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    Intratextual Baudelaire

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    T H E O H I O S TAT E U N I V E R S I T Y P R E S SC O L U M B U S

    Intratextual Baudelairei

    The Sequential Fabric of theFleurs du mal and Spleen de Paris

    R A N D O L P H P A U L R U N Y O N

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    Copyright 2010 by The Ohio State University. All rights reserved.

    Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication DataRunyon, Randolph, 1947 Intratextual Baudelaire : the sequential fabric of the Fleurs du mal and Spleen de Paris /Randolph Paul Runyon. p. cm. Includes bibliographical references and index. ISBN-13: 978-0-8142-1118-2 (cloth : alk. paper) ISBN-10: 0-8142-1118-6 (cloth : alk. paper) ISBN-13: 978-0-8142-9216-7 (cd-rom) 1. Baudelaire, Charles, 18211867. Fleurs du malCriticism, Textual. 2. Baudelaire,Charles, 18211867. Spleen de ParisCriticism, Textual. I. Title.

    PQ2191.Z5R86 2010 841'.8dc22 2009029578This book is available in the following editions:Cloth (ISBN 978-0-8142-1118-2)CD-ROM (ISBN 978-0-8142-9216-7)

    Cover design by Becky Kulka and Jeff Smith.Type set in Adobe Galliard.Printed by Thomson-Shore, Inc.

    The paper used in this publication meets the minimum requirements of the AmericanNational Standard for Information SciencesPermanence of Paper for Printed LibraryMaterials. ANSI Z39.48-1992.

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    C O N T E N T S

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    Introduction 1

    C HAPTER 1 The Fabric of the First Edition: TheFleurs of 1857 17C HAPTER 2 The Sequence Rebuilt: TheFleurs of 1861 120C HAPTER 3 The serpent tout entier:Le Spleen de Paris 189

    Appendix A The Order of the Poems in the 1857 and 1861 Editions 263 Appendix B The Order of the Poems inLe Spleen de Paris 269Works Cited 271

    Index to Baudelaire's Works 277General Index 281

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    1

    BAUDELAIRE ASSERTED more than once that the order in which hearranged his poems was meaningful. Even before theFleurs du mal firstappeared in 1857, at a time when he was negotiating for the publication ofsome poems in theRevue des deux mondes, he wrote to the editor: je tiens vivement, quels que soient les morceaux que vous choisirez, les mettre

    en ordreavec vous,1

    de manire quils se fassent, pour ainsi dire, suite [Iam very anxious, whatever pieces you choose, to put them in orderwith you, so that they form, so to speak, a sequence].2 He was at the editorsmercy as to which poems would appear, yet he hoped to play a role indetermining the order of those that did. That order did not exist beforethe editors selection but would depend on the poems he chose. Baudelaire would then engage in somebricolage in the Lvi-Straussian sense, to cre-ate somethingin this case, a meaningful sequenceout of the materialson hand. The bricoleur, Lvi-Strauss writes, is adept at performing alarge number of diverse tasks; but, unlike the engineer, he does not sub-ordinate each of them to obtaining the raw materials and tools conceivedand procured for the purpose of the project. His universe of instruments isclosed and the rules of his game are always to make do with whatever isat hand.3 Commenting on this letter, F. W. Leakey writes, the principle

    1. Regarding italics in this book, I have used two different approaches. In quotationsfrom Baudelaires poetic works, italics have been added for emphasis unless indicated to bepresent in Baudelaires original. For all other sources, italics can be presumed to be originalunless otherwise noted. 2. In a letter to Victor de Mars on April 7, 1855. Charles Baudelaire,Correspondance, 2 vols., ed. Claude Pichois and Jean Ziegler (Paris: Gallimard/Pliade, 1973), I: 312 (here-after cited in text asCorr. I or II; translations are my own unless otherwise noted). Eventu-ally eighteen poems were published in theRevue des deux mondes on June 1, 1855. 3. Claude Lvi-Strauss,The Savage Mind, trans. John Weightman and Doreen Weight-

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    Baudelaire sought to adopt in the arrangement of these poemsthat ofsequence, with one poem leading smoothly into the next . . . is one that he was able eventually to follow in his own distribution of his poems in the

    complete editions of 1857 and 1861.4

    Baudelaire displayed the same concern for arrangement in the monthspreceding the publication of theFleurs du mal, telling his publisher hehoped that together Nous pourrons disposer ensemble lordre desmatires desFleurs du mal,ensemble, entendez-vous, car la question estimportante [We will be able to arrange together the order of the materialof theFleurs du mal together, you understand, for the question is impor-tant] (Corr. I: 364). When Baudelaire was subjected to prosecution in 1857, when theFleurs du mal were deemed an offense to public morals, he prepared notesfor his lawyer in which he called his book ce parfait ensemble [this per- fect whole ].5 The prosecutor was threatening to have some of the poemsremovedand eventually six were. Baudelaire wanted his lawyer to arguethat the collection was itself a work of art that would be destroyed if anypart of it were taken away. On Baudelaires invitation, and to some undetermined extent with hiscollusion, his friend Jules Barbey dAurevilly wrote a defense of the book:

    If quoted, a poem would have only its individual value, and make no mis-take, in Baudelaires book each poem has, in addition to the success ofits details or the glory of its thought,a very important value with respectto the whole and to its location there [une valeur trs importante d ensembleet de situation ] that must not be lost by detaching it. Artists who can seethe lines beneath the luxurious eforescence of color will clearly see thatthere isa secret architecture [une architecture secrte ] here, a plan calculatedby the poet, premeditated and intentional.Les Fleurs du mal are not linedup one after the other like just so many lyrical pieces, produced by inspi-ration, and gathered into a collection for no other reason than to bringthem together. They are not so much poems as a poetic workof the stron- gest unity. From the standpoint of Art and aesthetic perception they wouldtherefore lose a great deal by not being readin the order in which the poet,

    man (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1966), 17; corresponds to p. 27 ofLa Pensesauvage(Paris: Plon, 1962). Margery Evans, inBaudelaire and Intertextuality: Poetry atthe Crossroads(Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1993), suggests the relevance of

    the concept ofbricolage to the structure ofLe Spleen de Paris (p. 3); I will argue that it isequally pertinent to that ofLes Fleurs du mal. 4. F. W. Leakey,Baudelaire: Les Fleurs du Mal (Cambridge: Cambridge UniversityPress, 1992), 5, hereafter cited in text asFM Leakey. 5. Charles Baudelaire,uvres compltes, 2 vols., ed. Claude Pichois (Paris: Gallimard/Pliade, 197576), I: 194; hereafter cited in text asOC I or II.

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    who well knows what he is doing, has arranged them. But they would loseeven more from the point of view of the moral effect of which we earlierspoke. (OC I: 1196)

    How much of Barbeys statement reflected Baudelaires own thoughts can-not be determined. But we know that the poet approved of it enoughto include it among the Articles justitatifs of which he had two hundredcopies printed before his trial. The italics, Marcel Franon suggests, maybe Baudelaires own.6 And even though Barbeys remarks, and Baudelairesapproval of them, were motivated by the need to deflect the prosecutionsattack, what Barbey wrote about the value the poems have by virtue of theirsituation, about what they would lose by not being read in the orderBaudelaire gave them, and his assertion that theFleurs are not so muchpoems in the plural as a single poetic work are consonant with Baudelairesconcern, before and long after the prosecution, for the order in which hispoems appear. Four years later, when the second edition appeared, minus the sixoffending poems but containing thirty-five new poems and a significantrearrangement of those retained, Baudelaire sent a copy to Alfred de Vignyand wrote, Le seul loge que je sollicite pour ce livre est quon recon-

    naisse quil nest pas un pur album et quil a un commencement et une fin.Tous les pomes nouveaux ont t faits pour tre adapts au cadre singulierque javais choisi [The only praise I solicit for this book is that one rec-ognize that it is not a mere album, and that it has a beginning and an end. All the new poems were written to be adapted to the distinctive frameworkI had chosen] (Corr. II: 196). Leakey explains:

    Not a mere album because, as in 1857, the poems had been carefullygrouped, and their presentation meticulously planned in their relation oneto another; a beginning and an end, because the book opens, inBndic- tion, with the narration of a generic poets birth, and closes, inLe Voyage, with the vision of a death . . . which yet promisesre birth into the new. And when Baudelaire goes on, in his second sentence, to say that the new poemshave been written expressly to be adapted to the distinctive frameworkhe has chosen, what he here has in mind, of course, is not some overall,collective message supposedly conveyed by the book as a whole (this isthe architectural fallacy rst propounded in 1857 by Barbey dAurevilly,

    though never by Baudelaire himself), but rather the careful groupings andsequences he is here modifying from the rst edition. (FM Leakey, 13)

    6. Marcel Franon, [L]unit desFleurs du mal, PMLA60, no. 4 (December

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