Sri Lanka 1st National Communication - Climate National DRAFT Initial National Communication under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change Sri Lanka 27th October, 2000

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    Initial National Communication under

    the United Nations Framework

    Convention on Climate Change

    Sri Lanka

    27th October, 2000

  • Foreword

  • Acknowledgements

  • T A B L E O F C O N T E N T S










    CHAPTER 2: NATIONAL CIRCUMSTANCES 22.1 Geography 22.2 Climate 22.3 Population and Human Settlements 82.4 The Sri Lankan Economy 102.5 Economic Activities 132.6 Energy Production and Consumption 162.7 Natural Resources 232.8 Social Profile 272.9 Political Profile 282.10 Institutional Structure 302.11 Policies Relating to Climate Change 30

    CHAPTER 3: GREENHOUSE GAS INVENTORY 333.1 Energy and Transformation Industries 343.2 Manufacturing Industries and Construction 373.3 Transport 393.4 Other Sectors having Emissions from Energy Consumption 433.5 Industrial Processes 483.6 Livestock Sector 533.7 Agriculture Sector 563.8 Forestry and Land Use Sector 593.9 Waste 61

    CHAPTER 4: IMPACTS AND VULNERABILITY 64Introduction 644.1 Impacts of Rise in Sea Level 644.2 Impacts of Temperature Rise 694.3 Impacts of Droughts 704.4 Impacts of High Intensity Rainfall 724.5 Impacts of Increased Thunder-Activity 744.6 Impacts of Climate Change on Human Settlements 75

    CHAPTER 5: MITIGATION OPTIONS AND ADAPTATION RESPONSES 76Introduction 765.1 Mitigation Options 765.2 Adaptation Responses 78

  • CHAPTER 6: POLICIES AND MEASURES 846.0 Policies and Measures 846.1 General Recommendations 846.2 Specific Recommendations 846.3 Further Issues to be Considered 88

    CHAPTER 7: EDUCATION, TRAINING AND AWARENESS 89Introduction 897.1 Education 897.2 Training 897.3 Awareness 907.4 Centre for Climate Change Studies 90


    Introduction 918.1 Research Studies 918.2 Projects 92

    CHAPTER 9: CONSTRAINTS AND TECHNOLOGICAL NEEDS 969.1 Constraints 969.2 Technological Needs 96


  • I


    Greenhouse Gas Inventory 1993-1995Prof. Noel Fernando, Faculty of Engineering, University of PeradeniyaProf. Nimal Perera, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Peradeniya

    National Action Plan on Climate ChangeDr. J. Handawela - Agriculture, Forestry, Land Use & Water ResourcesMr. G.B.A. Fernando - Energy, Industry, Transport & HighwaysProf. S.S.L. Hettiarachchi & Dr. Mahesha Ranasoma Coastal Zone, Ports & FisheriesMr. S.W.P. Bulankulame Health, Human Settlements & Public UtilitiesDr. Mahesha Ranasoma - Lead Consultant

    Energy: fossil fuelsDr. Priyantha Wijayatunga, University of Moratuwa - Team LeaderMr. Upali DaranagamaMr. Shavindranath FernandoMr. E.M. PiyasenaMs. Kiran DhanapalaMr. Sanath Ranawana

    Energy: alternatives to fossil fuelsMr. P.G. Joseph, Energy Conservation Fund - Team LeaderMr. L. AriyadasaMr. Lalith GunarathneDr. Ranjith Obeysekera

    Transport:Dr. Saman Bandara, University of Moratuwa - Team LeaderMr. D.S. JayaweeraMr. J. DiandasMr. Priyal de SilvaMr. Kingsley FernandoMr. D.S. Edirisinghe

    Industry/Industrial and Urban WasteDr. A.M. Mubarak, Industrial Technology Institute - Team LeaderMiss Padmini BatuwitageMrs. Ramani EllepolaMr. Justin PereraMr. M.M.S.S.B. Yalegama

    Agriculture:Dr. Deepthi Bandara, University of Peradeniya - Team LeaderMr. M.A. WijeratneMr. M. WatsonDr. Kapila MunasingheDr. Lionel Gunaratne

    Forestry:Mr. Sarath Fernando, Forest Department - Team LeaderDr. B.M. Singha KumaraProf. Anoja WickramasingheMr. W.A.D.A. Wijesuriya

  • II

    Water Resources:Dr. Shanthi de Silva, Open Univ. of Sri Lanka - Team LeaderMr. K.A.W. KodituwakkuMrs. G.B.U. Kamaladasa

    Coastal Zones, Ports, Fisheries and Tourism:Prof. Samantha Hettiarachchi, University of Moratuwa - Team LeaderMr. Nissanka PereraMr. G. PiyasenaMr. A.A. KulatungaMr. S. Kalaichelvam

    Human Health:Prof. Manel Wijesundara, University of Peradeniya - Team LeaderDr. H.M. FernandoDr. Lalani RajapakseDr. H.M.S.S.D. HerathDr. Ranjit Alwis

    Human Settlements and Public UtilitiesMrs. Hester Basnayake, Urban Development Authority - Team LeaderMrs. Niromi NarampanawaMr. Padmasiri PereraMr. N.M.S.I. ArambepolaMr. L. HewawasamMrs. Neela P. GunasekeraMr. P.P. Noordeen

    Honorary Adviser, Land Use Dr. Percy Silva

    Policies and MeasuresMrs. M.A. Kumaradasa, Director (Planning), Ministry of Forestry & Environment

    Preparation of the National CommunicationDr. Percy Silva, Lead ConsultantProf. Samantha HettiarachchiDr. Priyantha WijayatungeMr. T.K. Fernando

    Review of Greenhouse Gas Inventory 1993-1995Dr. A.W. MohottalaDr. B.V.R. Punyawardena

    MapsSurvey Department of Sri LankaDepartment of Meteorology, Sri Lanka

    Enabling Activity Project CoordinationDr. Rupa WickremaratneMrs. Swineetha Malalasekera

  • III



    2.1 Relief & Drainage of Sri Lanka 4

    2.2 Mean Annual Rainfall (1961-1990) 6

    2.3 Mean Annual Air Temperature (1961-1990) 7

    2.4 Agro-Ecological Regions 9

    2.5 Population Density 11

    2.6 Transport 12

    2.7 Tourism 15

    2.8 Primary Energy Supply in Sri Lanka (1996) 16

    2.9 Growth of Electricity Sales over the period (1972-96) 17

    2.10 Electrification Level in Different Districts 17

    2.11 Growth of the Electricity Generation Sector (1998-2017) 19

    2.12 Composition of Petroleum Product Consumption (1996) 19

    2.13 Historical Growth in Petroleum Product Consumption 20

    2.14 Expected Growth in Petroleum Product Consumption 20

    2.15 Fuelwood Supply in the Region from Different Sources 21

    2.16 Land Use 21

    2.17 Mineral Resources 26

    2.18 Administrative Divisions 29

    4.1 The Coastal Zone of Sri Lanka as defined by theCoast Conservation Act of 1981 66

  • IV


    2.1 National Circumstances 3

    3.0 Conversion Factors and Carbon Emission Factors for different typesof Fuels in Sri Lanka 33

    3.1 Carbon Emission Factors and Fraction Oxidized 34

    3.2 GHG Emission Factors 34

    3.3 Emissions from Power Stations 1994 34

    3.4 Consumption of Fossil Fuel by Refinery for Own Use 35

    3.5 Fuel and Emissions Data 35

    3.6 Emissions from Fuel Combustion within Refinery 35

    3.7 Emission Factors for Bagasse 36

    3.8 Emissions from Use of Bagasse 36

    3.9 Production of Charcoal in Sri Lanka 1994 36

    3.10 Emissions Data for the Consumption and Manufacture of Charcoal 37

    3.11 Emissions in Charcoal Production 37

    3.12 Fuel Combustion Data for Industrial Sectors 38

    3.13 Emission Factors Applicable to the Industrial Sector 38

    3.14 Average Emission Factors for Liquid Fuel Mix for the Industrial Sector 1994 38

    3.15 Estimate of Emissions from Fuel Combustion in the Industrial Sector 1994 39

    3.16 Fuel Consumption (by Volume) in Road Transport Sector 1994 40

    3.17 Fuel Consumption (by Weight) in Road Transport Sector 40

    3.18 Fuel Consumption in International Bunkers 1994 41

    3.19 Carbon Emission Factors Used 41

    3.20 a Non CO2 Emission Factors for Individual Road Vehicle Types 41

    3.20 b Non CO2 Emission Factors for Individual Road Vehicle Types (Diesel) 42

    3.21 Non CO2 Emission Factors 42

    3.22 CO2 Emission from the Transport Sector 1994 42

    3.23 Non CO2 Emissions from the Transport Sector 1994 43

    3.24 Emission Factors 43

    3.25 Estimate of Emissions from the Commercial Sector 1994 43

    3.26 Fuel Consumption by the Residential Sector 44

    3.27 Emission Factors for Non CO2 Gases for Residential Sector 44

    3.28 Estimate of Emissions from the Residential Sector 1994 44

    3.29 Fuel Consumption by the Agricultural/Forestry Sector 45

  • V

    3.30 Emission Factors for Non CO2 Gases for Agricultural/Forestry Sector 45

    3.31 Fishing Fleet in Sri Lanka 1994 45

    3.32 Fuel Consumption by Fishing Boats 1994 46

    3.33 Emission Factors for Non CO2 Gases for Fisheries Sector 46

    3.34 Emission Factors for Non CO2 Gases for Combined Agriculture,Forestry and Fisheries Sectors 1994 46

    3.35 Overall Emissions from Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries Sectors 1994 47

    3.36 Emission Factors 47

    3.37 Emissions due to Fugitive Activities 1994 48

    3.38 Clinker Production Data of the Puttalam Cement Factory 1994 48

    3.39 Emission Factors for Asphalt Roofing Production 50

    3.40 Emission Factors for Asphalt Use on Roads 50

    3.41 Emission Factors for Rolling Mills 51

    3.42 Emission Factors for Kraft Pulping Process 51

    3.43 Annual Production of NMVOC Emitting Food Industries in Sri Lanka 51

    3.44 Emission Factors for NMVOC: for Food Industries in Sri Lanka 52

    3.45 Summary of Emissions from the Industrial Sector Processes 1994 52

    3.46 Distribution of Livestock Population 53

    3.47 Livestock Population 1994 53

    3.48 Methane Emissions from Enteric Fermentation and Manure Management 54

    3.49 Methane Producing Capacity (Bo) of the Manure of Livestock Species 55

    3.50 Nitrogen Excretion (Nex) by Different Livestock Species 55

    3.51 Emission Factors of N2O from Different Animal Wastes ManagementSystems (AWMS) 56

    3.52 Emissions from Livestock Sector 1994 56

    3.53 Harvested Extent of Field Crops 1994 56

    3.54 Dry Matter Fraction, Carbon Content and N/C Ratio of 16 Crop Residues 57

    3.55 Nitrogen Excretion, Fraction of Manure Nitrogen per AWMS 57

    3.56 Emissions Ratio of CH4, CO, N2O and NOx from the Residue Burning 57

    3.57 Extent Rice Cultivated and Methane Emitted 1994 58

    3.58 Total Biomass Burnt, C, N and GHG Gases Released from FieldBurning of Crop Residues 58

    3.59 Direct Emission of N2O from Agricultural Fields 58

    3.60 Emission N2O from Histosols, Grazing Animals, Leaching 59

    3.61 Total Emissions from the Agricultural Sector 1994 59

    3.62 Total Biomass Consumption from Stocks and Total Carbon UptakeIncrease in 1994 60

  • VI

    3.63 Carbon Release/Uptake and CO2 Emission and Removal 1994 60

    3.64 Annual Carbon and CO2 Released due to Burning and Decaying aboveGround Biomass 1994 60

    3.65 Total Carbon Emission from Agriculturally Impacted Soils (Mg/yr) 1994 60

    3.66 Total Annual CO2 Emission from Agriculturally Impacted Soils (Gg) 1994 61

    3.67 Total CO2 Emissions in 1995 from Forest and other Land Use Systems 61

    3.68 Municipal Soil Waste Generation Rates, Land Fill and DegradableOrganic Carbon Fraction 61

    3.69 Volume and COD for Anaerobic Waste Water Treatments 62

    3.70 Total Annual MSW Disposal and Net CH4 Emission 1994 62

    3.71 Estimation of Methane Emission from Domestic Waste Water 1994 62

    3.72 Estimation of Methane Emission from Commercial Waste Water Treatment 62

    3.73 Breakdown of Overall GHG Emissions in Sri Lanka 1994 63

    4.1 Land Loss of the SW Coast of Sri Lanka 66

    4.2 Estimated Areas of Inundation around the Lowlands Adjacent toMarshlands, Lagoons and Estuaries of the SW Coast of Sri Lanka 67

    4.3 Highest 24-Hour Rainfalls recorded over Sri Lanka 73

  • VII


    AP Agriculture PolicyAIT Asian Institute of TechnologyBD Buildings DepartmentBAP Biodiversity Action PlanCEB Ceylon Electricity BoardCoP Conference of PartiesCZMP Coastal Zone Management PlanCA2AP Clean Air 2000 Action PlanCHPB Centre for Housing, Planning & BuildingDSM Demand Side ManagementEPSL Energy Policy of Sri LankaFO Forest OrdinanceFRP Fibreglass Reinforced PlasticFMP Forestry Master PlanGHG Greenhouse GasGEF Global Environment FacilityGIS Geographical Information SystemsICTAD Institute for Construction, Training and DevelopmentIPCC Intergovernmental Panel on Climate ChangeLPG Liquid Petroleum GasMPCE Master Plan for Coastal Erosion ManagementMSL Mean Sea LevelNBRO National Building Research OrganizationNERD National Engineering & Research Development CentreNAPCC National Action Plan on Climate ChangeNEAP National Environmental Action PlanNFP National Forestry PolicyNFDP National Fisheries Development PlanNTP National Transport PolicyNPWC National Policy for Wildlife ConservationNLUP National Land Use PolicyOECD Organization for Economic Cooperation and DevelopmentPV Photo VoltaicRS Remote SensingSLT Sri Lanka TelecomSIDA Swedish International Development AgencyTOE Tonnes of Oil Equivalent

  • VIII


    The National Communication comprises, the National Circumstances; Greenhouse Gas Inventory;Impacts and Vulnerability; Mitigation Options and Adaptation Responses; Policies and Measures;Education, Training and Awareness Programmes; Constraints and Technological Needs andRecommended Research Studies and a Portfolio of Projects.

    National CircumstancesSri Lanka with an areal extent of about 65,610 square kilometres lies between 6o and 10on latitude andbetween 80o and 82oe longitude. The island consists of a mountainous area in the south-central parts anda vast coastal plain, which surrounds it. Despite the relatively small size of the country, there isconsiderable variation in climate over time and space. The annual average rainfall varies from below1000mm (39) over a small region in the arid parts of the north-west and south-east of the island to over5000mm (197) in a few places on the south-western slopes of the central hills. There is little seasonalvariation of temperature. The mean annual temperature in the coastal areas below 150m in elevationranges from 26.0oc to 28.0oc while in the hill country above 1500m, it ranges from 15.0o c to 19.0o c.

    Sri Lankas population which at the last census taken in 1981 was 14.8 million, is projected to reach 19.0million by the year 2001 and 23.1 million by the year 2031. The population is unevenly distributed acrossthe country. Nearly 60.0% is concentrated in the wet zone, which includes both the maritime provinceswith higher levels of economic development and the areas given over to the cultivation of plantationcrops. Over 75% of the countrys population live in rural areas.

    Until the 1960s, the Sri Lankas economy depended heavily on the export-oriented plantation crops oftea, rubber and coconut. By 1998 the major sector of the growing economy was the services sectorcontributing 53.0% to the Gross Domestic Product (GDP). This was followed by the agriculture,fisheries and the forestry sector with 21.3% and the manufacturing sector with 16.5%. The three majoreconomic activities in the country are agriculture and livestock, manufacturing and fishing. Together theycontribute 37.0% towards the Gross National Product and provide employment to 53.0% of the totalemployed. The agricultural sector comprises two sub-sectors, one producing mainly for the domesticmarket and the other mainly for the export market. Paddy is the main crop within the domestic sector.The export sector is dominated by tea, rubber and coconut. A variety of animals are raised in the countryincluding neat cattle, buffaloes, sheep, goats, pigs and poultry. The dairy and the poultry industriesrepresent the more prominent and organized sectors of the countrys livestock industry. Fish productionwhich includes both marine fish production (coastal, offshore and deep sea) and aqua culture fishproduction (inland, coastal brackish water prawns and cultured prawns), contributes on the average 3.0%to the Gross National Product. The manufacturing sector consists of three sub-sectors, i.e. factoryindustry, processing of plantation crops and small industries. Together they contributed 17.1% of theG.N.P. in 1998. Factory industry is the most important of the three sub-sectors accounting for 78.0% ofthe value added in the manufa...


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