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Russian ballet Kalkova O.K.. Roots of Classical Ballet The history of ballet dates back to Italy of the 15th century when rich princes hired professional

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  • Russian ballet Kalkova O.K.
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  • Roots of Classical Ballet The history of ballet dates back to Italy of the 15th century when rich princes hired professional dancers to give luxurious performances that would impress their noble guests. In the 17th century choreographers of Italy, France and England strived to find a new distinct form for the new ballet and new possibilities of dance technique.
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  • Russian Emperors Welcome Foreign Art Russia possessing rich national dance folklore and subjected to European cultural influences during the reign of Peter the Great turned to be fertile ground for the development of ballet theatre. From the early 18th century ballet in Russia was inculcated by Italian and French teachers. Learning foreign art the Russians brought in their specific features.
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  • In the 18th c. the Russian ballet was developing in the tideway of the European classicism. At the turn of the 19th century, however, the hey-day of Russian ballet started. Russian composers started writing music for ballet. Melodramatic ballet became the leading genre. Special privilege was extended to ballet among all other theatres. The authorities paid great attention to ballet development and provided it with governmental grants. The Bolshoi Theatre was opened in 1825. Both Moscow and St.- Petersburg ballet troupes performed in well equipped theatres. The Russian Ballet blended in with the romanticism born in Western Europe. The spectacles shined with splendour, eurhythmy and topnotch artistry
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  • It was Russian ballet that was destined to revive ballet art in a new quality. Great role in that belonged to the French ballet master Marius Petipa who was chief choreographer for the Imperial Ballet School. He started his artistic activity following the principles of the aesthetics of romanticism which was about to play out. Petipa went on the process of enriching the dance, the process which romanticism started.
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  • In 1909 Sergei Diaghilev, a wealthy Russian patron of arts arranged the first Paris tour of the Russian ballet. The Russian Seasons or Ballets Russes at once attained recognition and popularity in Europe. They opened to the world the composer Igor Stravinsky and choreographer Fokin (Zhar-Ptitsa / Fiery-Bird, 1910; Petrushka, 1911) ballet dancer and ballet master V. F. Nijinsky (Holy Spring, 1913) and others and attracted famed musicians and artists to the ballet theatre.
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  • Costume and Set Design History of the Ballets Russes Serge Diaghilev was a true impresario. His visions brought together designers, artists, composers, choreographers and dancers in a collaborative manner not equaled since his death in 1929. There are many key design moments in the history of Diaghilevs Ballets Russes. During its 20 year history, 1909-1929, Diaghilevs Ballets Russes costumes were designed by then artist friends of Serges, now iconic artists.
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  • In 1909, Alexander Benois was the first Artistic Director of Diaghilev's Ballest Russes. He designed both the costumes and stage designs, for Le Pavillon d'Armide in 1909. Benois wrote the libretto of the ballet in 1903 and Tcherepin composed the music to suit the plot. The ballet was brought and presented to the Maryinsky but left unstaged until Fokine.
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  • Serge Sudeikin - March 19, 1882 August 12, 1946 Sudeikin was a a Russian artist and set-designer associated with the Ballets Russes and the Metropolitan Opera. He designed the sets and costumes for Diaghilev's production of La tragdie de Salom by Florent Schmitt in 1913, and assisted in the execution of Nicholas Roerich's designs for Stravinsky's The Rite of Spring the same year.
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  • Nicholas Roerich October 9, 1874 December 13, 1947 During Serge Diaghilevs famous Russian Seasons in 1909, Roerich designed both the set, (photo left), and costume designs for Polovets Dances from Borodins Prince Igor, Pskovityanka by Rimsky-Korsakov. Nicholas Roerich also designed costumes for the ballet The Rite of Spring, set to Igor Stravinskys music.
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  • After the revolution of 1917 a lot of artistes left the country thus causing intense development of the Russian ballet in Europe. Throughout the 1920- 1940s Russian artists (Anna Pavlova with her troupe), choreographers (Fokin, Myasin, B. F. Nijinskaya, Dj. Balanchin, B. G. Romanov, S. M. Lifar) headed ballets (Ballet Russe de Monte Carlo, Original Ballet Russe, Russian Romantic Theatre, etc.), created schools and troupes in many countries of Europe and America thus had a great impact on the world ballet. For many years keeping to the traditional Russian repertoire, those collectives at the same time assimilated the influences of the countries they worked in
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  • After the revolution ballet remained being in the centre of nationwide art. In spite of the emigration of a number of leading figures of ballet theatre, the school of Russian ballet survived and put forward new performers.
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  • The turning point came in the late 1950s with the appearance of a new generation of choreographers. Among the first were Leningrad ballet masters Y.N. Grigorovich and I.D.Belski who based their ballets on musical and dance dramaturgy that conveyed the spectacle meaning through dance. Forgotten genres were revived, such as one act ballet, ballet-poster, satirical ballet, ballet symphony and choreographic miniature.
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  • The 1980s saw a growing number of tours of big and small opera and ballet companies abroad. Some artists and ballet masters started working abroad, staging spectacles and even heading ballet troupes in Europe and America (among them Nureyev, Makarova, Baryshnikov, Grigorovich, Vinogradov, Plisetskaya, Vasilyev, etc). Russian ballet dancers work in many foreign ballet troupes these days.
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  • After 1991 domestic ballet resorted to assimilating the experience of the Western ballet in the field of modern, jazz, and free dance. The State Academic Bolshoi Theatre staged quite a number of ballets by Western choreographers, among them Balanchines Symphony do major, Agon, and Mozartiana (19981999), Noymeiers Midsummer Night Dream (2004), and others. Mariinsky Theatre also turned to Balanchines ballets. The company was awarded with the Golden Mask prize for its stage production of Sergei Prokofievs Prodigal Son in 2003. The same year the theatre showed the three famous avant-garde ballets by William Forsythe: Steptext set to music by Bach, The Vertiginous Thrill of Exactitude to Schubert, and Approximate Sonata set to music by Dutch composer Thom Willems.
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  • Independent private dance companies of various schools and styles have sprung up in Russia: Dance Theatre under the guidance of Alexei Fadeyechev (aka Ratmansky Ballet Theatre), Imperial Russian Ballet of Gedeminas Taranda, and a range of post-modern dance theatres (those of Y.A. Panfilov, G.M. Abramov, A.Y. Pepelyaev, and other).
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  • The Nutcracker is a two-act ballet, originally choreographed by Marius Petipa and Lev Ivanov with a score by Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky (op. 71). The libretto is adapted from E.T.A. Hoffmann's story The Nutcracker and the Mouse King. It was given its premire at the Mariinsky Theatre in St. Petersburg on Sunday, December 18, 1892, on a double-bill with Tchaikovsky's opera, Iolanta.
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  • The Nutcracker is one of the composer's most popular compositions. The music belongs to the Romantic Period and contains some of his most memorable melodies, several of which are frequently used in television and film. (They are often heard in TV commercials shown during the Christmas season.) The Trepak, or Russian dance, is one of the most recognizable pieces in the ballet, along with the famous Waltz of the Flowers and March, as well as the ubiquitous Dance of the Sugar Plum Fairy.
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  • Dance of the Sugar Plum Fairy
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  • The Nutcracker. Video ballet
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