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    Chapter 5


    5.1 Summary

    The mind uses its faculty for creativity

    only when experience forces it to do so.

    -- Poincare. J.H.

    Human life is the most precious creation of God. It has two aspects,

    biological and sociological. The biological aspects of human life is

    maintained and transmitted by nutrition and reproduction. The social

    aspect of human life is maintained and transmitted by education.

    Education is considered a vital process in social sense.

    Education aims at harmonious development of individual. A

    harmonious balance should be kept between feeling, knowing and doing.

    Education commissions study the trends and issues and propose the

    required directions for the progress of the individuals, societies and nation

    as a whole. Concern over the erosion of basic values and the need for

    educational action to combat the situation is the recurring theme in the

    recommendations of major commissions on education down the history.

    Delors commission (1996) in its report called learning, the treasure

    with in notes the following:

    Education must be organized around four fundamental types of

    learning, in a way be the four pillars of knowledge; that is acquiring the

    instruments of understanding, learning to do: so as to be able to act

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    creatively on ones environment, learning to live together: so as to

    participate with other people in all human activities, and learning to be:

    develop ones personality and be able to act with greater autonomy,

    judgment and personal responsibility.

    Goals of education should be future oriented with provisions for life

    long education. Education must strive to make children fit not just for the

    present generation but to make possible a better future for the humanity.

    The purpose of any education is to develop well informed, intensive and

    well equipped citizens of the society, and not as an individual alone. Well

    adjusted and harmonious refinement and behavior, development of a

    personality and development of an interest in the wider aspect of his

    environment are the qualities required by everyone to live a good life.

    Education for sustainable development and for a better quality of life

    has become a big responsibility. The cultivation of a global outlook, a love

    of nature and a concern for fellow human beings and environments should

    be part of the scheme of the education.

    Need for the Study

    The study is undertaken because of the universal importance given

    to adolescents. School and society in this period play a vital role in shaping

    and moulding the personality of the adolescents. Adjustment is a very

    important factor for better academic achievement and for effective

    educational pursuit. The psychological misery that stems from inadequate

    adjustment is reason enough to study the problem in the hope that

    adjustment failures can be understood and prevented or successfully

    treated when they do occur.

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    The cumulative effect of millions of decisions determines the

    outcome of peoples lives. Decision-making is a critical component of not

    only personal life but also academic life in many professions.


    The broader aim of education is preparing the learners for

    harmonious living. There are a number of factors like physique, physical

    attractiveness family relationships: parental dominance, heredity culture,

    home factors, school factors, social factors that have been found important

    in the personality development and the personality of adolescent learners.

    Some of these are important in childhood and continue to be important in

    adolescence. Others those were relatively unimportant in childhood

    become more important in adolescence, while still others that were

    important in childhood are of less importance in adolescence.


    Adjustment is a very important factor, for better academic

    achievement and for effective educational procedure. Secondary school

    students are in a stage of adolescence, a very crucial period. A number of

    physical and psychological changes occur in all dimensions of

    development. All the aspects of the growth and development, physical,

    intellectual, emotional, social, moral etc., are closely linked. The process of

    adjustment starts from the birth of the child and continues till his death. The

    concept of adjustment is as old as human race on earth. Thus it is

    considered that proper adjustment is very essential for normal behavior of


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    Decision Making

    Adolescence is the period of maximum growth with regard to

    cognitive mental functioning. Intellectual powers like long term memory,

    logical thinking, abstract reasoning, problem solving and decision making

    abilities are developed during their stage.

    The cognitive development takes a fast pace during the adolescence.

    Teenagers accumulate general knowledge and start applying the learned

    concepts to new tasks. Interest in learning life skills, such as cooking, fixing

    things, driving and so on, from adults at home and elsewhere, is also seen

    during these years. In terms of school, there is a great transition for the

    budding adult. From being the top-notch position in the junior school, kids

    become the youngest, smallest and least powerful in middle or high school.

    A sense of ego and personal uniqueness also creep in the youngsters, who

    start thinking independently. Every person is called upon to make decisions

    throughout the course of his/her everyday life. Some of these decisions are

    truly significant; they have far reaching influences on ones own, as well as

    on others. At times many decisions are trivial, their effects are unimportant

    even at the moment they are made. Decisions thus come in many forms

    and sizes.

    Hence the researcher felt that a study on personality, adjustment,

    decision making of adolescents with regard to certain selected variables

    would go a long way in answering some of the questions raised.

    Scope of the Study

    The present study is confined to the personality, adjustment level

    and decision making of adolescents. The researcher has taken IX class

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    students as sample for the investigation. The study is limited to the selected

    variables such as gender, locality, medium, type of school, economic

    background, number of children in the family, home environment and

    Academic achievement.

    Review of Related Literature

    Chaturvedi .N in 1970 studied the personality of teacher and

    students who showed definite trends of deviancy while Nagar in 1973

    made a comparative study of personality characteristics of socially

    accepted and rejected girls . Gupta V.P (1998) Shanmuga Ganeshan.V

    and lakshmi .D (2008) made a study on personality types of teacher

    trainees. Singh (1978) ;Gupta T.P(1985) Sayed Nurjhehan A. (1990),

    Ramadevi.E(2004), Meenakshi mehta (2010) Bimal Charan Swain and

    Ashok kumar Parida (2010) made extensive studies on personality of

    high school students under the different domains of related aspects of

    personality. B.K.Natoo(1977), P.Prakash(1977), Mills, carol. J (1983),

    U.G.Agarwal(1988),Judith Semon Dubas, Jungwee park

    (2003), Scholte, Ron et. Al (2005), Geeta S.Pastey and Vijayalakshmi, A.

    Aminbhavi (2006), M. L. Sanz de acedo lizarrage et. al (2006), Francis,

    Leslie J anol et .al (2010), Namitha and Lipsamayee Bal(2010) have

    covered studies on Personality traits of adolescents Reddy, N.Y(1966)

    Vanajakshi. K.B. (1968), Majumdar(1972), Goswami.N(1980), Pandit.I

    (1985), Sunitha(1986), SigneAndeans(1994), Venkatamal (1999) made

    studies on adjustment and adjustmental problems of adolescents. Raju

    MVR and Khaja Rahamtulla (2007) made studies on school students and

    R.John lious Manohara (2008) on teacher trainees. A similar study on

    disadvantaged and non disadvantaged children was conducted by

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    M.Punithambal(1990). Studies on adjustment in relation to family

    background were made by Suresh Prasad Singh (1997) and Arali.C and

    Rathna Prabha .C(2004) .Adjustment in relation to academic

    achievement is a topic dealt by Goswami P.K (1978), Pandey B.B

    (1979), D. R. Singh and Indrani Benarji (1992), Jayasree.K (1992), H.D

    Gurubasappa (2005) and Surekha (2008).

    Kalyani Devi .T (1977) Garg S.(1984), Michael Hammes and Dan

    Petersen (1986), Chnotray B. (1989), made studies on decision making

    in children. Jay W. Rojewski; Roger B.Hill (1988) Leon Mann, Ros

    Harmoni and Colin Power (1989) studied Adolescent decision making.

    Smetana J.G and Asquits (1994), Bosma et. al (1996), Peterson et.

    al ( 1999) studied relationship, connectedness and restrictiveness between

    Adolescents and parents. They concluded that the development of decision

    making in adolescents occurs within the context of a parent child

    relationship. Beyers and Goossens(1999) Bednar and Fisher

    (2003),reported that decision making and behavioral adjustment depends

    up on parenting style. Veerle Germeijs, Karine verschueren (2009),

    reported t


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