Southern BrazilGroup 5
OverviewStates:ParanSanta CatarinaRio Grande do SulArea:576,409 km2Pop.:26,973,511Density:43.52/km2
Where is it?
ParanCapital: CuritibaPopulation: 9,150,000Largest number ofinhabitants from EasternEuropean descentOne of the highest standards of living in BrazilLargest grain-producing stateUniversidade Federal do Paran Brazils first university
Santa CatarinaCapital: FlorianpolisPopulation: 5,098,448Most European statein BrazilMajor industrial and agricultural centerNortheast: textile, electric-mechanical, furnitureWest: cattle and poultry breedingSouth: ceramics and shellfishesBeautiful beaches
Rio Grande do SulCapital: Porto AlegrePopulation: 10,845,087Battlefield for several warsFocal point of internal rebellion in 1800sRota Romntica - Tourist route through Serra GachaGerman and Italian influenceVineyardsGerman architecture
Oil RefineriesCrude oil contains hundreds of hydrocarbons all mixed togetherThe crude oil is heated, because different hydrocarbon chain lengths have different boiling pointsThe chains are pulled out by their vaporization temperature
Products from Crude OilPetroleum Gas heating, cooking, and making plastics (boiling point (bp) = 104 F)Gasoline motor fuel (bp = 104 410 F)Kerosene Fuel for jet engines and tractors (bp = 350 617 F)Lubricating Oil motor oil, grease, and other lubricants (bp = 572 700 F)Coke, Asphalt, Tar starting material for making other products (bp = >1112 F)
CrackingCracking takes large hydrocarbons and breaks them into smaller ones.Three Types of CrackingThermalSteam breaks ethane into ethyleneVisbreaking reduces viscosity Coking heats residual until it cracks into heavy oilCatalyticFluid Catalytic Cracking cracks heavy gas oils into diesel oilsHydrocracking takes heavy oil and cracks into gasoline and kerosene
UnificationUnification combines smaller hydrocarbons to make a larger oneCatalytic reforming uses a catalyst to combine low weight naphtha into aromaticsCreates hydrogen gas which is used in hydrocracking
AlterationAlkylation makes molecules from one fraction to produce anotherLow molecular weight compounds are mixed in the presence of a catalyst such as hydrofluoric acid or sulfuric acid to produce high octane hydrocarbons
Complete Oil RefineryAn oil refinery is a combination of all of the previously discussed units.
THE ENDANY QUESTIONS?