Synthesis gas generation on-board a vehicle: Development and results of testing

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ozinosibThe present work is focused on the development of energy-efficient internal combustionengines with minimized CO, CO2, CH and NOx emissions. In frame of this concept,increasing fuel demands and mass emissions of harmfultive emission regulations. The world leading car manufac-tures have been focusing intensive efforts on improvingspark-ignited internal combustion engines, includingchangeover to gaseous fuels [1].based catalysts raise the car price and worsen engine effi-hydrocarbon fuel combustion in spark-ignited engines, inparticular, on lean-combustion approach. In city driving, a carengine frequently runs in idle and partial load regimes,emitting large amount of harmful combustion products. For* Corresponding author. Boreskov Institute of Catalysis, Pr. Akademika Lavrentieva 5, Novosibirsk 630090, Russia. Tel.: 7 383 3306187.Available online at www.sciencedirect.comw.i n t e r n a t i o n a l j o u r n a l o f h y d r o g e n en e r g y 3 7 ( 2 0 1 2 ) 1 6 3 5 9e1 6 3 6 6E-mail address: vak@catalysis.ru (V.A. Kirillov).substances into the atmosphere. At present, motor transportis the main source of urban air pollution in the world. Currentlevels of specific fuel rates and exhaust cleanup remaininsufficient that provokes continuous tightening of automo-ciency. In other words, traditional approaches to reduce carexhaust emissions address consequences rather than prin-cipal shortcomings of fuel combustion in the engine. It seemsreasonable to concentrate attention on new principles of1. IntroductionLarge-scale vehicle production in the developed countries andhigh concentration of vehicles in large cities causedTraditionally, reduction of harmful emissions in automo-tive exhausts is reached by using three ways catalyticneutralizers which provide simultaneous conversion of CO,CH, NOx [2]. But expensive three-component platinum metalArticle history:Received 15 November 2011Received in revised form17 April 2012Accepted 20 April 2012Available online 17 June 2012Keywords:HydrogenOnboard synthesis gas generatorInternal combustion engineNatural gasElectronic control systemCatalytic reaction of partialoxidation0360-3199/$ e see front matter Copyright doi:10.1016/j.ijhydene.2012.04.106a method for hydrogen-rich gas generation onboard a vehicle and, in particular, itsapplication as an additive to the engine fuel was suggested and tested experimentally. Forpractical realization of the method, the catalysts for hydrocarbon fuel reforming tosynthesis gas were created, compact under-hood mounted synthesis gas generator wasdesigned, and integrated ICE-synthesis gas generator control system was developed. Thetests proved fuel economy in city cycle and considerable decrease of CO, CO2, CH and NOxemissions. The prospects of the technology for the development of energy-efficient envi-ronmentally benign engines are analyzed.Copyright 2012, Hydrogen Energy Publications, LLC. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rightsreserved.a r t i c l e i n f o a b s t r a c tbNovosibirsk State University, Ul. Pirogova 2, Novosibirsk 630090, RussiacRussian Federal Nuclear Center VNIIEF, Ul. Jeleznodorojnaya 4/1, Sarov 607188, RussiaSynthesis gas generation on-band results of testingV.A. Kirillov a,b,*, V.A. Sobyanin a,b, N.A. KuaBoreskov Institute of Catalysis, Pr. Akademika Lavrentieva 5, Novjournal homepage: ww2012, Hydrogen Energy Pard a vehicle: Developmenta, O.F. Brizitski c, V.Ya. Terentiev cirsk 630090, Russiaelsevier .com/locate/heublications, LLC. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. development of new type structured catalysts for theconversion of hydrocarbon fuels to synthesis gas; development of compact, under hood-mounted synthesisgas generators; development of microprocessor-based control system ofsyngas generator, integrated with vehicle control system; technical problems associated with practical operation andcontrol of ICE integrated with SGG; lab, bench and road trials; evaluation of technology perspectives for the developmentof energy-efficient ecologically benign engines.Analysis of these tasks is the aim of the present report.2. Results and discussioni n t e rn a t i o n a l j o u r n a l o f h y d r o g e n en e r g y 3 7 ( 2 0 1 2 ) 1 6 3 5 9e1 6 3 6 616360example, an engine of 50e100 kW nominal power demon-strates in city cycle an average power not exceeding 10 kWand efficiency below 15% (instead of 30% nominal) [3]. In viewof hydrocarbon fuel economy, reduction of CO2 emissions andminimization of internal combustion engines (ICE) impact onurban environment, the use of lean fuel mixtures showsobvious promises. One of the problems related to applicationof lean fuels is to provide stable ICE operation without powerlosses. Promising approach is to use hydrogen as an additiveto the lean fuel combusted in ICE.However, the use of even small amounts of cylinderhydrogen in vehicles is problematic because of high explosionand fire risks as well as the absence of developed hydrogen-supply infrastructures. A practical solution consists in theproduction of hydrogen-rich gas mixture (synthesis gas,syngas) in situ onboard a vehicle. This concept is especiallyattractive in view of large territories and lack of hydrogen-refueling stations in Russia. It combines the advantages ofengine fuelling by hydrogen-enriched lean fuel mixtures andhydrogen risk reduction.Application of hydrogen as an additive to fuel mixtures isnot a new problem. As far back as 1980s, a cycle of extensivestudies on hydrogen engines was performed in USSR [4,5].Changeover to fuelling automotive engines with hydrogen incombination with traditional motor fuels was proved prom-ising. At the same time, the problems of hydrogen storage,blending and risk management were unveiled that suspendedactivities towards practical application of hydrogen as fueladditive.Investigations carried out in 1973e1975 in USA withChevrolet car with an engine (5.75 L in volume) equipped withsynthesis gas generator demonstrated a decrease in petrolconsumption by 26% when driving according to the FederalDrive Cycle CVS-3 [6]. However, the development was notcommercialized because of low lifespan of catalysts andtightening of NOx emission standards.In the following years, investigations on using hydrogen asa fuel for ICE were reported periodically [7e13]. The results ofthe studies allow conclusion that addition of hydrogen tonatural gas in the amount not exceeding 20% reduces CO, CHand NOx concentration in the exhausts, but worsens thermalefficiency of an engine owing to lower volumetric energydensity of hydrogen. Reduction of emissions may be attrib-uted to homogenization of the fuel mixture with hydrogenadditives that provides more uniform spatial ignition in theICE cylinders where hydrogen serves as a spatial combustioninitiator.Further increase of hydrogen concentration leads toincreasing formation of NOx and provokes other criticaleffects such as back-fire of the fuel. To neutralize theseeffects, recycling of the exhaust gases is recommended.Clearly, the use of variable composition fuels and optimumcombustion of lean fuel mixtures represented a complex taskwhich needed novel approaches and technical solutions.Mostly for this reason, the realization of this obviouslyadvantageous concept remained kept within laboratory benchbounds.For practical realization of hydrogen-rich gas generationonboard a vehicle and its application as an additive toconventional fuel, the following tasks are to be solved:2.1. Catalyst for partial oxidation of the natural gasCatalytic reaction of partial oxidation of natural gas is one themost preferred processes for hydrogen-rich gas generation.The following gross reactionsmay proceed at partial oxidationof natural gas:CH4 2O2 CO2 2H2O DH0298 803kJ=moleCH4 H2O CO 3H2 DH0298 206kJ=moleCOH2O CO2 H2 DH0298 41kJ=moleSince the reaction of methane partial oxidation is highlyexothermic, it is reasonable to support a catalyst ontometallicmaterials in order to prevent hot spot formation and improvemechanical strength. In the present work, we used nickelcatalysts reinforced with stainless steel gauze and nickelcatalysts supported onto porous nickel strips (Fig. 1). Toprepare gauze-reinforced nickel catalysts, a mixture of Nipowder PNE-1 (84.0e85.5 wt.%), a SGG and ICE configurations and control systems should beAs the flow rates of natural gas and air was 2 m /h and 5.5 m /h, SGG generated 9.6 m3 of hydrogen-rich gas. The tempera-ture of hydrogen-rich gas at SGG outlet was 150e200 C; theflow rate of cooling agent did not exceed 100 L/h. According totest results, the SGG hydrogen-rich gas productivity rangedwithin 5e30 m3/h.i n t e r n a t i o n a l j o u r n a l o f h y d r o g e n en e r g y 3 7 ( 2 0 1 2 ) 1 6 3 5 9e1 6 3 6 6 16361maximally integrated and operated according to controlalgorithm. Depending on the integrated operation mode, SGGperforms the following functions: cold start mode; all modesof operation (except of closed-throttle deceleration mode): asSGG is warmed up, hydrogen-rich gas is fed to ICE in theamount according to control algorithm; closed-throttledeceleration mode: supply of hydrogen-rich gas to ICE isterminated; stop mode: supply of initial components (fueland air) to SGG is terminated, no hydrogen-rich gas isgenerated.A radial type (Fig. 2) and axial type (Fig. 3) of SGG for5e25 m3/g syngas productivity were developed and tested atbench-scale. The following parameters were monitoredduring bench tests: flow rates of natural gas and air, reactorpressure drop, inlet catalyst temperature T1 and outletcatalyst temperature T2, outlet product distribution. Thecommercial catalysts GIAP-3 and NIAP18 (12.5 wt.%), andchromium oxide (2.0e3.5 wt.%) was mixed with rubber-basedglue and spread over a X18H9T stainless steel gauze (GOST3187-76). Catalytic layer separated from the gauze containedw4 wt.% of the glue (on dry basis). Gauze-reinforced catalystswere dried in air for 24 h and sintered in a vacuum oven at760 C for 2 h. The fraction of catalytic layer in the gauze-reinforced catalyst was w60 wt.%. It was found [14] that thecatalysts had macroporous structure with predominant poresradii within 15e100 mm. The catalysts interior was formed by5e15 mm rounded conglomerates intergrown at contactpoints. The pores contained either individual 1e3 mmparticlesof irregular shape, or aggregates of small particles (particlesize 0.3e1 mm, aggregate size 1e5 mm). Detail information oncatalyst preparation, investigation and respective results ispresented in [15e17].2.2. Development of compact onboard synthesis gasgeneratorsOnboard synthesis gas generator (SGG) is a device thatconverts a part of a primary fuel (natural gas in this work) tohydrogen-rich gas (synthesis gas) which is fed to the enginetogether with themain fuel (natural gas or gasoline). Considerthe simplest version of SGG on the basis of air reforming ofnatural gas. Variants with other fuels will differ only by feedand dosing systems.SGG for onboard vehicle (for example, minivan) applicationcontains the following units: system for feeding and dosing of initial components (fuel,air), which includes air compressor, dozer, flowmeter,injector, air-natural gas mixer; reformer, which includes catalytic reactor for fuel conver-sion to syngas, quick starter of catalyst, systems for recu-peration of reaction heat, temperature sensors, mixers; system for hydrogen-rich gas cooling (heat exchanger-cooler); automatic controller of operation parameters.Bronkhorst mass flow meters were used to measure andcontrol the flows of natural gas and air. The temperature wasmeasured by thermocouples and recorded by TERMODATunit. The outlet products were analyzed on-line usinga stationary Siemens gas analyzer. Table 1 presents the testresults for SGG of both types. It is seen that both SGGprovided almost complete conversion of natural gas tosynthesis gas; hydrogen content in the outlet gas mixtureranged within 30e34%. At low flow rates of the gas mixture,the hot spot locates in the front cross-section of the catalystbed. As the flow rate increases, the hot point in the axialreactor shifts inwards. Taking into consideration designsimplification and necessity to cool the generated synthesisgas, subsequent experiments were performed using the axialtype SGG.Special attention was focused on minimizing SGG starttime. As a result, the catalyst was heated up from ambienttemperature to 600 C in 11 s at flow rates of natural gas andair of 0.5m3/h and 5.2m3/h, respectively (stoichiometry, l 1).3 3Fig. 2 e Radial type synthesis gas generator.Fig. 3 e Axial type synthesis gas generator with monolithcatalysts.2.3. Development of microprocessor-based controlsystem of syngas generator, integrated with vehicle controlsystemThe developed system for onboard generation of hydrogen-rich gas and its application as additive to primary fuel isprincipally different from hythane-based technical solutionsreported in literature [10]. Since hythane fuel (methane 80%,hydrogen 20%) has fixed composition which can not bechanged depending on ICE operation mode, it fails to usehydrogen advantages as fuel additive. The suggested solutionis universal, flexible and allows variation of fuel-syngasTable 1 e Results of SGG bench tests.Run Flow rate, m3/h DR,lPaInletcatalysttemperatureT1,SOutletcatalysttemperatureT2, SComposition of the reaction products, Vol%Natural gas Air H2 CO CH4 CO2 N2Axial type of SGG1 2 5.8 2.2 881 786 34.09 17.07 2.25 1.95 44.642 3 8.7 3.6 855 792 34.58 17.44 2.25 1.95 44.643 4 11.6 7 832 831 34.54 17.65 1.2 1.81 44.84 5 14.5 10 757 894 34.4 17.63 1.06 1.8 45.115 6 17.4 12.5 750 962 34.23 17.72 1.07 1.77 45.216 6 16.2 12.8 715 886 34.46 17.53 2.16 1.71 44.147 6.5 17.55 13.2 709 906 34.68 17.65 2.26 1.77 43.64Radial type of SGG8 1 3.44 1.0 852 621 29.0 14.3 1.27 4.57 50.99 1 2.93 1.0 810 576 30.8 14.1 4.83 3.82 46.510 2.5 10.4 8.1 1010 979 26.2 12.9 0.01 4.42 56.511 2.5 8.6 6.2 908 870 31.0 14.7 1.07 2.99 50.212 2.5 6.98 5.1 861 715 29.7 16.1 2.13 2.90 49.2Here DR e pressure drop on SGG.Air flow-mass i n t e rn a t i o n a l j o u r n a l o f h y d r o g e n en e r g y 3 7 ( 2 0 1 2 ) 1 6 3 5 9e1 6 3 6 616362controllerCutoff air valveNatural gas masscontrolleNatural gas flow meterIgnition coil Natural gflow mascontrolleFig. 4 e General view of eControl unitAir regulatorAir filterCompressorNatural gas cutoff valveflow-ras s rCompressorlectronic control unit.Syngas generatordingAir filterorsd ei n t e r n a t i o n a l j o u r n a l o f h y d r o g e n en e r g y 3 7 ( 2 0 1 2 ) 1 6 3 5 9e1 6 3 6 6 16363proportion depending on ICE operation load. For example, forGas injectPressure regulatorFig. 5 e Arrangement of onboard synthesis gas generator anminivan Sobol.Syngas feeSyngas-petrol control unitSyngas-petrol control unitthe purpose of fuel saving in idle mode, the engine is run onsynthesis gas, that is not possible in case of hythanetechnology.Microprocessor-based control system provides theoptimum operation of SGG according to special algorithm andholds the following functions: ICE control in cold and warm starting modes; provides the needed fuel-air proportion in all operationmodes depending on temperatures of air and cooling agent,air flow rate, throttle angle, speed of throttle angle change,oxygen content in exhaust gases; provides the needed spark angle depending on gas-hydrogen proportion in the fuel; control of SGG and ICEactuation mechanisms.Microprocessor operation algorithm is described in [18].Fig. 4 presents electronic control unit arranged for minivanSobol. More details on this development are reported in [18].2.4. Technical issues associated with practical operationand control of ICE integrated with SGGTechnical solutions related to arrangement of SGG undervehicles cowling addressed the following requirements:compactness; minimization of hydraulic and heat losses;feasible visual and instrumental diagnostics. SGG wasmounted in engine compartment of GAZ-2310 (Sobol) equip-ped with ZMZ-40522.10 ICE. SGG was mounted on left fenderand cooled by engine cooling system. Hydrogen-rich gas fromSGGwas fed to ICE by flexiblemetal tubing through special air-ngine operating components in under engine cowling ofgas mixer located upstream throttle valve. The SGG wasmounted using a structure absorbing vibrations and impactstresses. Compressed gas equipment was placed in thebottompart of the car. Electronic control systemwasmountedFig. 6 e Thermal efficiency and emissions of VAZ-21102ICE fuelled by gasoline with syngas additive generatedonboard by partial oxidation of natural gas. Operationconditions: n[ 2185 rpm, Pe[ 0.2. 1, 4egasoline; 2,3,5,6 egasoline with syngas additives. Syngas consumption(m3/h): 2e5.8; 3e7.35; 4, 5e8.4; 6e9.2. Gasolineconsumption 0.9e1.4 kg/h.on ametal shelve in the right part of engine compartment (seeFig. 5). Purchased component parts of SGG (air compressor,ignition coil, filter, flow controller, cutoff valves) were alsomounted under the cowling using special bracketry. Speciallydeveloped feed control unit to provide ICE operation both ongasoline and natural gas was installed in the enginecompartment.The mounted system allowed experiments on optimiza-tion of ICE operation with gasoline, natural gas, synthesis gas,gasoline or natural gas with syngas additives.2.5. Bench tests of ICE-integrated SGG with gasoline-syngas (hydrogen)In 2001e2004, bench tests of VAZ-21102 fuelled by gasolinewith hydrogen or syngas additives were performed [19] insynthesis gas additives widen the interval of stable perfor-mance of ICE fed by lean fuel mixtures. Indeed, air-gasolinestoichiometric ratio of 1.15 increases to 1.6e1.7 for gasolinewith syngas additives. Table 2 presents experimental resultsobtained during bench tests of ZMZ-4092.10 engine at JSCZMZ [18]. Clearly, the engine fed by gasoline with synthesisgas additives emits lower amounts of CO and HC NOx;gasoline consumption decreases by 4.3e16.7% depending onICE operation load. Thus, the tests proved feasible the stableoperation of engines fed by lean gasoline-airmixture enrichedwith synthesis gas additives.2.6. Bench tests of ICE-integrated SGG with naturalgas synthesis gasIn 2007e2008, performance of ZMZ-40522.10 engine fuelled byTable 2 e Effects of syngas additives to gasoline at bench test of ZMZ-4092.10 engine (JSC ZMZ).ICE load Decrease of emissions SP Decrease of emissions SONOx Gasoline saving, %n 1088 rpm, Nload 10% 13.6 -fold 13 -fold 16.7n 1861 rpm, Nload 20% 19.2 -fold 215 -fold 12.5n 2886 rpm, Nload 40% 6.5 -fold 36 -fold 15.8n 3694 rpm, Nload 75% 7.5 -fold 6.9 -fold 4.3al g7 8 9 10 11 12n, min1 884 2369 1861 2886 2661.7.7.0.18.8i n t e rn a t i o n a l j o u r n a l o f h y d r o g e n en e r g y 3 7 ( 2 0 1 2 ) 1 6 3 5 9e1 6 3 6 616364Nt,Nn 3.8 56.6 39.1 14.9 30Supply through SGG 3.0 m3/h air, 0.75 m3/h (0.54 kg/h) methanel 1.7 1.58 1.59 1.63 1Gg kg/h 1.2 5.0 2.9 3.6 4D 0.45 0.108 0.186 0.15 0NSP g/kWh 171 181 70 258 174%a 17 73 84 42 68NSO g/kWh 31 463 84 327 303%a 6 774 140 1158 766MNOx g/kWh 0.1 26 2.9 1.0 1%a 86 91 95 99 99Supply through SGG 5.0 m3/h air, 1,25 m3/h (0.90 kg/h) methaneorder to collect experimental data for the analysis and opti-mization of themethods for CO2 decreasing, improving engineefficiency and meeting emission standards without usingthree-component neutralizers, all this with minimizedproduction costs. Fig. 6 presents bench data on emissions ofVAZ-21102 ICE fuelled by gasoline with syngas additivegenerated onboard by partial oxidation of natural gas. Clearly,Table 3 e Bench tests of ZMZ-40522.10 ICE fuelled by natur1 2 3 4 5 6l 1.7 1.63 1.63 1.68 1.73Gg kg/h 1.2 4.9 2.8 3.5 3.9D 0.75 0.183 0.32 0.26 0.23NSP g/kWh 171 232 136 320 218%a 17 66 69 28 60NSO g/kWh 31 292 107 234 164%a 6 451 206 800 369MNOx g/kWh 0.1 10 4.2 0.5 0.5%a 86 94 93 99 89D e corresponds to fraction of natural gas consumed for conversion to sya Marked data - comparison with the results obtained at l 1.0 (natural1887 3241 2396 2367 3694 362414.7 83.9 82.6 5.5 116.5 7.01.59 1.46 1.45 1.69 1.41 1.552.3 8.4 5.9 2.5 12.4 4.00.23 0.108 0.09 0.21 0.04 0.108150 119 111 19 84 12641 99 85 85 95 67141 421 183 195 195 157292 373 181 748 62 6141.5 400 204 0.7 329 1185 68 58 97 84 85natural gas with syngas additives was tested at JSC ZMZ(bench) and FSUE NAMI (chassis dyno rollers). SGGarrangement was the same as presented in Fig. 3, chassisroller imitated city cycle driving. During tests, the followingparameters were measured: crankshaft rpm (min1); torqueNt (nN); power N (kW); fuel consumption Gg (kg/h); airconsumption Ga (kg/h); engine air ratio l; gas emission NSP,as with syngas additives.1.68 1.46 1.48 1.71 1.43 1.632.1 8.3 5.8 2.5 12.3 3.80.42 0.108 0.155 0.36 0.07 0.236154 179 96 272 85 13740 83 87 24 95 6569 327 112 129 137 10692 267 72 461 14 3821.1 317 89 0.4 296 3.164 78 94 84 94 94ngas.gas without syngas additives).nized by GASPROM. Total kilometerage (including way fromTable 4 e Emissions in road tests of vehicle with onboardsyngas generator.ZNZ-40522.10 engine FuelGasoline CNGa CNG syngasKilometerage, km 0 0 0SP, % 0.35 0.3 0.016SO, rrn 147 193 292NPy, rrn 174 191 16SP2,% 13.2 11.1 7.5Kilometerage, km 550 550 550SP, % 0.29 0.31 0.035SO, rrn 210 216 310NPy, rrn 210 235 17SP2,% 13.1 11.8 8.1Kilometerage, km 1800 1800 1800SP, % 0.3 0.33 0.02i n t e r n a t i o n a l j o u r n a l o f h y d r o g e n en e r g y 3 7 ( 2 0 1 2 ) 1 6 3 5 9e1 6 3 6 6 16365NSO, NNOy (g/kW h). Syngas was generated by onboard SGG(Fig. 3) from a part of primary fuel. Table 3 presents experi-mental data on bench tests of ZMZ-40522.10 ICE fuelled bynatural gas with syngas additives.Analysis of these data suggests the following conclusions: fuel-air ratio can be decreased to l 1.4O1.56 (except of idlemode); unfortunately, available bench has no capability towork on leaner fuel mixtures; methane consumption decreased by 2e13% compared tothat value at l 1.0; emission of carbon monoxide decreased by 60e93% ascompared to that value at l 1.0; emission of nitrogen oxides decreased by 55e98% asSO, rrn 195 222 340NPy, rrn 205 195 14SP2,% 12.9 10.9 7.95a CNG e compressed natural gas stored in cylinders.compared to that value at l 1.0; emission of hydrocarbons increased by 35e1268% ascompared to that value at l 1.0;Thus, the tests proved feasible stable operation of ZMZ-40522.10 engine fed by lean natural gas e air mixturesFig. 7 e The road tested Sobol minivan.tests of engines according to standard driving cycle using fuelmixtures with variable methane-to-syngas ratio.2.7. Results of road testsRoad tests were performed during Blue Corridor rally en-route Novgorod e St. Peterburg e Novgorod e Moscow, orga-(l 1.5e2.1) enriched with synthesis gas additives. Emissionsof CO and NOx were low. Increasing emission of OS at l > 1.7(Fig. 6) is attributed tomisfires of leanmixture in ICE cylinders.Further, it is planned to perform detail chassis dynamometerTable 5 e Effect of syngas additive on ICE performanceduring road tests.ZNZ-40522.10 engine FuelGasoline CNGa CNG syngasKilometerage, km 2235 2235 2235Nominal power, hp(motor bench)123 103 103Max speed, km/hs 120 120 120Acceleration time, s:0e100 km/h (1e5 gears) 32 34 4260e100 km/h (3 gear) 12 14 1660e100 km/h (4 gear) 17 21 2780e120 km/h (5 gear) 42 42 55Fuel units L m3 m3Filling volume 50 39 39Fuel price, rubles 24 8 8Fuel consumptionper 100 km (packspeed 75 km/h)11.5 10.5 8e9Costs per 100 km run, rubles 276 84 72One-filling fuel run, km 434 371 433a CNG e compressed natural gas stored in cylinders.Rybinsk, Yaroslavskay Oblast, to start position) of rally was2235 km. Minivan Sobol equipped with gas cylinders andSGG capable of producing 5e15 m3 syngas per h (Fig. 3) tookpart in the rally. During rally, full-scale trials were performedincluding in situ monitoring of emissions and fuel consump-tion. Particularly important, the minivan was capable to runon natural gas,methane-syngasmixture and on gasoline. Thisallowed measuring operation characteristics and estimatingefficiency of syngas additive under similar conditions. Table 4compares results on engine emissions during road tests. Fig. 7has shown the vehicle which took part in road tests.Clearly, addition of synthesis gas to natural gas fuel facil-itates the decrease of CO emission by 18 times, NOx e by 12times, CO2 e 1.4 times, but increases CH emissions by 1.5times. In general, these data confirm that synthesis gasadditives help to decrease toxic emissions from vehicles.Table 5 illustrates the effect of synthesis gas additive onICE performance during road tests. It is seen that accelerationtime of the car fueled by natural gas with synthesis gasadditive increases by 14e30% depending on gear type. Costsper 100 km run on natural gas are 3.28 times lower then thaton gasoline, and 3.84 times lower if natural gas is enrichedwith synthesis gas additive (in June 2009 prices). Compared tovehicles fueling by natural gas, the use of natural gas withstable ICE operation, fuel saving and decrease of toxic emis-sions. With this technology, necessity to develop hydrogen2008. Moscow [in Russ.].[2] Millet C, Chedotal R, Da Costa P. Synthesis gas bench study ofi n t e rn a t i o n a l j o u r n a l o f h y d r o g e n en e r g y 3 7 ( 2 0 1 2 ) 1 6 3 5 9e1 6 3 6 616366a 4-way catalytic converter: catalytic oxidation, NOx storage/reduction and impact soot loading and regeneration. AppliedCatalysis B: Environmental 2009;90:339e46.[3] Sorokin AI, Mirzoev GK. Comparative analysis of automobileinternal combustion engines and power units on the base ofgenerating, storing and refueling infrastructure disappearsthus saving enormous money. The technology is free fromhydrogen risks, because hydrogen is generated and used insitu. The technology provides stable ICE starting in winter dueto combined effect of warmed up heat-carrier and hydrogen-enriched fuel. Synthesis gas can be produced from dieseland biodiesel fuels, bioethanol, other biomass-derived fuelsthat widens its application opportunities as ICE fuel additiveand NOx reducing agent [20].The proposed technology represents initial step of wide-scale works on the development of energy-efficient engines.The next step includes comprehensive tests with the use ofvarious type engines and vehicles and modified technologyusing exhaust recycling in combination with air-steam-carbon dioxide reforming. These studies will allow improvedfuel efficiency. Urban transport and municipal vehicle (buses,minivans, refuse-collectors, street-cleaners, snow-removers,etc.) are the most promising application areas of the devel-oped technology, because: urban traffic dictates start-stop driving style which makesswitching to synthesis gas fueling most profitable; relatively low generator/vehicle price ratio; no need for most compact arrangement of synthesis gasgenerator onboard vehicle.AcknowledgementThe authors express gratitude to Federal Agency on Scienceand Innovations RF for financial support of the present workunder State Contracts No 02.516.11.6202 and 02.526.11.6060.r e f e r e n c e s[1] Pronin EN. Role of JSC in the development of Russian CNGmarket. Proc. Of VI International Conference GASSUF-2008;synthesis gas additive provides 1.17-times cost decrease andincreases one-filling run by 62 km. Note that optimization ofICE-SGG load characteristics will strengthen these effectsconsiderably.3. 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A kinetic examination of the effects ofthe presence of some gaseous fuels and preignition reactionproducts with hydrogen in engines. Inter J Hydrogen Energy1999;24:473e8.[10] Bauer CG, Forest TW. Effect of hydrogen addition on theperformance of methane-fueled vehicles. Part 1: effect on S.I.engine performance. Inter J Hydrogen Energy 2001;26:55e70.[11] Karim GA. Hydrogen as a spark ignition engine fuel. Inter JHydrogen Energy 2003;28:569e77.[12] Mustafi NN, Miranglia YC, Raine RR, Bansal PK, Elder ST.Spark e ignition engine performance with Powegas fuel(mixture of CO/H2): a comparison with gasoline and naturalgas. Fuel 2006;85:1605e12.[13] Mohammadi A, Shioji M, Nakai Y, Ishikura W, Tabo E.Performance and combustion characteristics of a directinjection SI hydrogen engine. Inter J Hydrogen Energy 2007;32:296e304.[14] Sabirova ZA, Danilova MM, Zaikovskii VI, Kuzin NA,Kirillov VA, Kriger TA, et al. Nickel catalysts supported byporous nickel for steam reforming of methane to synthesisgas. Kinetics and Catalysis 2008;49:449e56 [in Russ,translated in English].[15] Lireenkov VV, Luzin NA, Lirillov VA, Luzmin VA, SobyaninVA. A catalyst, its preparation method and method toproduce synthesis gas. RF Patent No 2320408. B.I. No 9 of27.03.2008 [in Russ, abstract in English].[16] Lireenkov VV, Luzin NA, Lirillov VA, Luzmin VA, ErmakovYuP, Sobyanin VA. A catalyst, its preparation method andmethod to produce synthesis gas from biodiesel fuel. RFPatent No 2356628. S1. B.I., No 15 of 27.05.2009, byapplication 2008100838/04, priority 09.01.2008 [in Russ,abstract in English].[17] ShigarovAB,KireenkovVV,KuzminVA,KuzinNA,KirillovVA.Autothermal reforming of diesel fuel in a structured porousmetal catalyst: boss kinetically and transport controlledreaction. Catalysis Today 2009;144:341e9.[18] Burtsev NV, Brizitskii OF, Kirillov VA, Komarov VN,Sobyanin VA. Application of adaptive control methods forthe development of microprocessor system for control ofmulti-fuel ICE with the use of synthesis gas. Vestnik NGU,Series Information Technologies 2009;7:62e73 [in Russ,translated in English].[19] Brizitskii OF, Terentiev VYa, Khristolubov AP, Zolotarskii IA,Kirillov VA, Sobyanin VA, et al. Development of compactdevices for synthesis gas generation from hydrocarbon fuelon-board a vehicle in order to improve fuel economy andecological characteristics. Alternative Technology andEcology 2004;11:17e23 [in Russ.].[20] Kirillov VA, Smirnov EI, Amosov YuI, Bobrin AS, Belyaev VD,Sobyanin VA. Reduction of nitrogen oxides in exhaust gasesof diesel engines: perspectives of synthesis gas using.Kinetics and Catalysis 2009;50:22e30 [in Russ, translated inEnglish].Synthesis gas generation on-board a vehicle: Development and results of testing1. Introduction2. Results and discussion2.1. Catalyst for partial oxidation of the natural gas2.2. Development of compact onboard synthesis gas generators2.3. Development of microprocessor-based control system of syngas generator, integrated with vehicle control system2.4. Technical issues associated with practical operation and control of ICE integrated with SGG2.5. Bench tests of ICE-integrated SGG with gasoline-syngas (hydrogen)2.6. Bench tests of ICE-integrated SGG with natural gas + synthesis gas2.7. Results of road tests3. ConclusionAcknowledgementReferences

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