Sri Lanka 1st National Communication - Climate National DRAFT Initial National Communication under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change Sri Lanka 27th October, 2000

Embed Size (px)

Text of Sri Lanka 1st National Communication - Climate National DRAFT Initial National Communication...

  • FINAL DRAFT

    Initial National Communication under

    the United Nations Framework

    Convention on Climate Change

    Sri Lanka

    27th October, 2000

  • Foreword

  • Acknowledgements

  • T A B L E O F C O N T E N T S

    Page

    FOREWORD

    ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

    CONTRIBUTORS I

    LIST OF FIGURES III

    LIST OF TABLES IV

    ABBREVIATIONS VII

    EXECUTIVE SUMMARY VIII

    CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION 1

    CHAPTER 2: NATIONAL CIRCUMSTANCES 22.1 Geography 22.2 Climate 22.3 Population and Human Settlements 82.4 The Sri Lankan Economy 102.5 Economic Activities 132.6 Energy Production and Consumption 162.7 Natural Resources 232.8 Social Profile 272.9 Political Profile 282.10 Institutional Structure 302.11 Policies Relating to Climate Change 30

    CHAPTER 3: GREENHOUSE GAS INVENTORY 333.1 Energy and Transformation Industries 343.2 Manufacturing Industries and Construction 373.3 Transport 393.4 Other Sectors having Emissions from Energy Consumption 433.5 Industrial Processes 483.6 Livestock Sector 533.7 Agriculture Sector 563.8 Forestry and Land Use Sector 593.9 Waste 61

    CHAPTER 4: IMPACTS AND VULNERABILITY 64Introduction 644.1 Impacts of Rise in Sea Level 644.2 Impacts of Temperature Rise 694.3 Impacts of Droughts 704.4 Impacts of High Intensity Rainfall 724.5 Impacts of Increased Thunder-Activity 744.6 Impacts of Climate Change on Human Settlements 75

    CHAPTER 5: MITIGATION OPTIONS AND ADAPTATION RESPONSES 76Introduction 765.1 Mitigation Options 765.2 Adaptation Responses 78

  • CHAPTER 6: POLICIES AND MEASURES 846.0 Policies and Measures 846.1 General Recommendations 846.2 Specific Recommendations 846.3 Further Issues to be Considered 88

    CHAPTER 7: EDUCATION, TRAINING AND AWARENESS 89Introduction 897.1 Education 897.2 Training 897.3 Awareness 907.4 Centre for Climate Change Studies 90

    CHAPTER 8: RECOMMENDED RESEARCH STUDIESAND PORTFOLIO OF PROJECTS 91

    Introduction 918.1 Research Studies 918.2 Projects 92

    CHAPTER 9: CONSTRAINTS AND TECHNOLOGICAL NEEDS 969.1 Constraints 969.2 Technological Needs 96

    BIBLIOGRAPHY 98

  • I

    CONTRIBUTORS

    Greenhouse Gas Inventory 1993-1995Prof. Noel Fernando, Faculty of Engineering, University of PeradeniyaProf. Nimal Perera, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Peradeniya

    National Action Plan on Climate ChangeDr. J. Handawela - Agriculture, Forestry, Land Use & Water ResourcesMr. G.B.A. Fernando - Energy, Industry, Transport & HighwaysProf. S.S.L. Hettiarachchi & Dr. Mahesha Ranasoma Coastal Zone, Ports & FisheriesMr. S.W.P. Bulankulame Health, Human Settlements & Public UtilitiesDr. Mahesha Ranasoma - Lead Consultant

    Energy: fossil fuelsDr. Priyantha Wijayatunga, University of Moratuwa - Team LeaderMr. Upali DaranagamaMr. Shavindranath FernandoMr. E.M. PiyasenaMs. Kiran DhanapalaMr. Sanath Ranawana

    Energy: alternatives to fossil fuelsMr. P.G. Joseph, Energy Conservation Fund - Team LeaderMr. L. AriyadasaMr. Lalith GunarathneDr. Ranjith Obeysekera

    Transport:Dr. Saman Bandara, University of Moratuwa - Team LeaderMr. D.S. JayaweeraMr. J. DiandasMr. Priyal de SilvaMr. Kingsley FernandoMr. D.S. Edirisinghe

    Industry/Industrial and Urban WasteDr. A.M. Mubarak, Industrial Technology Institute - Team LeaderMiss Padmini BatuwitageMrs. Ramani EllepolaMr. Justin PereraMr. M.M.S.S.B. Yalegama

    Agriculture:Dr. Deepthi Bandara, University of Peradeniya - Team LeaderMr. M.A. WijeratneMr. M. WatsonDr. Kapila MunasingheDr. Lionel Gunaratne

    Forestry:Mr. Sarath Fernando, Forest Department - Team LeaderDr. B.M. Singha KumaraProf. Anoja WickramasingheMr. W.A.D.A. Wijesuriya

  • II

    Water Resources:Dr. Shanthi de Silva, Open Univ. of Sri Lanka - Team LeaderMr. K.A.W. KodituwakkuMrs. G.B.U. Kamaladasa

    Coastal Zones, Ports, Fisheries and Tourism:Prof. Samantha Hettiarachchi, University of Moratuwa - Team LeaderMr. Nissanka PereraMr. G. PiyasenaMr. A.A. KulatungaMr. S. Kalaichelvam

    Human Health:Prof. Manel Wijesundara, University of Peradeniya - Team LeaderDr. H.M. FernandoDr. Lalani RajapakseDr. H.M.S.S.D. HerathDr. Ranjit Alwis

    Human Settlements and Public UtilitiesMrs. Hester Basnayake, Urban Development Authority - Team LeaderMrs. Niromi NarampanawaMr. Padmasiri PereraMr. N.M.S.I. ArambepolaMr. L. HewawasamMrs. Neela P. GunasekeraMr. P.P. Noordeen

    Honorary Adviser, Land Use Dr. Percy Silva

    Policies and MeasuresMrs. M.A. Kumaradasa, Director (Planning), Ministry of Forestry & Environment

    Preparation of the National CommunicationDr. Percy Silva, Lead ConsultantProf. Samantha HettiarachchiDr. Priyantha WijayatungeMr. T.K. Fernando

    Review of Greenhouse Gas Inventory 1993-1995Dr. A.W. MohottalaDr. B.V.R. Punyawardena

    MapsSurvey Department of Sri LankaDepartment of Meteorology, Sri Lanka

    Enabling Activity Project CoordinationDr. Rupa WickremaratneMrs. Swineetha Malalasekera

  • III

    LIST OF FIGURES

    Page

    2.1 Relief & Drainage of Sri Lanka 4

    2.2 Mean Annual Rainfall (1961-1990) 6

    2.3 Mean Annual Air Temperature (1961-1990) 7

    2.4 Agro-Ecological Regions 9

    2.5 Population Density 11

    2.6 Transport 12

    2.7 Tourism 15

    2.8 Primary Energy Supply in Sri Lanka (1996) 16

    2.9 Growth of Electricity Sales over the period (1972-96) 17

    2.10 Electrification Level in Different Districts 17

    2.11 Growth of the Electricity Generation Sector (1998-2017) 19

    2.12 Composition of Petroleum Product Consumption (1996) 19

    2.13 Historical Growth in Petroleum Product Consumption 20

    2.14 Expected Growth in Petroleum Product Consumption 20

    2.15 Fuelwood Supply in the Region from Different Sources 21

    2.16 Land Use 21

    2.17 Mineral Resources 26

    2.18 Administrative Divisions 29

    4.1 The Coastal Zone of Sri Lanka as defined by theCoast Conservation Act of 1981 66

  • IV

    LIST OF TABLESPage

    2.1 National Circumstances 3

    3.0 Conversion Factors and Carbon Emission Factors for different typesof Fuels in Sri Lanka 33

    3.1 Carbon Emission Factors and Fraction Oxidized 34

    3.2 GHG Emission Factors 34

    3.3 Emissions from Power Stations 1994 34

    3.4 Consumption of Fossil Fuel by Refinery for Own Use 35

    3.5 Fuel and Emissions Data 35

    3.6 Emissions from Fuel Combustion within Refinery 35

    3.7 Emission Factors for Bagasse 36

    3.8 Emissions from Use of Bagasse 36

    3.9 Production of Charcoal in Sri Lanka 1994 36

    3.10 Emissions Data for the Consumption and Manufacture of Charcoal 37

    3.11 Emissions in Charcoal Production 37

    3.12 Fuel Combustion Data for Industrial Sectors 38

    3.13 Emission Factors Applicable to the Industrial Sector 38

    3.14 Average Emission Factors for Liquid Fuel Mix for the Industrial Sector 1994 38

    3.15 Estimate of Emissions from Fuel Combustion in the Industrial Sector 1994 39

    3.16 Fuel Consumption (by Volume) in Road Transport Sector 1994 40

    3.17 Fuel Consumption (by Weight) in Road Transport Sector 40

    3.18 Fuel Consumption in International Bunkers 1994 41

    3.19 Carbon Emission Factors Used 41

    3.20 a Non CO2 Emission Factors for Individual Road Vehicle Types 41

    3.20 b Non CO2 Emission Factors for Individual Road Vehicle Types (Diesel) 42

    3.21 Non CO2 Emission Factors 42

    3.22 CO2 Emission from the Transport Sector 1994 42

    3.23 Non CO2 Emissions from the Transport Sector 1994 43

    3.24 Emission Factors 43

    3.25 Estimate of Emissions from the Commercial Sector 1994 43

    3.26 Fuel Consumption by the Residential Sector 44

    3.27 Emission Factors for Non CO2 Gases for Residential Sector 44

    3.28 Estimate of Emissions from the Residential Sector 1994 44

    3.29 Fuel Consumption by the Agricultural/Forestry Sector 45

  • V

    3.30 Emission Factors for Non CO2 Gases for Agricultural/Forestry Sector 45

    3.31 Fishing Fleet in Sri Lanka 1994 45

    3.32 Fuel Consumption by Fishing Boats 1994 46

    3.33 Emission Factors for Non CO2 Gases for Fisheries Sector 46

    3.34 Emission Factors for Non CO2 Gases for Combined Agriculture,Forestry and Fisheries Sectors 1994 46

    3.35 Overall Emissions from Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries Sectors 1994 47

    3.36 Emission Factors 47

    3.37 Emissions due to Fugitive Activities 1994 48

    3.38 Clinker Production Data of the Puttalam Cement Factory 1994 48

    3.39 Emission Factors for Asphalt Roofing Production 50

    3.40 Emission Factors for Asphalt Use on Roads 50

    3.41 Emission Factors for Rolling Mills 51

    3.42 Emission Factors for Kraft Pulping Process 51

    3.43 Annual Production of NMVOC Emitting Food Industries in Sri Lanka 51

    3.44 Emission Factors for NMVOC: for Food Industries in Sri Lanka 52

    3.45 Summary of Emissions from the Industrial Sector Processes 1994 52

    3.46 Distribution of Livestock Population 53

    3.47 Livestock Population 1994 53

    3.48 Methane Emissions from Enteric Fermentation and Manure Management 54

    3.49 Methane Producing Capacity (Bo) of the Manure of Livestock Species 55

    3.50 Nitrogen Excretion (Nex) by Different Livestock Species 55

    3.51 Emission Factors of N2O from Different Animal Wastes ManagementSystems (AWMS) 56

    3.52 Emissions from Livestock Sector 1994 56

    3.53 Harvested Extent of Field Crops 1994 56

    3.54 Dry Matter Fraction, Carbon Content and N/C Ratio of 16 Crop Residues 57

    3.55 Nitrogen Excretion, Fraction of Manure Nitrogen per AWMS 57

    3.56 Emissions Ratio of CH4, CO, N2O and NOx from the Residue Burning 57

    3.57 Extent Rice Cultivated and Methane Emitted 1994 58

    3.58 Total Biomass Burnt, C, N and

Recommended

View more >