Cisco Routers and Switches Ch 4

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  • CHAPTER 4 INTERNET PROTOCOL

  • APPLICATION SUPPORT PROTOCOLS

  • OSI vs TCP/IP ModelSessionPhysicalTransportNetworkData LinkPresentationApplicationApplication orProcess LayerTransportData LinkInternet

  • TCP/IP MODEL It Defines How Computer CommunicatesFor connecting network & to route traffic.

    It was first developed and Funded By ARPA(Advanced Research Projects Agency).

  • TCP/IP Model SummaryApplication or Process Layer concerned with how data at both ends is handled. Transport Layer manages flow of dataInternet Layer consists of several protocols, primary protocol is IP (providing hierarchical addressing schemeData Link (or Network Interface) Layer manages transmission of data within the networkPhysical Layer TCP/IP leaves the physical connection to manage itself

  • Importance of ProtocolsStandards define how devices communicate with each other and access mediaOnce a standard is implemented in software it becomes a protocolProtocols define how devices and applications communicateThe protocols on a network affects the way in which it functions and its ability to interface with other networks

  • Protocol SuitesTransmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) the most common of all network protocol suites, is the standard in modern networks, used for communication on the InternetInternet Packet eXchange/Sequence Packet eXchange (IPX/SPX) developed by Novell, ensures communication between Netware operating systems, provides similar functionality to TCP/IP, can be routed but only to communicate with other Netware networksAppleTalk popular networking protocol in American educational establishments, used for communicating between devices using the Mac OS

  • TCP/IP SuiteDeveloped for use on the Internet for the American Department of DefenceTwo Parts:TCP responsible for connection oriented communication using error checkingIP implemented in the addressing system used to identify devicesAlthough designed for the Internet it is used to build LANs, WANs and MANsMost widely used protocol suite, used within Unix, Windows and Macintosh platforms

  • Sheet1

    OSITCP/IP Protocol Suite

    Session Presentation ApplicationTelnetFTP (File Transfer Protocol)TFTP (Trivial File Transfer Protocol)SMTP (Simple Mail Transfer Protocol)LPD (Line Printer Daemon)NFS(Network File System)SNMP(Simple Network Management Protocol)X WindowOthers

    TransportTCP(Transmission Control Protocol)UDP(User Datagram Protocol)

    NetworkICMP(Internet Control Message Protocol)BootP(Bootstrap Protocol)IP(Internet Protocol)ARP(Address Resolution Protocol)RARP(Reverse Address Resolution Protocol)

    Physical Data LinkEthernetToken RingFDDI(Fibre Distributed Data Interface)Frame RelayOthers

    Sheet2

    Sheet3

  • IP(INTERNET PROTOCOLIP IS A INTERNET PROTOCOL USED FOR COMMUNICATION DATA ACROSS A PACKET SWATCHED INTERNETWORK USING THE INTERNET PROTOCOL ALSO REFERRED TO AS TCP/1P

  • INTERNET PROTOCOL VERSION 4THE FIRST MAJOR VERSION OF ADDRESSING STRUCTURE, NOW REFERRED TO AS IPV4.

    IPV4 CURRENTLY USED BY MOST NETWORK DEVICES.IP IS A NETWORK LAYER PROTOCOL THAT CONTAIN S ADDRESSING INFORMACTION AND SOME CONTROL INFORMACTION THAT ENABELES PACKETS TO BE ROUTED.

  • IP ADDRESSING OF IP VERSION 4IPV4 ADDRESSING USES 32-Bit(4byte) ADDRESSES.IPV4 RESERVES SOME ADDRESSES FOR SPECIAL PURPOSES SUCH AS PRIVATE NETWORK OR MULTICAST.IPV4 ADDRESSES ARE USUALLY REPRESENTED IN DOT-DECIMAL NOTATION SUCH AS 192.168.1.1

  • EACH PART REPRESENTS 8 BIT OF THE ADDRESS, AND IS THERFORE CALLED AN OCTET.IPV4 ADDRESSES MAY BE PRESENTED IN HEXADECIMAL.OCTAL OR BINARY REPRESENTATIONS.IPV4 ADDRESSES USED 32BIT ADDRESSES AND THESE 32 BIT DEVIDED INTO 4 OCTAT. AND EACH OCTAT USE 8BIT .SUCH AS 0 AND 1. O IA A ON BIT AND 1 IS A OFF BIT. ___8___ ___8____ ___8___ ___8____11111111.11111111.11111111.1111111100000000.00000000.00000000.00000000 12345678.111213141516.1718192021222324.2526272829303132

  • Class AddressesThere are five classes of IP addressThe class of address is identified by the first bits of the addressThree classes are used for networks. The last two are reserved for special purposes (Class D is for multicast, and Class E is for experimentation and future use)

  • IPV4 ADDRESSES ARE DIVIDED IN A DIFFERENT CLASSES . SUCH AS CLASS A,B,C,D,E.EACH CLASS USES DIFFERENT ADDRESS RANGE.DIFFERENT HOST BITS OR OFF BITS.DIFFERENT NETWORK BITS OR ON BITS.DIFFERENT TOTAL OFF BITS AND ON BITS.DIFFERENT EACH CLASS HOST IP.DIFFERENT SUBNETMASK.

  • HISTORICAL CLASSFUL NETWORK ARCHITECTURECLASS A.FIRST OCTET IN BINARY IS 0XXXXXXX.RANGE OF FIRST OCTATE 0 TO 127.NUMBER OF NETWORK IS 128.NUMBER OF ADDRESSES IS 16,777,216.DEFAULT SUBNETMASK IS 255.0.0.0.DEFAULT NETWORK BITS AND ON BITS IS 8.DEFAULT HOST BITS OR OFF BITS IS 24.TOTAL ON BITS 09 TO 32 AND OFF BIT 32 TO 09. USED FOR SUBNETING.

  • HISTORICAL CLASSFUL NETWORK ARCHITECTURECLASS B.FIRST OCTET IN BINARY IS 10XXXXXX.RANGE OF FIRST OCTATE 128 TO 191.NUMBER OF NETWORK IS 16,384NUMBER OF ADDRESSES IS 65,536.DEFAULT SUBNETMASK IS 255.255.0.0.DEFAULT NETWORK BITS AND ON BITS IS 16.DEFAULT HOST BITS OR OFF BITS IS 16.TOTAL ON BITS 17 TO 32 AND OFF BIT 32 TO 17. USED FOR SUBNETING.

  • HISTORICAL CLASSFUL NETWORK ARCHITECTURECLASS C.FIRST OCTET IN BINARY IS 110XXXXXRANGE OF FIRST OCTATE 192 TO 223.NUMBER OF NETWORK IS 2,097,152NUMBER OF ADDRESSES IS 256DEFAULT SUBNETMASK IS 255.255.0.0.DEFAULT NETWORK BITS AND ON BITS IS 24.DEFAULT HOST BITS OR OFF BITS IS 8.TOTAL ON BITS 25 TO 32 AND OFF BIT 32 TO 25. USED FOR SUBNETING.

  • HISTORICAL CLASSFUL NETWORK ARCHITECTURECLASS D.FIRST OCTET IN BINARY IS 1110XXXXRANGE OF FIRST OCTATE 224 TO 239.DEFAULT SUBNETMASK IS 255.255.255.255

  • HISTORICAL CLASSFUL NETWORK ARCHITECTURECLASS E.FIRST OCTET IN BINARY IS 1111XXXXRANGE OF FIRST OCTATE 240 TO 254..

  • IANA RESERVED PRIVATE IPV4 NETWORK RANGECLASS :- ARANGE :-10.0.0.0 TO 10.255.255.255NUMBER OF ADDRESSES :- 16,777,216CLASS :- BRANGE :- 172.16.0.0 TO 172.31.255.255NUMBER OF ADDRESSES :- 1,048,576CLASS :- BRANGE :- 192.168.0.0 TO 192.168.255.255NUMBER OF ADDRESSES :- 65536

  • SUBNETTING OF CLASS A,B,C RULLONE BIT ON:- 10000000 = 128 TWO BIT ON:- 11000000 = 192 THREE BIT ON :- 11100000 = 224 FOUR BIT ON :- 11110000 = 240FIVE BIT ON :- 11111000 = 248SIX BIT ON :- 11111100 = 252SEVEN BIT ON:- 11111110 = 254EIGHT BIT ON :- 11111111 = 255

  • SUBNETTING OF CLASS C

    ALL BITS VALUE USED IN SUBNETTING.EACH BIT VALUE USED IN OCTATE ON BIT EACH BIT VALUE DIFINE NEW SUBNETMASK AND NUMBER OF NETWORK. CLASS C USE SUBNETING AND NETWORK VALU 25 BIT TO 30 BIT 31,32 BIT NOT USED. BECAUSE HOST IP NOT ACCESSABLE

  • SUBNETTING OF CLASS C

    192.168.1.0/25255.255.255.00000000255.255.255.10000000(ONE BIT ONE255.255.255.128(NEWSUBNETMASK)NUMBER OF NETWORK21(EXTRA 0N BIT = 2 NUMBER OF EACH N/W HOST (OFF BIT) 27 = 128 -2 126

  • SUBNETTING OF CLASS C

    Example of 192.168.1.0/25 sub networkFirst networkNetwork ID 192.168.1.0First IP 192.168.1.1Last IP 192.168.1.126Broadcast 192.168.1.127Second networkNetwork ID 192.168.1.128First IP 192.168.1.129Last IP 192.168.1.254Broadcast ip 192.168.1.255

  • SUBNETTING OF CLASS C

    192.168.1.0/26255.255.255.00000000255.255.255.11000000(TWO BIT ONE255.255.255.192 (NEW SUBNETMASK)NUMBER OF N/W :-22(EXTRA 0N BIT = 4 NUMBER OF EACH N/W HOST (OFF BIT) 26 = 64 -2 = 62

  • SUBNETTING OF CLASS C

    192.168.1.0/27255.255.255.00000000255.255.255.11100000(THREE BIT ONE255.255.255.224 (NEW SUBNETMASK)NUMBER OF NETWORK :-23(EXTRA 0N BIT) = 8NUMBER OF EACH N/W HOST (OFF BIT) 25 = 32 -2 = 30

  • SUBNETTING OF CLASS C

    192.168.1.0/28255.255.255.00000000255.255.255.11110000(FOUR BIT ON )255.255.255.240 (NEW SUBNETMASK)NUMBER OF NETWORK:24(EXTRA 0N BIT) = 16NUMBER OF EACH N/W HOST (OFF BIT) 24= 16 -2 = 14

  • SUBNETTING OF CLASS C

    192.168.1.0/29255.255.255.00000000255.255.255.11111000(FIVE BIT ON )255.255.255.248 (NEW SUBNETMASK)NUMBER OF NETWORK 25(EXTRA 0N BIT) = 32NUMBER OF EACH N/W HOST (OFF BIT) 23= 8 -2 = 6

  • SUBNETTING OF CLASS C

    192.168.1.0/30255.255.255.00000000255.255.255.11111100(SIX BIT ON )255.255.255.252 (NEW SUBNETMASK)NUMBER OF NETWORK :26(EXTRA 0N BIT) = 64NUMBER OF EACH N/W HOST (OFF BIT) 22= 4 -2 = 2

  • SUBNETTING OF CLASS B

    172.168.0.0/17255.255.00000000.00000000255.255.10000000.00000000(ONE BIT ON )255.255.128.0 (NEW SUBNETMASK)NUMBER OF NETWORK :- 21 (EXTRA 0N BIT) = 2NUMBER OF EACH N/W HOST (OFF BIT) 215= 32768 -2 = 32766

  • SUBNETTING OF CLASS B

    172.168.0.0/18255.255.0000000.00000000255.255.11000000.00000000(TWO BIT ON )255.255.192.0 (NEW SUBNETMASK)NUMBER OF NETWORK :- 22(EXTRA 0N BIT) = 4NUMBER OF EACH N/W HOST (OFF BIT) 214= 16384 -2 = 16382

  • SUBNETTING OF CLASS B

    172.168.0.0/19 255.255.00000000.00000000255.255.1110000.00000000(ONE BIT ON )255.255.224.0 (NEW SUBNETMASK)NUMBER OF NETWORK :- 23 (EXTRA 0N BIT) = 8NUMBER OF EACH N/W HOST (OFF BIT) 213= 8192 -2 = 8190

  • SUBNETTING OF CLASS B

    172.168.0.0/20255.255.00000000.00000000255.255.1111000.00000000(ONE BIT ON )255.255.240.0 (NEW SUBNETMASK)NUMBER OF NETWORK :- 24 (EXTRA 0N BIT) = 16NUMBER OF EACH N/W HOST (OFF BIT) 212= 4096 -2 = 4094

  • SUBNETTING OF CLASS B

    172.168.0.0/21255.255.00000000.00000000255.255.11111000.00000000(FIVE BIT ON )255.255.248.0 (NEW SUBNETMASK)NUMBER OF NETWORK :-25(EXTRA 0N BIT) = 32NUMBER OF EACH N/W HOST (OFF BIT) 211 = 2048 -2 =