Revolution You say you want a revolution Well, you know, we all want to change the world You tell me that it’s evolution Well, you know, we all want to

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  • RevolutionYou say you want a revolutionWell, you know, we all want to change the worldYou tell me that its evolutionWell, you know, we all want to change the worldBut when you talk about destructionDont you know that you can count me outDont you know its going be alright, . . alright . . alrightYou say you got a real solutionWell, you know, wed all love to see the planYou ask me for a contributionWell, you know, were all doing what we can

  • RevolutionBut if you want money for people with minds that hateAll I can say is brother you will have to waitDont you know its going be alright . . alright . . .alrightYou say youll change the ConstitutionWell you know, we all want to change your headYou tell me its the institutionWell, you know, you better free your mind insteadBut if you go carrying pictures of Chairman MaoYou aint going make it with anyone anyhowDont you know its gonna be alrightAlright . . .alright

  • French Revolution

  • How the world viewed FranceMost Advanced CultureEnlightenmentGreat economy via tradeLarge populationProblems in France taxes high prices, - Enlightenment causing discontent with the government

  • The Old RegimeDivided into 3 social classes or Estates1st Estate (less than 1% of the people) clergy from the Roman Catholic Church, paid little taxes; owned 10% of the land2nd Estate (2%) rich nobles paid almost no taxes; owned 20% of the land3rd Estate (98%) bourgeoisie (educated merchants and artisans); paid high taxes & lacked privileges/ Workers of France (cooks & servants) / peasants = 80 % of the 3rd Estate; paid half their income to nobles; tithes to the church; taxes to the kings agents Who was paying the taxes?

  • The Government & Social StructureThe Estates GeneralNobles, approx. 2%, paid little taxes80 % of the 3rd Estate were poor peasants and servants with little income.1st Estate2nd Estate3rd EstateMiddle Class Bourgeoisie, merchants & artisans

    All other people General WorkersEach estate got one vote in the Estates General. The vote was always 2 to 1, with the first two estates voting together.

  • What motivated the 3rd Estate?*Enlightenment IdeasAnswer: New words (equality, liberty, brotherhood) and new views about power; radical ideas from Voltaire and Rousseau*French Problems Included1. Population & taxes were rising2. Bad weather meant Crop failures led to bread shortages3. King Louis XVI & Maria Antoinette - overspending causing rising debt (some of this $$ went to support the American colonies against Britain.) Why did France help America?The combination of Enlightenment and problems led France toward a crisis.

  • Louis XVI and M. AntoinetteLouis XVIMarie Antoinette

  • King Louis XVI and Marie Antoinette

    Strong leadership could have solved this crisis, but Louis XVI took NO action to prevent the crisis. France was bankrupt. Louis preferred to hunt and tinker with locks. He married Marie Antoinette, when he was 15 and she was 14. She was a member of the royal family of Austria, Frances long-time enemy. Louis XVI tried to tax the noblesNobles forced the king to call the Estates General for approval to raise taxes

    The Estates General met for the 1st time in 175 years!

  • The Estates-General

  • The National AssemblyLouis XVI called the E. GeneralTo raise taxes on aristocratsThird Estate insisted that all estates meet to discuss taxes Third Estate proposed that each delegate have one voteLouis XVI said NO (the advantage would shift to the ordinary people)With some support from the First Estate, the Third Estate withdrew to become the National Assembly.

  • The National AssemblyThe National Assembly June 17, 1789* worked to end the absolute monarchy* declared their intention to establish a representative form of government

  • The Tennis Court OathThe National Assembly met 3 days later:Locked out of the meeting roomMoved to a tennis courtSwore to keep meeting until they wrote a new constitution.

  • Storming of BastilleIn response: Louis XVI tried to make peace with Third EstateOrder nobles & clergy to join Third Estate in the Nat. AssemblyStationed Swiss Guard in ParisBased on rumor citizens gathered arms out of fear of the Swiss GuardMobs broke into the Bastille (prison in Paris) in order to get gun powder.The storming of Bastille became the symbol of the revolution. This day, July 14th has been a French national holiday, similar to the U.S. Fourth of July.

  • The Storming of Bastille - Art

  • The Great FearA wave of panic, based on rumor rolled, through ParisRumors of nobles out to terrorize peasants spread.

    When it didnt happen, peasants broke into nobles estates destroying legal documents and burning the estates

  • Bread RiotsOct. 1789: 6,000 Parisian women rioted over bread pricesMen and women marched to VersaillesBroke into the palace and killed two guardsDemanded Louis, Marie Antoinette, and their children go to Paris[ THIS SIGNALED A CHANGE OF POWER]

  • 2: REVOLUTION = TERROR & REFORMFeudal privilege of the 1st and 2nd Estates were swept awayDeclaration of the Rights of Man was written, reflecting the natural rights of man and closely following the Declaration of Independence

  • State Controlled ChurchNational Assemblytook over church landschurch officials were to be elected by property owners and paid with state funds

    Church LostIndependenceWealth in lands{the delegates felt it was better to take from the church than the bourgeoisie who were supporters of the revolution}

  • The ChurchNational Assembly- hoped to sell church lands to pay debt- angered the poor who supported the church- eventually the peasants failed to support the revolutionary actions of the National Assembly

  • Split of the Legislative AssemblyThe Legislative Assembly- created a limited monarchy- stripped the king of power- gave the assembly power to make lawsOld Problems Still Existed- food shortages- government debt

  • Legislative Assembly SplitsRadicals (left) sans-coulottesOpposed the king and monarchyWanted sweeping changesPower to the peopleModerates (centrists)Wanted some changesNot as extreme as radicalsConservatives (right) emirgesSupported limited monarchyWanted few changes in government

  • War And Extreme MeasuresWar At Home & Foreign WarRadicals hoped to spread war throughout EuropeAustria & Prussia proposed putting the king back on the throne

    Leg. Assembly declared war on Prussia, later joined by Austria

    Prussia threatened to destroy Paris if the king was harmed!

    20,000 French stormed the palace and imprisoned the royal family

  • Changes in the Legislative AssemblyLegislative Assembly

    - set aside the constitution- deposed the kingcalled for new elections (assembly)

    - new assembly called National Convention

  • Execution Of The KingMob mentality in ParisPolitical clubs formedMost radical club JacobinsPaul Marat newspaper editor stirred the fires of revolution- stabbed by a member of a rival faction as he bathed

  • Execution Of The KingNational Convention- abolished the monarchy- declared France a republic- Louis XVI became common citizen & prisoner- then tried for treason guilty- Louis is executed by the guillotine on Jan. 21, 1793.

  • Terror BeginsFranceDrafted 300,000 men, 18 40By 1794, 800,000 men & women in the armyMaximilien RobespierreWanted to build a republic of virtueDestroy every trace of former FranceBecame the leader of the Committee of Public Safety in the summer of 1793. From 1793 to 1794 he governed France like a dictator; decided who were enemies of the republic

  • The Reign of TerrorMaximilien RobespierreHe justified the Reign of Terror explaining that it enable French citizens to remain true to the ideals of the Revolution.Marie Antoinette was executed; she apologized when she accidentally stepped on the executioners foot.Executed other revolutionary leaders who were less radical (Georges Danton)Thousands of citizens were executed85% of those killed were poor or middle class those the revolution were supposed to help (a tavern keeper for serving sour wine to defenders of the Revolution) Victims: 3,000 in Paris; 40,000 killed all together

  • End Of The TerrorNational Convention MembersWere afraid of RobespierreNo one was safe from executionJoined together to have him arrestedExecuted on July 28, 1794Drafted a new constitution (3rd) that placed power in the upper middle class; had a two-house legislature; it was called the Directory, the executive body of 5 who appoint Napoleon as head of the military

    Execution of Robespierre

  • 3: Napoleon Napoleon : achieved great status in only 4 yrs (1795-1799)Born in CorsicaWas sent to military school at 9 yrsIn 1785 at 16 he became a lieutenant in the artilleryWhen revolution started he joined the new governmentSuccessfully defended the delegates of the National Convention against royalistsNational hero and savior of the republicVictories against AustriaSuffered defeat in Egypt, but did not harm his career

  • Coup dEtatAfter returning from Egypt, Abbe Sieyes urged Napoleon to seize political power.

    Troops drove out members of one chamber of the national legislature.The Directory was dissolved!

    Replaced by a consul of 3 (one of them was Napoleon)

    Napoleon assumed dictatorial power

    Led a coup, (Coup d Etat) sudden take over of the government

    Britain, Austria, & Russia formed and alliance against France (Napoleon)

    Through war & diplomacy, eventually all three nations signed a peace agreement.

  • Napoleon Government Chang