Successful Strategies for Teaching English Language Acquisition and Literacy Development

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Successful Strategies for Teaching English Language Acquisition and Literacy Development Grades K-8 EECI Seminars 2008 Presented by Fay Shin, Ph.D. Professor California State University, Long Beach Department of Teacher Education Introduction. - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • Successful Strategies for Teaching English Language Acquisition and Literacy Development Grades K-8

    EECI Seminars

    Presented byFay Shin, Ph.D.ProfessorCalifornia State University, Long BeachDepartment of Teacher

  • Introduction

    In the U.S., one of the growing populations in school-aged students is English language learners (ELLs), showing an approximately 170 percent increase over the last two decades.

  • As a group, English language learners represent one the growing population groups in school-aged students in the U.S. Today there are 9.9 million students classified as English language learners in public schools, with roughly 5.5 million students classified as LEP by means of English proficiency assessment. Over 400 different languages are collectively spoken, though Spanish is the first language approximately 80 percent of these students.

  • By 2015, it is projected that 30 percent of the students in this nation will be English language learners, consisting of students who immigrated before kindergarten and children of immigrants who were born in the U.S.

  • Identify students English proficiency levels according to the required national, state or district ELD/ESL standards

    National ESL Standards (TESOL): Beginning (Level 1)Intermediate (Level 2)Advanced (Level 3)

  • Compare stages of language acquisition to identified ELD/ESL proficiency levelsPre-production Early production

    Speech emergenceLevel 2 Intermediate

    Intermediate fluencyLevel 3 AdvancedLevel 1Beginning

  • Second language acquisition

    A. Language is acquired when it is meaningful. B. Comprehensible input is required.

    We acquire language when we understand the messages or obtain Comprehensible Input (Krashen, 1988)

  • Sa gua

  • Order for ELD Instructional Medium

    *Realia*Photos*Drawings*Written Word*Oral Word

  • We acquire language when we understand the messages or obtain Comprehensible Input (Krashen, 1988)

  • Primary language vs. second language as a medium of instruction?

    time on task theory

  • C. Affective variables relate to the success in second language acquistion.1. Affective variables: MotivationSelf-confidenceAnxiety

    2. When teaching English language learners, teachers need to remember to keep the learners affective filter low

  • D. Academic Language1. Cognitively demanding and complex concepts need to be taught through sheltered instruction or SDAIE (Specially Designed Academic Instruction in English)2. Content area instruction provides challenging vocabulary and gives ELLs the opportunity to keep up in subject matter. Instruction must be comprehensible.

  • Important components for an ESL programESL time must occur dailyIncludes instruction focusing on needs for specific ESL levelsStudents are grouped according to ESL proficiency levels and needsMinimum 45 minutesEncourages oral participationBuilds on students prior knowledge and experiences

  • What is important for ELD Instruction?SDAIE (Specially Designed Academic Instruction in English) or Sheltered instructional strategiesComprehensible inputTime for independent reading (or self-selected /pleasure reading)

  • SDAIE Strategies for the ELD ClassroomSpeak slowlyLots of visuals and realiaContext embeddedManipulatives and hands-onActivate prior knowledgeLimit teacher-centered lecturesTPR (total physical response)

    Focus on the meaning, not the formGraphic organizersPreview-reviewAlternative assessmentComprehensible inputIndependent reading opportunities

  • Activities for Language Acquisition Stages

    Pre-production (Beginning - Level 1)Characteristics: Students have very little comprehensionNo verbal productionActivities: Use lots of visual aids and slow speech. Oral production not forced. Key words written on board. TPR (Total Physical Response)Use realia.Student tasks include:listeningphysical actionsdrawinggesturingmatching Examples of questions:Find the.Point to the..Walk to the..

  • Early Production (Beginning -Level 1)

    Characteristics: Students have limited comprehensionone or two word responses. Activities: picturesrole playingcharts and graphslabelsStudent tasks include:One or two word responses.Naming, labelingListingCategorizingYes/no answersExamples of questionsWhere is the.?Is this a table? Yes or no?What color is the?

  • Speech Emergence (Intermediate - Level 2)

    Characteristics: Good comprehensionSimple sentences with limited vocabularyMany errors in grammar, syntax and pronunciationActivities:Matching, classifyingGamesGroup discussionsCharts and tablesStudent tasks:Small group workSummarizingDescribing and explainingRole playingComplete sentencesRetellingExamples of questions:Tell me aboutWhy did the.Describe.What do you think.How did the boy feel.

  • Intermediate Fluency (Advanced -Level 3)Characteristics:Excellent comprehensionFew grammar errorsAppears fluent when speaking, but has problems with high level academics and literacyActivities:ParaphrasingUse SDAIE strategiesJournalsOral discussionsLanguage experience Outlining and mappingNewspaper articlesStudent tasks:AnalyzingPredictionGive instructionsGiving opinions, justifyingReading and writingExamples of questions:Compare (the lion and the tiger.)Contrast (the desert and the rain forest)Which do you prefer? Why?How do you think this story will end?

  • Distance from the sun (in millions of miles)

    Pluto- 3,688 (pretend it is still a planet)Neptune 2,794 Uranus 1784Saturn 887Jupiter 483Mars 142Earth 93Venus 67Mercury 36

  • Quick Start GuideThis is an example of explicit directions and questions for how a lesson plan card can be used. It is intended to be only a guideline for a person not familiar with the program to demonstrate one way of teaching it. Topic: Zoo Animals (ELD Lesson Plan Card 3.1 Level A)Whole Group (Levels 1, 2 and 3) InstructionIntroduction/Background/Motivation:Introduce zoo animals and vocabulary using picture cards, stuffed animals, photographs, books, videos, realia (real objects), or actual animals if possible. For example, to motivate students:bring an animal (like a snake or bird) into the classroom and let students touch or hold it. Bring different kinds and sizes of stuffed animals or animal figurines and put them in the front of the classAsk students to bring their favorite stuffed animal to class. Show pictures of a zoo and ask students if they have ever been to the zoo.Ask students: How many of you have been to the zoo before?What animals have you seen at the zoo?What do you do at the zoo?Record responses on chart paper. Make a table or draw a cluster map representing the answers.

    Read a book about animals or the zoo. Using the book A Trip to the Zoo, show the front cover and ask students if they can predict what the book is about. Say and ask students questions such as: I am going to read a book. Does anybody know what this book is going to be about?Why do you think the book is going to be about _______?

  • Beginning (Level 1)Some vocabulary words for zoo animals: elephant, lion, alligator, bear, eating.

    Guided Instruction: Using realia (real objects), visuals or picture cards, point to the animal and identify them several times. Say the words and enunciate each word slowly and clearly.(Teacher points as she says the following):This is an elephant. Say elephant.Is this a lion?(pointing to the elephant picture). No. This is an elephant.This is a lion. (point to a lion)Is this a lion? Yes. This is an alligator. This is a bear. (Repeat with different animals)What animal is this? Point to the alligator. What color is the bear?What is the bear eating?

  • Intermediate (Level 2) and Advanced (Level 3)

    Vocabulary words: fur, wings, trunk, scale, sharp(Note: These words are in addition to the Beginning- Level 1 vocabulary. Review vocabulary words for Level 1 first)Guided Instruction:Introduce vocabulary words pointing to the pictures.Lions have fur. Do you know other animals that have fur?This elephant has a trunk. Do you have a trunk? Does a lion have a trunk?Birds have wings. Have students identify and classify the animals. Which animals have fur?Which animals have wings?Which animals have a trunk?Ask students to come up and show the class an animal you name.Sally, where is the lion? Come to the front and hold it for me.Juan, where is the alligator? Come to the front and hold it for me.Who is holding the bear? Which animal do you like? If you like lions, come and stand next to Sally.Tell me about this bear.Describe what a giraffe looks like.What do you think about alligators?Why do you think a giraffe has a long neck?Why do you think alligators have sharp teeth?Why do you think bears have lots of fur?Which animals do you like? Why?Which animal would you prefer? Why?Compare an elephant and a giraffe.

  • Language Experience Approach activityChoose a topic (zoo animals, lions, our favorite animals, etc.)Write the title or topic on chart paper or a white board.Ask students to create a story or give you sentences about the topic.Write the sentences on the chart paper. When you are finished, read the sentences to the class slowly and clearly.Read it again but ask students to read it with you.Ask students to read it on their own if they can (silently or outloud)Ask students to copy the sentences on a piece of paper. Have students illustrate their own paper.Example of a Language Experience activity: Zoo animalsThere are lots of animals at th