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r**U.t************M**************************************** lousrather, it is white females who are unusual. Orn.all, enroll-ment trends clearly tend to be more favorable for whites

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    Koretz, Daniel; And Others Trends in the Postsecondary Enrollment of Minorities. Rand Corp,, Santa Monica, Calif. Ford Foundation, New York, N.Y. R-3948-FF Aug 90 115p. Rand Corporation, 1700 Main St., P.O. Box 2138, Santa Monica, CA 90406-2138. Reports Descriptive (141)

    MF01 Plus Postage. PC Not Available from EDRS. *Black Students; *College Students; *Enrollment Trends; Higher Education; Hispanic Americans; *Minority Groups; *Postsecondary Education; *Trend Analysis

    This report attempts to resolve disagreements about trends in minority enrollments in postsecondary education institutions and to examine various factors that might help explain the enrollment trends. Among the study's findings were the following: (1) in the total group of individuals, aged 18-24, the overall enrollment rate of blacks nas changed little since the mid-1970s; (2) the proportion of black high school graduates, aged 18-24, that is enrolled in college has declined substantially from a peak of nearly 33 percent in the mid-19; and (3) the enrollment rate of Hispanic youth has been stable since the late 1970s, though it remains lower than during the peak years of the mid-1970s. Possible factors causing the enrollment trends, such as military enlistments and family income differences, are analyzed. Data sources (the Current Population Survey and the Integrated Postsecondary Education Data System) are described in an appendix. Includes 51 references. (JDD)

    ***********r**U.t************M**************************************** Reproductions supplied by EDRS are the best that can be made

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  • Trends in the Postsecondary Enrollment of Minorities

    Daniel Koretz

    U.S. DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION Office of Educatronei Research and Improvement


    7.-.This document- has been reproduced 33 recerved from the person or organization orwating

    0 Minor changes have been made to improve reDroduCtiOn Quality

    Points of view OropintOns staled In thiS doCir mtnt do not necesSanly represent othciat OERI positron or Policy


    Rand Corporation

    Ford Foundation


  • The research described in this report was supported by The Ford Foundation.

    ISBN: 0-8330-1101-4

    The RAND Publication Series: The Report is the principal publication documenting and transmitting RAND's major research findings and final research results. The RAND Note reports other outputs of sponsored research for general distribution. Publications of The RAND Corporation do not necessarily reflect the opinions or policies of the sponsors of RAND research.

    Published by The RAND Corporation 1700 Main Street, P.O. Box 2138, Santa Monica, CA 90406-2138

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    Trends in the Postsecondary Enrollment of Minorities

    Daniel Koretz with Elizabeth Lewis, Lenore DeSilets

    August 1990

    Supported by The Ford Foundation

    RAN D



    Long concerned about the status of minority Americans, the Ford Foundation requested last year that The RAND Corporation under- take a study of trends in the enrollment of minority individuals, par- ticularly blacks, in postsecondary education. The foundation was concerned about reports that the enrollment of minority students had declined and was troubled by the inconsistent conclusions of various recent papers addressing the issue.

    This report presents the results of that study. The study had two aims: first, to resolve the disagreements about the nature of trends in minority enrollments (to the extent that extant tabulations of na- tional data permit such a resolution); second, to examine various fac- tors that might help explain the enrollment trendsfor example, changes in the academic preparedness of minority high school stu- dents.

    This report is addressed to policymckers, educators, and educa- tional administrators, as well as to researchers and others interested in the pressing issues of minority educational progress.



    Over the past year, many accounts in the press have raised con- cerns about the enrollment of minority individuals, particularly black males, in postsecondary education. Numerous areeles and columns have reported that the enrollment of blacks has been declining, and many have maintained that the problem is most severe for black males. Many explanations for this problem have been offered, but the ones Worded the greetest attention by the press have been those particular to black males. Some accounts have portrayed the enroll- ment decline as one of many indications of a broad range of social problems confronting black males, suggesting that it may be linked to problems in other areas, such as income, health, and family composi- tion. Other accounts have pointed to more specific factors, such as changes in the rate at which black males have been enlisting in the military rather than enrolling in college.

    Taken together, these press reports have identified a serious prop- Lan but have also oversimplified and exaggerated it. Moreover, many hypothesized explanations that receive the greatest acceptance do not stand up to closer scrutiny.

    In the age group for which enrollment rates are traditionally calcu- lated (18-24), the overall enrollment rate of blacks (that is, the pro- portion of youth enrolled in college) has changed little in recent years, ranging from approximately 20 to 22 percent since the mid-1970s. The enrollmen rate is currently at the high end of that range and matches the previous peak reached for a brief period in the mid- 1970s. Although this trend is less negative than many recent ac- counts have suggested, it is nonetheless discouraging. The years leading up to 1975 saw la,.ge increases in the enrollment rate of black youth, and those improvements have clearly ended for the time being.

    A more negative pattern is apparent in a second enrollment rate, the proportion of black high school graduates aged 18-24 enrolled in college. The proportion of black graduates enrollei in college is nec- essarily higher because high school dropouts largely ineligible for college are removed from the rate's base. The trend in the enrollment rate for black high school graduates, however, has been more nega- tive. The rate declined substantially from a short-lived peak of nearly 33 percent in the mid-1970s. Although this enrollment rate has been rising age'n for several years, it remains approximately 31/2 percent-


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    age points below that earlier peak. This is because the high school graduation rate of black youth has improved substantially since the mid-1970s, and that improvement was not reflected in postsecondary enrollments.

    A far more negative view arises when one compares these trends to comparable trends among whites. The enrollment rate of whites has continued to climb during this periodthe result of an ongoing in- crease in the enrollment rate of white femalesso the gap between minority and white youth has grown considerably. This holds true regardless of which enrollment rate measure is used.

    Despite widespread concern about the particular difficulties faced by black males, no evidence exiscs that the widening gap in enroll- ment rates in the 18-24 age group is primarily attributable to black males. The enrollment rate of black males has followed much the same trend as that shown by black females and, for that matter, by white males since the mid-1970s. The enrollment rate for black fe- males has generally been one or two percentage points higher than that of black males during that period. Much of the divergence of en- rollment rates between blacks and whites in this age group is at- tributable to the almost uninterrupted increases in the enrollment rate of white females.

    The enrollment rate of Hispanic youth has also been stable since the late 1970s, though it remains lower than during the peak years of the mid-1970s. In the case of Hispanics, trends are similar for both enrollment measures because the high school graduation rate of Hispanics has not changed consistently. Thus, even more for Hispanics than for blacks, interpretation of enrollment trends hinges on whether one sees the brief peak of thP mid-1970s as anomalous or as the appropriate basis for comparison. Unfortunately, this remains a matter of debate.

    Students in the 18-24 age group, howe,?er, constitute a smaller share of the total student population than is often assumed; approxi- mately 40 percent of all college students are older. Enrollment trends have been quite different in older age groups, which may explain some inconsistencies among accounts published to date. In the 25-34 age group, the enrollment rate of blacks has declined in recent years, and that decline has been limi ed to men. Even this generalization, however, requires a caveat: A similar decline was apparent among white men in this age group. Patterns in this group are less clear than in the 18-24 age group, but even in the older group, the data of- fer no evidence that the growing disparity between black and white enrollment rates is attributable more to men than to women.


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    The trends look quite different if the measure is t