Science Teaching and Learning in the Context of the 2002 c~2

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<ul><li><p>7/31/2019 Science Teaching and Learning in the Context of the 2002 c~2</p><p> 1/70</p><p>Teachers Concerns</p><p>What is the best way to convey themany concepts that we teach inscience so that all learners can retain</p><p>and use the information?</p><p>How can the lessons be presented sothat they are interconnected and so</p><p>that they build upon each other?</p><p>How can science be made meaningfuland relevant to the learners?</p></li><li><p>7/31/2019 Science Teaching and Learning in the Context of the 2002 c~2</p><p> 2/70</p><p>Effective Teaching Behaviors(Teaching and Learning Skills)</p></li><li><p>7/31/2019 Science Teaching and Learning in the Context of the 2002 c~2</p><p> 3/70</p><p>New View of EffectiveTeaching</p><p>Effective teaching is more than acore of technical teachingbehaviors.</p><p>Effective teaching sees learningas involving a community oflearners as they engage in an</p><p>active process of sense- makingand knowledge construction thattakes place mostly through social</p><p>participation in authentic tasks.</p></li><li><p>7/31/2019 Science Teaching and Learning in the Context of the 2002 c~2</p><p> 4/70</p><p>New View of EffectiveTeaching</p><p> The teachers role ischanged from dispenser of</p><p>information to facilitator oflearning</p><p> The students performanceon tests is not the primaryand sole criterion for judgingteacher effectiveness.</p></li><li><p>7/31/2019 Science Teaching and Learning in the Context of the 2002 c~2</p><p> 5/70</p><p>Statements From ResearchAbout Effective Learning</p><p>1. Children learn best in a concretemanner involving personalparticipation, physical or hands- on</p><p>activities, and opportunities forpersonal discovery.</p><p>2. Learning is greatly enhanced whenconcepts are presented in the</p><p>context or relationships that are</p><p>familiar to the student.</p></li><li><p>7/31/2019 Science Teaching and Learning in the Context of the 2002 c~2</p><p> 6/70</p><p>Statements From ResearchAbout Effective Learning</p><p>3. Most learners relate better toconcrete, tangible examples andexperiences than to abstract,</p><p>conceptual models.</p><p>4. Most learners learn best through</p><p>some sort of personal interactionwith other learners through</p><p>study groups, team learning, and</p><p>so on. </p></li><li><p>7/31/2019 Science Teaching and Learning in the Context of the 2002 c~2</p><p> 7/70</p><p>Statements From ResearchAbout Effective Learning</p><p>5. Transfer of learning from onesituation to another is not</p><p>consistently predictable, and theability to do so is a skill that mustbe learned.</p></li><li><p>7/31/2019 Science Teaching and Learning in the Context of the 2002 c~2</p><p> 8/70</p><p>Science Teaching andLearning in the Context</p><p>of the 2002 BasicEducation Curriculum</p><p>Josefina L. Pabellon</p><p>Science Education Specialist</p><p>National Institute for Science and</p><p>Mathematics Education Development(NISMED)</p><p>University of the Philippines,</p><p>Diliman, Quezon City </p></li><li><p>7/31/2019 Science Teaching and Learning in the Context of the 2002 c~2</p><p> 9/70</p><p>Learningin the Context of the 2002</p><p>Basic EducationCurriculum</p><p>1. The 2002 Basic EducationCurriculum</p><p>2. The Science CurriculumThe Objectives</p><p>Approaches and Strategies</p></li><li><p>7/31/2019 Science Teaching and Learning in the Context of the 2002 c~2</p><p> 10/70</p><p>The philosophy of the 2002curriculum</p><p>a) The ideal Filipino learners areempowered learners, who are</p><p>competent in learning how tolearnand have life skills so thatthey become self-developed</p><p>persons who are makabayan,makatao, makakalikasan andmaka-Diyos;</p></li><li><p>7/31/2019 Science Teaching and Learning in the Context of the 2002 c~2</p><p> 11/70</p><p>The philosophy of the 2002curriculum</p><p>(b) Functional literacy is theessential ability for lifelonglearning in our dynamically</p><p>changing world;(c)The ideal teaching-learning</p><p>process is interactive where</p><p>the learners, the teachers,instructional materials andinformation technology interact</p><p>with one another reciprocally. </p></li><li><p>7/31/2019 Science Teaching and Learning in the Context of the 2002 c~2</p><p> 12/70</p><p>The philosophy of the 2002curriculum</p><p>(d) The ideal teacher of the 2002curriculum is not theauthoritarian instructor but the</p><p>trustworthy facilitator or managerof the learning process. Sheenables the learners to become</p><p>active constructors of meaningand not passive recipients of</p><p>information.</p></li><li><p>7/31/2019 Science Teaching and Learning in the Context of the 2002 c~2</p><p> 13/70</p><p>The Science Curriculum</p><p>Aim</p><p>to help the Filipino learners</p><p>gain a functional understandingof scientific concepts andprinciples linked with real life</p><p>situations, and acquire scientificskills, attitudes, and valuesnecessary to analyze and solvedaily problems.</p></li><li><p>7/31/2019 Science Teaching and Learning in the Context of the 2002 c~2</p><p> 14/70</p><p>The Science Curriculum</p><p>Approach: Integrated Teaching an educational movement that</p><p>lets questioning and problem-</p><p>solving, rather the structure ofthe academic disciplines, directthe process of acquiringknowledge and skills</p><p> shifts the focus of instructionfrom discrete subjects towardissues in the real world.</p></li><li><p>7/31/2019 Science Teaching and Learning in the Context of the 2002 c~2</p><p> 15/70</p><p>Objectives</p><p>1. Acquiring scientificknowledge</p><p> design investigations inscience</p><p> conduct laboratory and/or</p><p>field activities</p><p> obtain information from a</p><p>variety of sources </p></li><li><p>7/31/2019 Science Teaching and Learning in the Context of the 2002 c~2</p><p> 16/70</p><p>Objectives</p><p>2. Understanding and problemsolving</p><p>demonstrate knowledge of arange of key facts, andunderstanding of scientific</p><p>concepts, principles,relationships, and laws, andrelate them to natural and</p><p>technological phenomena </p></li><li><p>7/31/2019 Science Teaching and Learning in the Context of the 2002 c~2</p><p> 17/70</p><p>Objectives</p><p>2. Understanding and problemsolving</p><p>apply their knowledge andimagination to solve avariety of problems in</p><p>science critically analyze and</p><p>evaluate information,</p><p>procedures and materials </p></li><li><p>7/31/2019 Science Teaching and Learning in the Context of the 2002 c~2</p><p> 18/70</p><p>Objectives</p><p>3. Using scientific knowledge recognize how the power</p><p>and limitations of scienceshape and influence thequality of life;</p><p> recognize that science is ahuman activity that isdeveloped and applied in a</p><p>wide variety of contexts; </p></li><li><p>7/31/2019 Science Teaching and Learning in the Context of the 2002 c~2</p><p> 19/70</p><p>Objectives</p><p>3. Using scientific knowledge</p><p> use and apply their</p><p>scientific knowledge tomake informed, rationaldecisions;</p><p> use and apply scientificknowledge to modify andtransform the externalworld.</p></li><li><p>7/31/2019 Science Teaching and Learning in the Context of the 2002 c~2</p><p> 20/70</p><p>Objectives</p><p>4. Communicating scientific</p><p>knowledge</p><p> be functionally literate inscience, particularly in their</p><p>use of the terminology and</p><p>notation of science;</p><p> present scientific ideas</p><p>orally</p></li><li><p>7/31/2019 Science Teaching and Learning in the Context of the 2002 c~2</p><p> 21/70</p></li><li><p>7/31/2019 Science Teaching and Learning in the Context of the 2002 c~2</p><p> 22/70 </p><p>e sc ence program env s ons</p></li><li><p>7/31/2019 Science Teaching and Learning in the Context of the 2002 c~2</p><p> 23/70</p><p>e sc ence program env s onsan individual learner as one who</p><p> Develops desirable valuesand attitudes about life andthe environment</p><p> Knows how to access,process, organize, and</p><p>communicate information Is motivated to learn on</p><p>his/her own and to continue</p><p>learnin throu h out life </p><p>c ence rocess s an</p></li><li><p>7/31/2019 Science Teaching and Learning in the Context of the 2002 c~2</p><p> 24/70</p><p> c ence rocess s anHigher Order Thinking Skills</p></li><li><p>7/31/2019 Science Teaching and Learning in the Context of the 2002 c~2</p><p> 25/70 </p><p>BEC 2002</p></li><li><p>7/31/2019 Science Teaching and Learning in the Context of the 2002 c~2</p><p> 26/70</p><p>BEC 2002 spousesprogressivism</p><p>Instructional Focus: Cooperative</p><p>learning and problem solving,which emphasize experience</p><p>Curriculum: Comprehensive core</p><p>(interdisciplinary and problemfocused)</p><p>BEC 2002</p></li><li><p>7/31/2019 Science Teaching and Learning in the Context of the 2002 c~2</p><p> 27/70</p><p>BEC 2002 spousesprogressivism</p><p>Methodology:Interactivegroups, reflective thinkingand group projects</p><p> Nature of Learner:Responsible, socially</p><p>oriented individualinterested in solvingproblems of humankind</p></li><li><p>7/31/2019 Science Teaching and Learning in the Context of the 2002 c~2</p><p> 28/70</p><p>BEC subscribes to the</p><p>Constructivist theory oflearning</p><p>Th C t ti i t Th f</p></li><li><p>7/31/2019 Science Teaching and Learning in the Context of the 2002 c~2</p><p> 29/70</p><p>The Constructivist Theory ofLearning</p><p>Individual learners generate their ownunderstanding</p><p>Learners construct sets of</p><p>expectations or beliefs (which maydiffer from the accepted scientificconcept or theory) about a range ofnatural phenomena in their efforts to</p><p>make sense of their everydayexperiences</p><p>Such beliefs held by learners are</p><p>referred to as alternative frameworks, </p><p>Th C t ti i t Th f</p></li><li><p>7/31/2019 Science Teaching and Learning in the Context of the 2002 c~2</p><p> 30/70</p><p>The Constructivist Theory of</p><p>Learning</p><p> Science learning means a change inideas rather than taking in a new ideaas a separate, isolated entity.</p><p>When a learner receives newinformation, he tries to understand itby fitting it into his existing cognitive(or mental) structure. If it fits,</p><p>assimilationoccurs If it does not fit, disequilibration</p><p>happens. The new information may</p><p>tend to be rejected.</p></li><li><p>7/31/2019 Science Teaching and Learning in the Context of the 2002 c~2</p><p> 31/70 </p><p>Th C t ti i t Th f</p></li><li><p>7/31/2019 Science Teaching and Learning in the Context of the 2002 c~2</p><p> 32/70</p><p>The Constructivist Theory of</p><p>Learning</p><p>When enough information isavailable, a change in cognitive</p><p>structure results which canaccommodate the new structure.This is known as the state of</p><p>accommodation. Afterwards, thecognitive structure again reaches</p><p>a state of equilibrium.</p><p>Th C t ti i t A h</p></li><li><p>7/31/2019 Science Teaching and Learning in the Context of the 2002 c~2</p><p> 33/70</p><p>The Constructivist Approach(Driver and Oldham,. 1986:119)</p><p>A Constr cti ist Teaching</p></li><li><p>7/31/2019 Science Teaching and Learning in the Context of the 2002 c~2</p><p> 34/70</p><p>A Constructivist Teaching</p><p>Sequence</p><p>orientation phase--- gives learnersthe chance to develop a sense</p><p>of purpose and motivation forlearning the topic</p><p>elicitation phase---learners</p><p>express their ideas explicitlyand develop awareness, whichcan be achieved by a variety of</p><p>activities </p><p>A Constructivist Teaching</p></li><li><p>7/31/2019 Science Teaching and Learning in the Context of the 2002 c~2</p><p> 35/70</p><p>A Constructivist Teaching</p><p>Sequence</p><p>restructuring phase---students compare</p><p>their ideas with the alternative andpossibly, conflicting views of others.Inadequacies or limitations may bepointed out; exchange of views maylead to disagreement among learners</p><p>A Constructivist Teaching</p></li><li><p>7/31/2019 Science Teaching and Learning in the Context of the 2002 c~2</p><p> 36/70</p><p>A Constructivist TeachingSequence</p><p>application phase--- learners usetheir restructured ideas in</p><p>different situations. Hence thenew conceptions are integratedand reinforced by extending the</p><p>context within which they wereused</p><p>A Constructivist Teaching</p></li><li><p>7/31/2019 Science Teaching and Learning in the Context of the 2002 c~2</p><p> 37/70</p><p>A Constructivist TeachingSequence</p><p>review phase--- learners are</p><p>encouraged to look back athow their ideas developed bymaking comparisons between</p><p>their thinking now and at thestart of the lesson.</p><p>strategies to promote probe</p></li><li><p>7/31/2019 Science Teaching and Learning in the Context of the 2002 c~2</p><p> 38/70</p><p>strategies to promote, probeand assess conceptual</p><p>understandingWord association</p><p>JigsawPredict, Observe. Explain</p><p>(POE)Written probe</p><p>Concept mapping </p></li><li><p>7/31/2019 Science Teaching and Learning in the Context of the 2002 c~2</p><p> 39/70</p><p>Guidelines in doing POE</p><p>Outcome of demonstration must be veryclear</p><p>Use a discrepant event</p><p>Tryout activity prior to class demonstrationAll students must take a stand</p><p>Summarize class views and feedback toclass</p><p>Let learners write observations and allowdiscussion</p><p>Give students opportunity to talk out</p><p>differing observations </p></li><li><p>7/31/2019 Science Teaching and Learning in the Context of the 2002 c~2</p><p> 40/70</p><p>An example of a written probeA ball rolls without friction and without a</p><p>drive of its own along curved paths. Theball is released at points a, b and c. To</p><p>what height will the ball go on the otherside?</p></li><li><p>7/31/2019 Science Teaching and Learning in the Context of the 2002 c~2</p><p> 41/70</p><p>Higher than a [ ]</p><p>Same as a [ ]</p><p>Lower than a [ ]</p><p>Explanation</p><p>_________________</p><p>_________________</p><p>__________________________________</p><p>_________________</p><p>_________________</p><p>Higher than b [ ]</p><p>Same as b [ ]</p><p>Lower than b [ ]</p><p>Explanation:</p><p>_______________</p><p>_______________</p><p>______________________________</p><p>_______________</p><p>_______________</p><p>Higher than c [ ]</p><p>Same as c [ ]</p><p>Lower than c [ ]</p><p>Explanation</p><p>_______________</p><p>_______________</p><p>______________________________</p><p>_______________</p><p>_______________</p></li><li><p>7/31/2019 Science Teaching and Learning in the Context of the 2002 c~2</p><p> 42/70</p><p>An example of a concept map</p></li><li><p>7/31/2019 Science Teaching and Learning in the Context of the 2002 c~2</p><p> 43/70</p><p>Inquiry Approach</p><p> process of teaching and learningwhich emphasizes activeinvolvement of students in</p><p>acquiring knowledge Actively involves students through</p><p>activities and experiments</p><p> Guides students to form andexpress concepts thru a series of</p><p>questions </p></li><li><p>7/31/2019 Science Teaching and Learning in the Context of the 2002 c~2</p><p> 44/70</p><p>Practical work</p><p> a teaching strategy thatinvolves the manipulation of</p><p>concrete objects and /or theperformance of activities toarrive at a conceptual</p><p>understanding of differentphenomena and situations</p></li><li><p>7/31/2019 Science Teaching and Learning in the Context of the 2002 c~2</p><p> 45/70</p><p>Types of practical work</p><p> Illustrative experimenting--involvesproving or verifying a concept,law, principle or phenomenon</p><p> Scientific observations --focus ondescription of objects or events inwords or sketches emphasizingsimilarities or differences</p><p>relate the description of theimportant features of an object withsome observed behavior orphenomenon.</p></li><li><p>7/31/2019 Science Teaching and Learning in the Context of the 2002 c~2</p><p> 46/70</p></li><li><p>7/31/2019 Science Teaching and Learning in the Context of the 2002 c~2</p><p> 47/70</p><p>Types of practical work</p><p> Inquiry-based experimenting</p><p>-- uses a series of carefullytailored experimental designto lead the learners to a</p><p>discovery of the concept</p><p>An example of an inquiry</p></li><li><p>7/31/2019 Science Teaching and Learning in the Context of the 2002 c~2</p><p> 48/70</p><p>An example of an inquirytype activity</p><p> Propose an investigation ofthe radioactivity of collected</p><p>dust, possibly includingcomparison. Then carry itout.</p></li><li><p>7/31/2019 Science Teaching and Learning in the Context of the 2002 c~2</p><p> 49/70</p><p>A design type inquiry</p><p> You are given the followingmaterials: 1 raw egg, 1 sheetnewspaper, 1 m string and 1msticky tape. You cannot add orsubtract anything from thematerials given you.</p><p> Your task: Design a container thatwill protect the raw egg frombreaking when dropped from a</p><p>height of at least 10 metres. </p></li><li><p>7/31/2019 Science Teaching and Learning in the Context of the 2002 c~2</p><p> 50/70</p><p>Practical work</p><p>Avoid recipe type proceduresDecide on the amount of structure that</p><p>is appropriate</p><p>Be certain that learners can identify theproblem to be investigated, theobjectives of the activity, and the</p><p>general procedure requirements underwhich they are operating</p><p>Clearly specify how results are to be</p><p>reported </p><p>Levels of implementation of</p></li><li><p>7/31/2019 Science Teaching and Learning in the Context of the 2002 c~2</p><p> 51/70</p><p>Levels of implementation ofpractical work</p><p>Level Level of implementation</p><p>1 Teacher uses classroomdemonstration to help develop</p><p>concepts</p><p> Teacher uses specimens found</p><p>in the local e...</p></li></ul>