REPORT HoB The Environmental Status of Malik CEO of WWF-Indonesia ... CHAPTER 5 Environmental status ... The Environmental Status of Borneo Report was produced by a true cross country

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  • 2016HoB

    REPORT

    The Environmental Statusof BorneoStephan Wulffraat, Chris Greenwood, Khairil Fahmi Faisal & Dicky Sucipto

  • The Environmental Status of Borneo

    Stephan Wulffraat, Chris Greenwood, Khairil Fahmi Faisal & Dicky Sucipto

  • 4 The Environmental Status of Borneo

    Main authors: Stephan Wulffraat, Chris Greenwood

    Maps production and GIS analysis: Khairil Fahmi Faisal, Dicky Sucipto

    Editors: Henry Chan, Nuraini Soulisa, Hans Beukeboom and Arum Kinasih

    Photos: as credited in captions.

    Published: June 2017 by WWF Heart of Borneo Programme

    WWF-Indonesia Gedung Graha Simatupang Tower 2 Unit C 4th Floor Jl. Letjen TB Simatupang, Kav 38 Jakarta Selatan 12540 http://www.wwf.or.id/

    WWF-Malaysia No.1 Jalan PJS 5/28A, Petaling Jaya Commercial Centre (PJCC), 46150 Petaling Jaya, Selangor, Malaysia http://www.wwf.org.my/

    Any reproduction in full or in part must mention the title and credit the above-mentioned publisher as the copyright owner.

    Text 2017 WWF

    ISBN 978-602-19901-0-0

    All rights reserved

    WWF is one of the worlds largest and most experienced independent conservation organisations, with more than five million supporters and a global network active in more than 100 countries.

    WWFs mission is to stop the degradation of the planets natural environment and to build a future in which humans live in harmony with nature, by conserving the worlds biological diversity, ensuring that the use of renewable natural resources is sustainable, and promoting the reduction of pollution and wasteful consumption.

  • 5The Environmental Status of Borneo

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    A landscape containing a complex of lowland rainforest, heath forest and upland rainforest at Tumbang Jojang, Murung Raya, Central Kalimantan, Indonesia

  • 6 The Environmental Status of Borneo

    Foreword by CEO of WWF-Indonesia I would like to congratulate the team who has worked tirelessly to complete this important report. As a global environmental science-based organisation, we take pride in preserving our ability to conduct scientific research and being able to use the findings to focus our conservation efforts based on the outcomes of that research.

    This report meets such purpose and its findings help us identify emerging issues, understand what is causing them and present possible solutions to address the challenges we are currently facing in our precious island of Borneo.

    The report finds that Borneo is potentially in perilous state of losing its major ecosystems and the valuable eco-services it provides, if we continue to do business-as-usual. This is based on the analysis in the report which contains facts and figures gathered to assess the changing landscape and decline in forest cover from 2005 to 2015.

    I sincerely hope that the suggestions put forward in this report could be taken into consideration by our stakeholders including state and federal government, policy makers, industries, international agencies and civil society organisations to take effective actions for the sustainability of the island.

    I also would like to emphasize the importance of close cooperation on data collection and exchange of information among all the stakeholders working in Borneo. It is essential to use the same reference point so that our efforts could be streamlined to deliver better concrete results. This publication represents a collaborative effort between WWF-Indonesia and WWF-Malaysia, particularly among the landscape teams working across Borneo. It is the third edition of the report that details the changing status of the major ecosystems and key species, the land use developments, and the current conservation management issues in Borneo. All of these aspects are of fundamental importance that would help us in better planning of our future endeavours in the island. Hence, I would like to thank WWF-Netherlands for their tremendous support in helping us complete the project and publish this report.

    I would like to call upon all our partners and stakeholders to play an active role and work together to make a better future for the HoB and the island of Borneo. I am certain that this publication will be of a valuable reference for all development actors in Borneo and for anyone wishing to contribute and help maintain the sustainability of natural capital of one of the world's last remaining expanses of forest in Borneo, for the welfare of our present and future generations.

    Rizal Malik CEO of WWF-Indonesia

  • 7The Environmental Status of Borneo

    Foreword by Executive Director/CEO of WWF-Malaysia I would like to join Bapak Rizal Malik in congratulating the team for their hard work in completing this important report. I am pleased to note that for the first time, the analysis in this report was extended from the area designated as the Heart of Borneo (HoB) to the whole of the island of Borneo. This enables us to get a more complete picture of the environmental status of the entire island.

    Since the beginning, WWF-Malaysia and WWF-Indonesia have been actively supporting the three Governments to implement the HoB Initiative. We continue to provide technical inputs to the Governments, develop new approaches, partnerships and model projects while working closely with both our national and regional key partners to adopt, implement and build strong synergies around our work in Borneo.

    It may not be surprising to some of us that areas within the HoB are better managed compared to areas outside the HoB boundary. The report shows that the upland and montane ecosystems and key species habitats in the HoB are generally well preserved. I am entirely convinced that this is largely due to the success of the three countries visionary exercise to conserve the HoB that our Governments have continuously committed since the historic joint declaration in 2007.

    However, from an overall perspective, the declining environmental health in the whole of Borneo is quite alarming. The report shows that lowland rainforest is very much in decline due to forest conversion into plantations. Frequent occurrence of forest fires also affects the habitats of key species in the island. Spatial planning for effective resource use that considers environmental concern is not adequate, with large areas of natural forest allocated for conversion. All of these emerging issues highlighted in the report deserve our urgent attention and commitment to address them.

    As we celebrate the 10th anniversary of the HoB Initiative, it is a good opportunity to reflect on some of the accomplishments that we have achieved so far. A great deal of conservation work has been undertaken within the HoB area, but certainly not enough to create tangible impact across the island. The goals for conservation in the HoB cannot be truly achieved without taking the whole of Borneo into consideration. Hence, we need to act now and act fast to ensure that our efforts contribute to the overall environmental health of the entire island of Borneo.

    On behalf of WWF, I would like to wish a happy 10th year anniversary to all the HoB Governments, partners and stakeholders. I hope that this two-yearly environmental stocktake will guide all of us - the authorities, partners and stakeholders - as we join hands in taking effective steps to address the declining state of Borneo. Together, we can make a difference to help save Borneos forests and make it a better place to live in, both for humans as well as for the biodiversity that thrives in this unique tropical rainforest island.

    Dato Dr Dionysius Sharma Executive Director/CEO of WWF-Malaysia

  • ContentsAcknowledgements ......................................................................................................... 11

    Executive Summary .................................................................................12

    Introduction ............................................................................................18

    CHAPTER 1Status of the ecosystems and key species..................................................26

    1.1 Lowland rainforest ecosystem .............................................................................. 28

    1.2 Upland rainforest ecosystem ............................................................................... 34

    1.3 Montane forest ecosystem ................................................................................... 38

    1.4 Freshwater swamp ecosystem ............................................................................. 42

    1.5 Peat swamp forest ecosystem .............................................................................. 46

    1.6 Heath forest ecosystem ........................................................................................ 50

    1.7 Limestone forest ecosystem ................................................................................. 54

    1.8 Mangrove ecosystem ............................................................................................ 60

    1.9 Viable populations of clouded leopard ............................................................... 64

    1.10 Banteng .............................................................................................................. 68

    1.11 Orangutan .......................................................................................................... 71

    1.12 Proboscis monkey .............................................................................................. 74

    1.13 Bornean elephant ............................................................................................... 77

    1.14 S