems.................................................................................................................. 818Reports for Credit Management ...................................................................................................................................... 820Postings without Credit Limit Checks............................................................................................................................ 822Authorizations for Critical Credit Control Fields ......................................................................................................... 822

Automatic Credit Control .................................................................................................................................... 822Understanding Authorizations........................................................................................................................................ 823

Risk Management for Receivable ....................................................................................................................... 823Settings for Credit and Risk Management ..................................................................................................................... 824

Conclusion ............................................................................................................................................................. 826

Chapter 30: Understanding Output .......................................................................................................... 827Output Types in SD .............................................................................................................................................. 829

Creating Condition Records ............................................................................................................................................. 830Analyzing Output Determination ...................................................................................................................... 830Processing Output ................................................................................................................................................ 831

Worklist Selection for Output .......................................................................................................................................... 831Output Processing in Worklists ....................................................................................................................................... 832Output Processing in Documents.................................................................................................................................... 833Output from Billing Documents ...................................................................................................................................... 834SD’s Transmission Medium ............................................................................................................................................. 834

Printing Output ..................................................................................................................................................... 834Printing Output Manually ................................................................................................................................................ 835

Sending Electronic Mails...................................................................................................................................... 835Conclusion ............................................................................................................................................................. 836

Chapter 31: Sales Component in SAP...................................................................................................... 837Sales Documents Categories................................................................................................................................ 839

Basic Functions within Sales Order Processing............................................................................................................. 839Flow in Sales Documents .................................................................................................................................................. 839

Organizational Structure in Sales ....................................................................................................................... 840

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Structuring Sales Document............................................................................................................................................. 840Structure and Data in a Sales Document ........................................................................................................................ 841Origin of Data in Sales Documents ................................................................................................................................. 844Controlling Sales Document............................................................................................................................................. 847

Customer Inquiry and Quotation ....................................................................................................................... 848Customer Inquiries ............................................................................................................................................................ 849Customer Quotation .......................................................................................................................................................... 849

Sales Order............................................................................................................................................................. 849Standard Functions During Order Processing .............................................................................................................. 850Items in Sales Order........................................................................................................................................................... 851Delivery Times/Commitment Dates in Sales Orders................................................................................................... 851Sales Order Commitment Dates ...................................................................................................................................... 851Delayed Sales Order Indicator ......................................................................................................................................... 852

Scheduling Agreements ....................................................................................................................................... 852Creating Scheduling Agreements.................................................................................................................................... 853Packing Information—Scheduling Agreement ............................................................................................................. 854Displaying Scheduling Agreements................................................................................................................................ 854

Contract Categories of Customers...................................................................................................................... 855Complaints............................................................................................................................................................. 856

Processing Complaints ...................................................................................................................................................... 857Backorder Processing ........................................................................................................................................... 858

Selecting Backordered Materials from a List ................................................................................................................. 858Selecting Single Materials for Backorders ...................................................................................................................... 859

Special Business Process in Sales ........................................................................................................................ 860Consignment Stock Processing ........................................................................................................................................ 860Returnable Packaging........................................................................................................................................................ 864Make-to-Order Production ............................................................................................................................................... 866Individual Purchase Orders ............................................................................................................................................. 866Bills of Materials in Sales Documents ............................................................................................................................. 867Third-Party Order Processing .......................................................................................................................................... 868Batches in Sales Processing............................................................................................................................................... 870Configurable Materials in Sales Documents .................................................................................................................. 870

Internet Scenario ................................................................................................................................................... 872Sales Order Entry ............................................................................................................................................................... 872Status of Sales Order.......................................................................................................................................................... 874

Conclusion ............................................................................................................................................................. 875

Chapter 32: Shipping and Transportation................................................................................................ 877Functions Supporting Shipping.......................................................................................................................... 879Transportation of Goods...................................................................................................................................... 880Delivery Processing .............................................................................................................................................. 881Picking .................................................................................................................................................................... 881

Functions under Picking ................................................................................................................................................... 881Picking with Warehouse Management........................................................................................................................... 882Wave Picks .......................................................................................................................................................................... 882Picking Status ..................................................................................................................................................................... 883

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Packing ................................................................................................................................................................... 884Functions under Packing .................................................................................................................................................. 884Packing Deliveries ............................................................................................................................................................. 884Automatic Packing in Shipping....................................................................................................................................... 886Working with Freight Lists Use....................................................................................................................................... 886

Goods Issue............................................................................................................................................................ 887Functions under Goods Issue........................................................................................................................................... 887Goods Issue Posting........................................................................................................................................................... 888Goods Issue from Consignment Stock............................................................................................................................ 889Displaying Goods Issue Documents ............................................................................................................................... 889Proof of Delivery ................................................................................................................................................................ 890Reversal of Goods Issue .................................................................................................................................................... 891

Printing and Communication in Shipping ........................................................................................................ 891Editing Outbound Delivery Output................................................................................................................................ 891Editing Loading Output.................................................................................................................................................... 892Editing Shipping Unit Output ......................................................................................................................................... 893Delivery Interface............................................................................................................................................................... 894Material Label (Material Tag)........................................................................................................................................... 900

Planning, Analyzing, and Monitoring ............................................................................................................... 901The Delivery Monitor ........................................................................................................................................................ 901

Special Functions of Deliveries ........................................................................................................................... 902Working with Batches ....................................................................................................................................................... 902Working with Material Determination........................................................................................................................... 903Material Listing and Exclusion in Deliveries ................................................................................................................. 903Replenishment Deliveries ................................................................................................................................................. 904Serialization of Goods ....................................................................................................................................................... 905Route Schedules ................................................................................................................................................................. 905

Transportation Planning ...................................................................................................................................... 907For Outbound Shipments ................................................................................................................................................. 907For Inbound Shipments .................................................................................................................................................... 907Using the Route as Selection Criterion ........................................................................................................................... 908

Shipment Completion .......................................................................................................................................... 908Activity Profiles.................................................................................................................................................................. 909

Shipment Monitoring ........................................................................................................................................... 909Using Information System in Transportation................................................................................................................ 909Displaying Transportation Change Documents............................................................................................................ 910

Shipment Cost Processing ................................................................................................................................... 910Constraints .......................................................................................................................................................................... 912Shipment Cost Document................................................................................................................................................. 912Shipment Costing............................................................................................................................................................... 913Shipment Cost Settlement with Service Agent.............................................................................................................. 913

Conclusion ............................................................................................................................................................. 915

Chapter 33: Reports and Analysis............................................................................................................ 917Reports.................................................................................................................................................................... 919

Calling up Reports ............................................................................................................................................................. 919

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List Processing....................................................................................................................................................... 921Find Function...................................................................................................................................................................... 921Restricting List Function ................................................................................................................................................... 922Totalizing List Function .................................................................................................................................................... 923Sort in List Function........................................................................................................................................................... 923Choosing Display Variant Function................................................................................................................................ 924Choosing Individual Documents Directly from the List.............................................................................................. 924Choosing Master Data....................................................................................................................................................... 924Choosing Additional Fields to Display More Information in the List ....................................................................... 925

Defaults Setting before List Creation ................................................................................................................. 925Worklists ............................................................................................................................................................................. 926

Sales Documents ................................................................................................................................................... 926List of Sales and Distribution Documents...................................................................................................................... 926List of Incomplete Sales and Distribution Documents ................................................................................................. 927List of Unconfirmed Sales Documents............................................................................................................................ 927List of Backordered Sales Documents............................................................................................................................. 927List of Blocked Sales Document....................................................................................................................................... 928

Information on Individual Sales Document...................................................................................................... 931Document Flow .................................................................................................................................................................. 931Status Overview ................................................................................................................................................................. 931Incompletion Logs ............................................................................................................................................................. 932

Functional Analysis .............................................................................................................................................. 933Pricing Analysis ................................................................................................................................................................. 934Performing an Account Determination Analysis.......................................................................................................... 935Performing a Split Analysis.............................................................................................................................................. 935Billing Analysis .................................................................................................................................................................. 936Output Determination Analysis ...................................................................................................................................... 936Sales Information System.................................................................................................................................................. 936

Conclusion ............................................................................................................................................................. 937

Appendix A: Exploring mySAP ................................................................................................................. 939

Appendix B: Glossary................................................................................................................................ 945

Appendix C: Functional Buttons of SAP.................................................................................................. 973

Appendix D: Transaction Codes............................................................................................................... 999

Appendix E: Message Types in SAP R/3................................................................................................ 1005

Appendix F: Shortcut Keys ..................................................................................................................... 1007

Index .......................................................................................................................................................... 1011

SAP FAQ.................................................................................................................................................... 1035

Tackling Interviews .................................................................................................................................. 1045