Semantic / Lexical Typology: Verbs of Falling and Beyond Katia Rakhilina (NRU HSE, Moscow) “Verbs, verb phrases and verbal categoriesâ€‌ 23-25 March Hebrew

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LEXICAL TYPOLOGY OF QUALITIES

Semantic / Lexical Typology: Verbs of Falling and Beyond

Katia Rakhilina (NRU HSE, Moscow)

Verbs, verb phrases and verbal categories23-25 MarchHebrew University of JerusalemBEYOND:Lexical Typology. Main objectivesA relatively new area of linguistic typology

Until recently, linguistic typology grammatical or phonological typology

Lexical typology deals with cross-linguistic universals and variation in lexical categorization of conceptual domains

22Main approaches to lexical typologyNatural Semantic Metalanguage(Anna Wierzbicka and Cliff Goddard)primarily determined via introspection

Denotation-based approach: MPI Nijmegen(Stephen Levinson, Asifa Majid et al.) < Berlin&Kay 1969 experimental approach to LT: pictures or videoclips as stimuli and lexical reactions of native speakers

3(1) NSM: Limitations Which one is to choose a primitive among several near-synonymsxotet /zhelat in Russian or want / wish in English

How to deal with changes in meanings?4(2) Denotation-based approach: limitations+ clear tertium comparationis (= extralinguistic stimuli)

non applicable for domains of subjective experience & metaphorical extensions

5externally caused pain is only a subclass of the complete range of painful sensations

5(2) Denotation-based approach: limitations PAIN How to collect language data? Even if one would prick a native speaker for the sake of lexical typology, the result would be poor, because all individuals experience pain differently. Thus , pain terms need another non-experimental approach (Reznikova et al. 2012)Pain is not the only case. Subjective experience constitutes a large part of what is expressed in human languages, cf. physical qualities, like soft or heavy.

6

externally caused pain is only a subclass of the complete range of painful sensations

6MLexT MethodologyThe general idea is to combine: the Moscow Semantic school tradition (deep semantic analysis of the lexicon with a special focus on synonymy)Tradition of grammatical typology= Lexical typology

So, basically we take into account the linguistic behavior of lexical items, i.e. combinability restrictions (dictionaries, corpora, field work with specially developed questionnaires)7

Moscow Lexical Typology Group projects:Typology of activities & states:

Verbs of aquamotionPain metaphorsSound metaphorsVerbs of rotationVerbs of oscillationCutting & breaking Sitting & standingPhysical qualities (sharp, wet, soft)FALLING

Verbs of aquamotion

9Majsak, Rakhilina (eds.)2007 Pain metaphors

10Britsyn, Rakhilina, Reznikova, Yavorska (eds.) 2010

Sound metaphors

11 Suggested methodology: Main stepsTo collect all lexical items covering the field in your own languagecf. English old To look for occurrences of these items in the corpus and check the initial list of terms:cf. old woman, old horse, old tree, old town (+ancient), old clothes, old director (+ former).To look for translations for these words in bilingual dictionaries:cf. Georgian : old person moxuci,old clothes dzveli,old director qopiliold coins adrindeli12Some of them are never lexically opposed to each other

Cf. French vieux, ancientEnglish: + ancient + former Collect corpus data for each lexical item in each language Examining A complete list of contexts find those that may be lexically opposed to each otherA set of typical situations relevant for the domain under research (= frames)Build up a questionnaire on the basis of framesA tool for research on languages with no corpus availableNew data improves former result

12QuestionnaireObtaining a semantic classification of nouns based on dictionary data and corpus examples.This classification provides the basis for a questionnaire to be completed by native speakers of different languages. We have an ___oak close to our house; my great-grand father planted it many years ago.His ___ wife was kind-hearted and the new one is beautiful but bad-tempered. 1313Questionnaire and FramesBy comparing questionnaires completed for different languages we extract a set of situations that may be distinguished lexically (= frames)having lived for many years (old woman)

object being in use for a long time, has become useless and/or decayed (old clothes, old house)

the object that is no longer in use or the duty that is not performed any more (old flat, old director)

dating from the remote past (old coins, old city)

14clothespersoncoinsdirector14Visualization of typological data: Semantic maps

Dominant system (e.g. English)15Binary system

(e.g. Japanese) Slavic: Russian, Polish, Bulgarian, Serbian, Ukrainian, etc. Baltic: Lithuanian, Latvian Germanic: English, German, Danish Romance: Latin, Spanish, Italian, Romanian. Finno-Ugric: Estonian

15 Distributed systems

16Visualization of typological data: Semantic maps (e.g. Ossetian) (e.g. Bashkir) Old mushrooms, old flowers ,

16SHARP domain: Collocating nouns 17arrowbristleknifenosescissors(rose) thorns(woolen) blanketbootsneedleCould you guess which of these

languages treat similarly.

are treated similarly

Lexically opposed to each other

short stiff hairs growing on a man's face when hehas not shavedfor a few days.17

18SHARP domain: Frames 19arrowbristleknifenosescissors(rose) thorns(woolen) blanketbootsneedleInstrument with a functional edge

Instrument with a functional end-pointObject with a pointed shapeNatural object that pricksSurface that pricksCould you guess which of these

languages treat similarly.

are treated similarly

Lexically opposed to each other

short stiff hairs growing on a man's face when hehas not shavedfor a few days.19SHARP domain Instrument with a functional edge (knife, saw)

Instrument with a functional end-point (arrow, spear)Surface that pricks(blanket, bristle)Natural object that pricks(thorns)Object with a sharp form(nose)2020SHARP domain: Serbian Instrument with a functional edge (knife, saw)

Instrument with a functional end-point (arrow, spear)Surface that pricks(blanket, bristle)Natural object that pricks(thorns)Object with a sharp form(nose)21otar no sharp knife, otro koplje sharp spear, otar nos sharp nose, otar pokriva prickly blanketotar21SHARP domain: Japanese22Instrument with a functional edge (knife, saw)

Instrument with a functional end-point (arrow, spear)Surface that pricks(blanket, bristle)Natural object that pricks(thorns)Object with a sharp form(nose)surudoi naifu sharp knife, surudoi yari sharp spear vs. togatta hana sharp nose surudoitogatta22SHARP domain: Kabardian23Instrument with a functional edge (knife, saw)

Instrument with a functional end-point (arrow, spear)Surface that pricks(blanket, bristle)Natural object that pricks(thorns)Object with a sharp form(nose)eje an sharp knife vs. w ne pamce sharp nail , ande pamce sharp elbowanpamce23Typology of verbs of falling:research program24

Falling: vertical motion due to gravityDescription of falling has two dimensions:

Substructure of the field and oppositions between its main framesOther semantic fields related to falling either directly (1) or through metaphorization procedure (2)

25

A. Substructure of the field Two main topologically opposed clusters of situations:Falling down from an upper surface (NB! Motion of substances)Falling of vertical objects standing on the ground

Non prototypical:Reflexive motion (1) (2)

2626 Falling down from an upper surface

Locations: Source (initial location) and Goal (final location)

Source is normally not marked (except for containers: falling out of smth)

27 Falling down from an upper surface

Goal bias. Types of Goals as final locations: liquids / hard surfaces / soft surfaces [NB! Onomatopoeia: falling is accompanied by special sounds]Trajector + location pair is relevantHard Trajector + hard surface [a huge suitcase onto the road] Hard Trajector + soft surface [stone into the mud]Soft Trajector + hard surface [a piece of mud onto the road]A piece of glass onto the hard surface Splash fall with a thud fall with a bang

28Substances as special kinds of Trajectors Water can move forward, upward and fall either in a flow or in small quants One general predicate or a system of classifying verbs?Special term for dropping of drops?Sand, sugar, grain as free-flowing substances can only move down in their own manner no special verb for falling of a quant ?RainSnow Standing vertical objects:orientation of the falling object Objects with intrinsic orientation (mainly humans): direction of the motion (could be marked with the predicates or adverbs)Falling backwards, on ones back Falling sideways Falling forwards + metonymy (manner)Stumble SlipTumble

3030Reflexive motion (Susan Lindner 1981)

= Motion of the parts

Simple motion: John went out

Reflexive motion: Syrop spread outCome out flicks comes off 31Reflexive motion: rotation32

Simple rotation: Trajector is moving round the LandmarkReflexive rotation: the fox (Tr) rolled itself into a ball32Reflexive motion & related frames

Crash down, collapse: about a building the house fell down

To fall down: about a surface itself e.g. due to the heavy object on itthe ice crashed + meton. smb. fell trough the iceCome out flicks comes off 33Reflexive motion: related frames

Body parts (no motion)Teeth / Hair: come out[+ Tail of a lizard][+ Tongue (a running dog)]

Parts of