Switches and Routers

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    Network Hardware

  • Chapter ObjectivesDescribe the important basic network hardware and the internetworking hardwareDiscuss the desired characteristics of a server and a workstation Present different switching technologiesExamine the routing process with the help of an example

  • Classification of Basic Network Hardware ComponentsNetwork Interface Cards (NICs)CablesConnectorsServersWorkstations

  • Classification of Internetworking Hardware ComponentsLine drivers or repeatersTransceiversIntelligent hubsBridgesSwitchesRouters Gateways

  • Chapter ModulesNetwork interface cardsNetwork connectors and hubsServer and workstation hardwareRepeaterBridgeSwitchContinued..

  • Continuation of Chapter ModulesSwitching technologyRouterGateway



    Network Interface Cards (NICs)

  • Network Interface Card Types10BaseT cardsPhysical star networks10 Mbps speedEthernet standardTwisted pair wiring10base2 cardsPhysical bus networks10 Mbps speedEthernet standardThin coaxial wiring

  • Continuation of NIC Types10Base510 Mbps speedEthernet standardThick coaxial wiring100BaseTX100 Mbps speedFast Ethernet standardTwisted pairHigher quality Category 5 wires are recommended

  • Token Ring CardsToken ring network cardsEarlier token ring cards4 MbpsNewer token ring cards16 Mbps

  • Bus Types for NICsCard connector typesNewer PCI bus Older ISA, VESA and EISA bus typesISA bus width16-bitPCI bus widthUsually 32-bitSupports 64-bit as wellUsed in high-powered network servers

  • Cable Connections for NICs BNC barrel connectorThin coaxialRJ 45Twisted pair

  • AUI and Combo Cable Connections for NICsAUI PossibilitiesDesigned for a thick coaxial cableDesigned for a token ring networkProvided for connecting a transceiverCombo CardsConsisting of different portsBNC, RJ-45, AUI

  • Possible Combo Card ConnectionsThin coaxial cables (BNC)Twisted pair wires (RJ-45)Thick coaxial cables (AUI)

  • Description of an Actual NIC10BaseT, PCI card10 = speed in MbpsBase =EthernetT = Twisted pair32-bit = bus widthPCI = bus technology


  • MODULESample Network Interface Cards

  • Example of a 10Base2 CardBNCSource: Black Box

  • Example of a 10BaseT CardRJ 45ISASource: Black Box

  • Example of a Combo CardComboSource: Black BoxRJ 45BNC


  • MODULENetwork Connectors and Hubs

  • Simple ConnectorsT connectors An interface between the NIC and the cablesTerminatorsUsed at both ends of a bus networkTerminatorT Connector

  • Example of T-Connector and TerminatorT ConnectorTerminatorSource: Black Box

  • Connectors : HubsTypesActive hubPassive hubPassive hubsSimply provides the physical and the electrical connection for the networkActive hubsHas built-in intelligenceSome are manageable hubs

  • Connectors : Passive HubMAUWSWSHub Connecting A Token-ring NetworkWS

  • An Active HubBackboneManageable HubRemoteWorkstationWSWSWSRemote MonitorActive Hub

  • Hub Management SoftwareSophisticatedMonitor the network traffic through each of the portsBecoming popularStandardized protocol for remote management existsSNMP (Simple Network Management Protocol)

  • Example of a Hub Used in Ring NetworkSource: Black Box

  • Example of Hubs Used in the Star NetworkStackableHubsSource: Black Box


  • MODULEServer and Workstation Hardware

  • Module ObjectivesGive an overview of the different types of the server hardwareDiscuss the desired characteristics of a serverProvide a specification for a workstation

  • ServersBackbone of a networkTypesPowerful microsServersSuper-serversSometimes mini-computers are used as serversIn a client-server, the server also acts as an engine of database executionIn general, it is used for the sharing of stored data and application

  • Desired Characteristics of Server: Processor and Storage RequirementPowerful processorLatest Pentium ProcessorMultiple processors, if appropriateLarge storage spaceSeveral gigabytes at a minimumActual requirement will vary LAN sizeFast disk access speed Less than 10 ms

  • Desired Characteristics of a Server: CD-ROMFast CD-ROM drivesCD-ROM towers are often preferred

  • Desired Characteristics of Server: Storage TechnologyBetter hard disk technologySCSIFast accessDaisy chaining of devicesLatest SCSI technology is required Possible consideration given to fiber-channel in the future

  • Desired Characteristics of Server: Bus and Memory TechnologiesBetter bus technologyPCIMemoryIn excess of 128 MbytesSDRAM or similar memory technology functioning at 10 nanoseconds or lessThe 128-pin SDRAM is also known as the DIMM chips as opposed to the 72-pin SIMM chips

  • Desired Characteristics of Server: Reliability Good back-up facilitiesBack-up tapeUniterruptible Power Supply (UPS)

  • Fault Tolerant Feature for ServersRAID storage technologyA system based on multiple diskHot-swappable disksRedundant power supplyHot-swappable power supply

  • Workstation Most applications are executed at the workstationTherefore, it must be powerful in terms of the processor and the memoryAs a rule of thumb, the workstation must be as powerful as it were to be used as a standalone unit to run the applications

  • Workstation Processor and MemoryPowerful processorPentium class processorAdequate memory 32 Mbytes or moreDIMM preferred although fast EDO SIMM may also be used

  • Workstation Storage and Compatibility Sufficient storageStorage in gigabytesImportant in a client-server environmentFront-end tools are stored on the workstationSpeed of storageUltra DMA or SCSI preferred EIDE may also be usedHardware components with appropriate drivers for the client operating system

  • ReliabilityPower surge protectorUninterruptible Power Supply (UPS), for critical applications


  • MODULERepeater

  • An Overview of RepeatersUsed for extending the physical span of a networkAn example is the extension of the distance between a hub and a nodeSpan is often limited by design considerations 10base5 The span is limited to 500 meters

  • A Repeater ConnectionExpanding the Span of the Network Source: Black Box

  • Another Example of Repeater Connection Extending the distance between the backbone and the nodes. Source: Black Box

  • Operations of a Repeater Within the ISO OSI ModelOperates at the lower level of the ISO OSI modelPhysical layerMediumPhysicalLayerRepeaterMediumPhysical Layer

  • Other Devices Used for Extending the Span of a NetworkLine DriversShort-Haul Modems


  • MODULEBridge

  • An Overview of a BridgeA device used for connecting two LANs operating under the same protocolCurrently, the term bridge is loosely being used to describe different interconnecting devicesUsed now for connecting LANs operating under different protocols as well

  • Purpose of a BridgeFacilitate the movement of data packet from one network segment to anotherNot a sophisticated internetworking deviceBridge does not perform the routing of information to different segments of a network Connects two network segments and not multiple network segments

  • Bridge : ISO-OSI Layer of OperationBridgeX MediumX MediumPhysical LayerPhysicalLayerDataLinkLayerDataLink LayerA simple bridge operates at the second layer of the ISO model.

  • Practical Bridge ImplementationsLocal BridgeRemote Bridge

  • Local and Remote BridgesLocal bridgeConnects two different LANs located locallyRemote bridgeConnects LAN segments that are geographically apartAn example is a device that provide dial-up access to a LAN

  • A Practical Bridge ExampleSource: Black Box


  • MODULESwitch

  • Switch Definition and PurposeA switch is defined as a device that allows a LAN to be segmented The segments will operate under the same protocol

  • Difference Between a Switch and a BridgeA switch focuses on segmenting a LANA bridge is concerned with linking two network segments that operate under different protocols

  • Purpose of a SwitchImprove the network performance and reliability Better manage the network in general

  • Performance Improvement in Segmented NetworksPerformance is improved especially in the case of a bus networkMultiple bus paths are now available for communicationEach segment can engage in simultaneous communication within itselfEasier to isolate a problem to a segmentThus, better manage the entire network

  • Network ReliabilityWhen one segment does not function, the other segments can continue to functionOffers better reliability to at least part of the function

  • Switches in Ethernet and Token Ring LANsSwitches were originally designed for segmenting Ethernet LANsUsed extensively in configuring large Ethernet bus LANsPhysically the network configured would still largely remain based on the star topology Switches are now available for token ring networks as well

  • Use of Switches in Linking LAN SegmentsSwitchHubHubWSServerWSServerSegment 1Segment 2Crossover Traffic

  • Using A Switch to Link Bus LAN SegmentsSwitchSegment 1Segment 2

  • Use of Switches in InternetworkingBecause the typical inter-networking connection involves multiple segments, the use of a switch is more common than the use of a bridge

  • Use of Switches for Higher BandwidthWS100 MBps Swi