Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Brayton Cycle Energy ... Library/Events/2014...Supercritical Carbon Dioxide…

  • Published on
    09-Jun-2018

  • View
    212

  • Download
    0

Embed Size (px)

Transcript

<ul><li><p>SupercriticalCarbonDioxideBraytonCycleEnergyConversionR&amp;DWorkshop</p><p>September11,2014</p><p>OmniWilliamPenn,530WilliamPennPlace,Pittsburgh,Pennsylvania,USA</p><p>TheobjectiveofthemeetingwastodiscussthechallengesandobstaclesrelatedtoSupercriticalCarbonDioxideBraytonCycleEnergyConversionandtheactionsneededtosupportthewidescale</p><p>commercializationofpowercyclesbasedonsupercriticalCO2(SCO2)astheworkingfluid.Thisdiscussionwillinformpreliminaryplansforcontinuedresearchanddevelopment(R&amp;D)andthePresident'sFiscalYear(FY)2015CongressionalBudgetRequestthatincludes$27.5millionforapilotscalefacility.A</p><p>strawmanapproachtoconductingtherequiredR&amp;Dandpilotprojectswillbepresentedintermsofthegovernmentsdraftobjectives.Discussingtheseobjectivesandpotentialoptionsorapproachestotheseobjectiveswillprovidethegovernmentwithadditionaltechnicalandengineeringinformationrelatingtothepotentialexecutionoftheprogram.StakeholderinputwillhelptoinformtheU.S.DepartmentofEnergys(DOE)preliminaryplanning,pendingauthorizationfromtheU.S.Congresstolaunchapilot</p><p>project.ThissummaryreportwaspreparedbyLeonardoTechnologiesInc.(LTI)undercontractNETLDEFE0004002Task300.02.09.</p><p>TableofContents</p><p>I. SessionIDOEsSupercriticalCarbonDioxideBraytonCycleEnergyConversionR&amp;D.....1</p><p>Introduction..........................................................................................................................................1</p><p>UpdateonDOEsSupercriticalCarbonDioxideBraytonCycleEnergyConversionR&amp;D......................1</p><p>II. SessionIIObjectivesandApproachestoR&amp;DSupportingtheDevelopmentofSupercriticalCO2BasedPowerCycles...............................................................................5</p><p>Objective1:Size/ScaleofPilotTestFacility........................................................................................8</p><p>Objective2:DesignTestTemperature(oC)........................................................................................10</p><p>Objective3:HeatSource....................................................................................................................12</p><p>Objective4:ComponentValidationandCycleValidation..................................................................13</p><p>ConcludingGroupDiscussion/Remarks............................................................................................15</p><p>NextSteps..........................................................................................................................................15</p><p>AppendixA:WorkshopAgenda.............................................................................................16</p></li><li><p>Disclaimer This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by an agency of the United States Government. Neither the United States Government nor any agency thereof, nor any of their employees, makes any warranty, express or implied, or assumes any legal liability or responsibility for the accuracy, completeness, or usefulness of any information, apparatus, product, or process disclosed, or represents that its use would not infringe privately owned rights. Reference therein to any specific commercial product, process, or service by trade name, trademark, manufacturer, or otherwise does not necessarily constitute or imply its endorsement, recommendation, or favoring by the United States Government or any agency thereof. The views and opinions of authors expressed herein do not necessarily state or reflect those of the United States Government or any agency thereof. </p></li><li><p>SupercriticalCarbonDioxideBraytonCycleEnergyConversionR&amp;DWorkshop 1</p><p>I. SessionIDOEsSupercriticalCarbonDioxideBraytonCycleEnergyConversionR&amp;D</p><p>IntroductionThe4thInternationalSupercriticalCO2PowerCyclesSymposiumthatoccurredovertheprevioustwodays(September910,2014)isevidencethatthereisinterestandprogressbeingmaderegardingsupercriticalcarbondioxide(SCO2)BraytonCycleenergyconversionresearchanddevelopment(R&amp;D).ThereisenthusiasmwithintheU.S.DepartmentofEnergy(DOE)andU.S.CongressregardingSCO2powercycles.Thepurposeoftheworkshopistofactfindandnotdriveconsensustowardanyparticularoptionorapproachlistedunderthefourtopicalobjectiveareas.Thegoaloftheparticipantsistoengageinopendialoguethathighlightsthetechnologyneedsandideasforsuccessfuldevelopment.Thequestionwasposedtothegroup,Howdowegetfromwherewearetodaytowhereweneedtogo?Beforethegroupdiscussedthefourobjectiveareas,aseriesofpresentationswasofferedtoprefacethediscussionandprovidecontextforthecurrentstatusofthetechnology.</p><p>UpdateonDOEsSupercriticalCarbonDioxideBraytonCycleEnergyConversionR&amp;DRichardDennis,NationalEnergyTechnologyLaboratory(NETL)SCO2R&amp;DActivitiesCurrentlyUnderwayAcrosstheDOEComplex</p><p>RichardDennisopenedtheworkshopwithadiscussionofcurrentprojectssupported/fundedbyDOE(FE,ARPAE,EERE,NE,andInternational).ThepresentationandmoredetailedinformationonprojectportfolioareavailableonlineviatheNETLwebsite.Thediscussionofprojectsincludedthefollowing:</p><p> AdvancedTurbomachineryComponentsforSupercriticalCO2PowerCycles(FE) DevelopmentofLowLeakageShaftEndSealsforUtilityScaleSCO2Turbomachinery(FE) HighInletTemperatureCombustorforDirectFiredSupercriticalOxyCombustion(FE) CoalSyngasCombustorDevelopmentforHighPressure,OxyFuelSCO2Cycle(FE) HighTemperatureHeatExchangeDesignandFabricationforSystemswithLargePressure</p><p>Differentials(FE) LowCostRecuperativeHeatExchangerforSupercriticalCarbonDioxide(ScCO2)Power</p><p>Systems(FE) HighVolumeManufacturingProcessDevelopmentforLowCostHighPerformanceHeat</p><p>ExchangersforSCO2Applications(FE) Design,FabricationandCharacterizationofMicrochannelHeatExchangersforFossilFired</p><p>SupercriticalCO2Cycles(FE) DevelopmentofThinFilmPrimarySurfaceHeatExchangerforAdvancedPowerCycles(FE) AdvancedOxyCombustionTechnologyDevelopmentandScaleUpforNewandExistingCoal</p><p>FiredPowerPlants(FE) DesignAndTestingOfCO2CompressionUsingSuperSonicShockWaveTechnology(FE) NovelConceptsfortheCompressionofLargeVolumesofCarbonDioxide(FE) NovelSupercriticalCarbonDioxidePowerCycleUtilizingPressurizedOxyCombustionin</p><p>ConjunctionwithCryogenicCompression(FE) ThermophysicalPropertiesofCarbonDioxideandCO2RichMixtures(FE) SupercriticalCO2Turbomachinery(SCOT)TechnologyDevelopmentforPowerPlant</p><p>Applications(FE) RocketEngineDerivedHighEfficiencyTurbomachineryforElectricPowerGeneration(ARPAE)</p></li><li><p>SupercriticalCarbonDioxideBraytonCycleEnergyConversionR&amp;DWorkshop 2</p><p> SupercriticalCarbonDioxideTurboExpanderandHeatExchangers(EERE) HighEfficiencyReceiversforSupercriticalCarbonDioxideCycles(EERE) HighFluxMicrochannelSolarReceiver(EERE) DirectSupercriticalCarbonDioxideReceiverDevelopment(EERE) DegradationMechanismsandDevelopmentofProtectiveCoatingsforTESandHTFContainment</p><p>Materials(EERE) PhysicsBasedReliabilityModelsforSupercriticalCO2TurbomachineryComponents(EERE) AdvancedEnergyConversion(NE) SCO2ProjectSummariesResearchatSandiaNationalLabs GlobalSCO2Activity(Korea,China,CzechRepublic,Spain,andothers)</p><p>Someoftheseprojectshavefollowonwork.OnlyoneARPAEprojectrelatesandARPAEcanbecontactedformoreinformation.GeneralElectric(GE)hasanARPAEcontractforaheatpumpforthermalenergystoragethatwasrecentlyawarded(MaxPeter).Inaddition,GEiscoordinatingitshotshaftsealsworkwithotherorganizations.</p><p>AnaudiencememberaskedifthetotalDOEyearlyfundingofallprojectsrelatedtothiseffortispublicinformation,buttheexacttotalisconsideredinternal.Itwasestimatedthatthereisapproximately$50milliontotalfundingforallprojectsacrossthenationallaboratoriesandDOEcontributionsarecostshared80/20.DOEhasnotpublishedatechnologyroadmapforSCO2basedpowercyclesforfossilfuelapplications.Itwassuggestedthatthereisaneedtoformacollectiveworkinggrouponmaterialsandthereisnotenoughinformationonthecomponentsatthisstage.Finally,itwasnotedthatthereisadesireforoptimizinganalysisofmarket,benefits,impacts,etc.</p><p>BrianRobinson,U.S.DepartmentofEnergy,NuclearEnergyAdvancedTechnologies,ChairoftheSupercriticalCO2TechTeamReviewofIndustryInputtoNE2014STEPRFI</p><p>BrianRobinsonofferedtheaudienceanoverviewoftheRequestforInformation(RFI)process.Robinsonprovidedabriefhistory,highlightingthe2013workshopinSCO2leadingtothecreationofSupercriticalCO2TechTeamandkickingofftheeffort.ThepurposeoftheSCO2TechnologyTeamistoworkwithindustrytodevelopandfacilitatecommercializationofSCO2technologies.ItisacollaborationandtechnicalintegrationbetweenFE,NE,EERE,andARPAE.Thetopicsbeingdiscussed(e.g.,technologyissues,marketneeds,commercialization,industryinvolvement,thepathforward,outreach)arecrucialforthedevelopmentandcommercializationofthistechnology.InJune2014,DOENEissuedanRFItoseekinformation,comments,feedback,andrecommendationsforthecontinueddevelopmentoftheSCO2BraytonCycleEnergyConversionR&amp;DProgram.Therewere17respondents(4nationallaboratories,3researchinstitutions,5vendors,1EPC,1utility,and3other).Thereweresevenmainresponseareasandsevenotherresponseareas.Mostcommonresponsesincludedcompactheatexchangers,turbomachinery,systemdesignandoptimization,materialdevelopment,manufacturing,systemsoperationandcontrol,andscalingtocommercialsizes.Otherresponsesincludedvalves,materialinteractions,integratedsafetyanalyses,particulateandcontaminantcontrol,maintenanceandreliability,temperatureeffects,andprocedures.Theresponsesverifiedandvalidatedpreviousinformation,includingtheneedforasize/scaleof10MWandtemperaturesofatleast550C.TheSCO2techteamwebsiteandRFIreportwillbereleasedshortlyforallstakeholderstoview.DOENEhasstartedcollectinginformationontheinventoryofSCO2equipmentthatisavailableacrosstheDOElaboratories(agradstudenthasbeenhiredtoassemblethis</p></li><li><p>SupercriticalCarbonDioxideBraytonCycleEnergyConversionR&amp;DWorkshop 3</p><p>information).Atthispoint,ithasnotbeendeterminedwhethertherewillbean80/20or50/50costshare.</p><p>The550Cnumberwassurprisingtosomeintheaudiencebecauseitcanbepurchasedcommercially(Echogen)andsomearetalkingabout700Csystems.Theresearchvalueofthelowertemperaturecyclewasquestioned.Robinsonsaidthatmaterialsystemsarenotavailableforhighertemperaturecycles.Heaskedwhatmotivatesthemanufacturertoswitchoverselectedalloystomakepartsavailable.Suppliersarereluctanttodothatifthereisnotaprovensystemormarketpulltodoso.</p><p>AnaudiencememberfromtheOfficeofNavalResearch(ONR)saidtheyhaveinterestingasturbinegenerators,notjustpropulsionapplicationsandwantedtoknowiftherewereanyresponsestoRFIinthateffect.RobinsonindicatedthattherewerenotandtheNavyindicatedinterestinreliability,space/size,andprovenoperation.</p><p>Itistooearlyintheprocesstowriteaprogramplanbecauseanoptionsanalysiswillfeedintotheprogramplan.Anaudiencemembersuggestedthatthegroupcouldwriteaprogramplantofocusthegroupsefforts,whichwasdebatedbytheparticipants.Thediscussionincludedconversationonhowthegroupshoulddevelopthemeetings,workshops,andsymposia.Itwasagreedthataprogramplanwithatimelinefordevelopmentshoulddetailouthowtomovefromlowertemperaturetohighertemperature,butthequestionishowthishappensandwhen.Finally,theFOAwillbemadepublicwhenappropriationsarereceived(likelyearlyincalendaryear2015).</p><p>MarkLausten,U.S.DepartmentofEnergy,SunShotSummaryoftheJune2014WorkshopResults</p><p>MarkLaustenprovidedasummaryoftheJune2014Workshop.Hesaidthatthereisastrongneedforvalidatedmodels,buttherearefewexperimentalloopstovalidatethemodels.Withregardtoaroadmapandtechnicaltargets,thesecanbedifficulttonegotiateandneedtobedrivenbybothindustryandcommercialtargets.DOE/NETLsupportsindustryeffortsanditwasacknowledgedtherewillnotbeaonesizefitsallsolution.Alessonlearnedwithinindustryisthatalargerscaledemonstrationdoesnotnecessarilyresultinanythingresearchwisethatcannotbelearnedfromasmallerdemonstration(e.g.,controls,materials).AspecifictimelinewasnotrecommendedattheJune2014Workshop,butitwasnotedthatindustrymaytempertheirinterestifthedemonstrationisplannedtoofarinthefuture.However,alongertimeframewouldprovidethosethatworkwithmaterialsmoretimetoqualifymaterialsforhighertemperatures.Thus,thosethatworkwithmaterialshavealongertermviewpoint,whileindustryhasashorttermoutlook.Thismaydrivetheneartermdemonstrationtolowertemperatures.</p><p>Itwasasked,Whataretheutilitydriversandwhereistheutilityparticipation?Therewerefiveutilitiespresentandtheystatedthattheyarewaitingtoseewhytheyshouldadoptandunsureoftheclearcutbenefitsofthetechnologyatthispointintime.Theimportanceofgridconnectivitywasquestioned.Gridconnectivityisawelldevelopedtechnicalprocess,butitwasaskedwhyitshouldbeincludedinthedemonstration.Gridconnectivitycoulddefraythecostoffuelconsumptionforthedemonstrationunitand/orenablepositivepublicrelationsforacompanythathasthecycleinitsportfolio.Itwasmentionedthatconnectingtothegridcancostupto$5milliondependingoninfrastructure.Itisimportanttohavehoursrunonthedemonstrationbecauseofthelessonslearnedrelatedtooperationalmaintenanceandreliability,butthiscanbetimeconsuming,expensive,andsitespecific.</p></li><li><p>SupercriticalCarbonDioxideBraytonCycleEnergyConversionR&amp;DWorkshop 4</p><p>KristenGerdes,NationalEnergyTechnologyLaboratory(NETL)PreliminarySCO2PowerCycleBenefitsAnalysis</p><p>ThefinalpresentationforSessionIwaspresentedbyKristenGerdes.GerdesprovidedasummaryofthePowerCycleBenefitsAnalysisandfieldedquestionsandanswers.MaterialimprovementsforSCO2willalsoenableadvancedultrasupercritical(AUSC),sotheAUSCcaseisusedasapointofcomparisonfortheSCO2cycles.Therearerulesofthumbforwhatefficiencyimprovementswillresultversustheincreaseincostsofthepowerisland.Thereareanumberofnextstepstomovethesepreliminarybenefitsforward.</p><p>ThefollowingcapturesthekeypointsduringtheQ&amp;Asessionfollowingthepresentation.Itwasaskedhowmuchresearchwentintothecostmultiplierof1.4fortheSCO2systemovertheAUSCsystem;Gerdessaidtherewassomeresearch,butthisisasensitivityanalysis.Itwasmentionedthatthecostmultiplierneedsattention,becausesomestudieshaveshownadecreaseinthecostoftheSCO2system(solar).Workbythenationallaboratoriestorefinethe1to1.4costfactorwouldbehelpfulforindustrymodelingefforts(industryeconomicanalysiswasadmittedlyweakviaseveralaudiencecomments).Itwassaidthatitwouldalsobehelpfultorefineandunderstandtheefficiencyfactor.Thenuclearassumptionforthedeploymentnumbers(i.e.,whattypeofreactors)wasareplacementrateof1015%advanced,butmostlylightwater,reactors,andtakenfromtheNationalEnergyModelingSystem(NEMS).Acommentwasmadeoncostsensitivity.Thecostofadvancedalloysisbasedonthepriceofnickel,whichhasfluctuatedfrom$20to$60/lboverthepast5years.Thematerialsneedsmustbewellunderstoodsothatutilitiescandeterminecost,whichmeansthatfacilitiesneedtobebuiltandoperated.Thesupplychaincostsformaterialswerealsoquestioned(i.e.,materialsuppliersrampinguptoproducethenecessaryalloys).UtilitiesarelookingatprojectedU.S.EnvironmentalProtectionAgency(EPA)rule111D,whichimpactsnewpowerplants.Anaudiencemembersuggestedthatincludingthisprojectedrulewouldhelptomaketheanalysismorerealistic.TheanalysisusesPCboilerandanairseparationunit(ASU),notiontransportmembrane(ITM),andretrofitisnotincludedintheanalysis,becauseofthedifferencesinthecycles.Itwasmentionedthatbrownfieldorrepoweringmayserveasbetteroptions.Anaudiencemembersuggestedthattheanalysismightbeunderestimatingthepotentialoffossilfuelsasabaselinecomparison.AnanalysisofgasificationwillbeincludedinfutureworkandallanalysisincludesCO2capture.Withregardtoretrofitting,theSCO2cyclewillnotfitheatingprofilesofsteamcycles,sosignificantchangestotheboilerwillbeneede...</p></li></ul>