Students’ Questioning in the Secondary Classroom

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Students Questioning in the Secondary Classroom. English 384/584 July 26, 2010. Introduction the Group Members. Sae Thao Secondary Education Major. Introduction the Group Members. Mike Slowinski High School English teacher. Introduction the Group Members. Dorothy Seehausen - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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The Sociolinguistic Aspects of Students Questioning

Students Questioning in the Secondary ClassroomEnglish 384/584July 26, 20101Introduction the Group MembersSae Thao

Secondary Education Major

2Introduction the Group MembersMike Slowinski

High School English teacher3Introduction the Group MembersDorothy Seehausen

Composition teacher4Introduction the Group MembersKathy Records

Elementary Education Major5QuestionsTeachers: What are the quality of questions your students have asked?

Students: What types of question have you heard in class?

6Presentation PreviewWhats happening in the classroom (Mike)Explain the questions sociologuistically (Dorothy)Application and Strategies(Kathy)7Student QuestionsWhats happening in the classroom?

8Student PassivityStudents Not Asking QuestionsElectronic Vs. Face-to-FaceThomas Goods Passivity ModelProcedural Questions Instead of Conceptual

9Student Passivity - Classroom FactorsTeacher dominationPeer pressureTypes of activitiesSelf-confidenceUnsure how to ask good questions

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Wardhaughs Speech Acts The functional approach of sentences. 11The functional approach of sentences. WhoRonald Wardhaugh, professor emeritus University of Toronto

Talk and ActionAn Introduction to Sociolinguistics (2006)

12In looking for a framework for what happens in the classroom, I chose Wardhaughs article Talk and Action from our text, An Introduction to Sociolinguistics. Wardhaugh is considered one of the foremost linguists in the country and possibly the world.12WhatAccording to WardhaughConversations not only make statements, they perform actions in the worldEstablish friendshipsAchieve cooperationCreate a foundation for future interactions

13 According to WardhaughConversations not only make statements, they perform actions in the worldEstablish friendshipsAchieve cooperationCreate a foundation for future interactions

An exampleConstative utterances: I had a busy day today.Connected with events or happenings.

Ethical propositions: Thou shalt not kill.Serve as guidelines to behavior in some world or another.

14These examples are categories in which Wardhaugh defines speech acts.For our purposeThe Performative utterance: For example: I do.

Not only saying but doing something if certain real-world conditions are met.

15For our purpose, well look at the Performative utterance, I do. It is not only saying but doing something if certain real-world conditions are met. In the classroom, as teachers our learning outcomes are dependent on our ability to have students perform certain actions in real-world conditions.J. L Austins Five categoriesPerformativesVerdictivesGiving a verdict, estimate, grade, or appraisalGuilty as charged.You got an A on your test.ExercitivesExercising of powers, rights, or influencesI pronounce you husband and wife.Congratulations! You have just graduated from college.

16Wardhaugh draws from J.L. Austins How to Do Things With Words to help us understand different kinds of performatives. PerformativesVerdictivesGiving a verdict, estimate, grade, or appraisalGuilty as charged.You got an A on your test.ExercitivesExercising of powers, rights, or influencesI pronounce you husband and wife.Congratulations! You have just graduated from college.

Austins Five categoriesCommissivesPromising or undertaking, announcing an intentionI hereby bequeathI intent to teach the best way I know how.BehabitivesApologizing, congratulating, blessing, cursing, or challengingI apologizeI challenge you to learn.

17CommissivesPromising or undertaking, announcing an intentionI hereby bequeathI intent to teach the best way I know how.BehabitivesApologizing, congratulating, blessing, cursing, or challengingI apologizeI challenge you to learn.

Austins Five categoriesExpositivesRefers to how one fits an utterance into an argument or expositionI argue, I reply, I assumeI argue in favor of my learning outcomes.

18ExpositivesRefers to how one fits an utterance into an argument or expositionI argue, I reply, I assumeI argue in favor of my learning outcomes.And so A speech actIn some way changes the conditions that exist in the world.For example:I sentence you to five years in jail.I sentence you to two hours of detention.Hello. How are you? (friendly)You jerk! (not so friendly)

19According to Wardhaugh, A speech actIn some way changes the conditions that exist in the world.For example:I sentence you to five years in jail.I sentence you to two hours of detention.Hello. How are you? (friendly)You jerk! (not so friendly)

True/FalseA speech act is neither true nor false in itself.

However, these claims may be made about its having been done.

20If we continue the definition of a speech act, we see Wardhaugh declares it is neither true nor false in itself. However, once it has been accomplished, a claim may be made about its true or false value.Sociolinguist Dell HymesHymes' components of a speech event:Setting- scene situationParticipants- Speaker, Receiver, otherEnds- outcomes and goalsAct sequences- form and contentKey- mannerInstrumentalities- Channel, codeNorms- of behavior and interpretationGenre- style, e.g. lecture, chat

21We move from the speech act itself to a model of what sociolinguist Dell Hymes calls a Speech Event.It is an ethnographic approach.Setting- scene situationParticipants- Speaker, Receiver, otherEnds- outcomes and goalsAct sequences- form and contentKey- mannerInstrumentalities- Channel, codeNorms- of behavior and interpretationGenre- style, e.g. lecture, chat

Wardhaugh says Once we begin to look at utterances from the point of view of what they do, it is possible to see every utterance as a speech act of one kind or other, that is, as having some functional value which might be quite independent of the actual words used and their grammatical arrangement.22I copied this quote directly because I felt is would loose some impact in a paraphrase: Once we begin to look at utterances from the point of view of what they do, it is possible to see every utterance as a speech act of one kind or other, that is, as having some functional value which might be quite independent of the actual words used and their grammatical arrangement.Laver and TrudgillBeing a listener to speech is not unlike being a detective. The listenerhas to construct, from an assortment of clues, the affective state of the speaker and a profile of his identity.23Linguists Laver and Trudgill, who Wardhaugh also uses for source material in his article Talk and Action, say: Being a listener to speech is not unlike being a detective. The listenerhas to construct, from an assortment of clues, the affective state of the speaker and a profile of his identity. Communication Model

24This speaks directly to the communication model. And so, then, If we look at the communication model we see the teacher as sender and the student as receiver In the classroom, these roles are interchangeable and when we teachers are on the receiving end of student questions our ability to decode them allows us to increase their ability to learn.A final wordAll the world is a stage, and we are the players!Wardhaugh

25Im going to pull a quote Wardhaugh borrowed from Shakespeare which is that all the world is a stage and we are the players. That concludes my presentation on Wardhaughs speech acts. Kathy will present Applications and Strategies.

ApplicationThe Critical Thinker

If good thinkers are good questioners then are good questioners good thinkers? (King, 13)

Inspiring Student Inquiry

26The Critical ThinkerWhat is Critical Thinking?"Critical thinking is the intellectually disciplined process of actively and skillfully conceptualizing, applying, analyzing, synthesizing, and/or evaluating information gathered from, or generated by, observation, experience, reflection, reasoning, or communication, as a guide to belief and action (Scriven)27The Critical ThinkerIntroduction

Skeptical but open-minded Looks at different points of view Values fair-mindedness Respects evidence & reasoning Respects clarity & precision Will change positions when reasoning leads them to

28How to Build Your Own Critical ThinkerTeaching How to Ask Questions Question Stems (refer to handout) Semantics & Syntax

Strategies Reciprocal Peer Questioning Readers Questions Conference-Style Learning

29Inspiring Student InquiryCooperative LearningHigher achievement & greater productivityMore caring, supportive & committed relationships Greater psychological health, social competence & self-esteem (Kagan)

Examples

3031Work CitedCiardiello, Angelo. Did You Ask a Good Question Today? Alternative Cognitive and Metacognitive Strategies. Journal of Adolescent and Adult Literacy. 42.3 (Nov. 1998): 210-220. EBSCOhost. Polk Library, UW-Oshkosh, Oshkosh, WI. 23 July 2010.Good, Thomas, Ricky Slavings, Kathleen Hobson Harel, and Hugh Emerson. Student Passivity: A Study of Question Asking in K-12 Classrooms. Sociology of Education. 60 (July 1987): 181-199. EBSCOhost. Polk Library, UW-Oshkosh, Oshkosh, WI. 23 July 2010.< http://www.harding.edu/dlee/bloom.pdf> (21 July 2010).Hymes, Dell. Foundations of Sociolinguistics: An Ethnographic Approach. Philadelphia: U of Pennsylvania P, 1974 Kagan, Spencer. Cooperative Learning. San Clemente: Kagan Publishing, 1994.King, Allison. Designing the Instructional Process to Enhance Critical Thinking Across the Curriculum. Teaching of Psychology 22 (1995): 13-17.Scriven, Michael and Richard Paul. Defining Critical Thinking: A Draft Statement for the National Council for Excellence in Critical Thinking. (1996) Available (21 July 2010).Underwood, Marion K. and Rebecca L. Wald. Conference-Style Learning: A Method for Fostering Critical Thinking with Heart. Teaching of Psychology 22 (1995): 17-21.Wardhaugh, R. (2008) An Introduction to Sociolinguistics, 5th Edition, Blackwell Publishing, MA

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