Realism, Regionalism, & Naturalism. The writers and their stories. Frederick Douglass. Born into slavery, approx. 1817 As a boy, an owner taught him the alphabet Later, he taught himself to read—this would eventually allow him to escape slavery 1838—escaped slavery - PowerPoint PPT Presentation
Realism, Regionalism, & Naturalism
Realism, Regionalism, & NaturalismThe writers and their storiesDefining the Literary PeriodRealism: attempts to portray life as it is, without romantic idealism. Characters are ordinary people in ordinary situationsCharacters written about in an objective wayNaturalism: like realism, wanted to portray life as it actually wasViewed people as helpless victims of natural laws (hereditary, environment)
Ambrose BierceAuthor backgroundEnlisted in Union army at 18Fought in several major battles of Civil WarAfter Civil War, moved west to San FranStarted journalism careerStyle and ThemeKnown for cynical (bitter) humor and cruel witFutility of warOccurrence at Owl Creek BridgeLiterary ElementsPoint of view: the narrative perspective from which a story is told1st person: the narrator is a character in the story and describes events using I, me, we, my3rd person: events are related by a voice outside the action, using words like he, she, they3rd person Omniscient: aware of all characters thoughts3rd person Limited: focuses only on one characters thoughtsStream of Consciousness: characters thoughts are presented as the mind experiences them, without obvious logicOccurrence at Owl Creek BridgeStructureThis short story is arranged in three numbered sectionsChange of section indicates a change in timeSection I: at the executionSection II: flashback Section III: picks up where Section I left offEach section contains a shift in POVpay attention as you read to where POV shifts.
Occurrence at Owl Creek BridgeTable work: looking at each of the three sections in this story, determine the important events for each section and the POV the section is told from. Each section contains multiple points of viewfigure outWhen POV changesquote a line from the storyHow does the POV affect the level of suspense?Then find three examples of foreshadowing that help to indicate the Peytons escape is only in his mind.
Stephen Crane (1871-1900)Grew up in the slums of Asbury Park, NJAttended college at Syracusenever graduatedBecame a journalist after leaving collegeFirst book, Maggie: A Girl of the streetsCensored because of the contentthe life of a prostitute in the slumsBecomes a literary sensation with second novel, The Red Badge of CourageExposed American readers to the brutality of war
An Episode of WarLiterary Focus--NaturalismSubjects: common people in ordinary life situationsFocus: emphasized how instinct and environment affect human behaviorInfluenced by Darwins Theory of Evolution and Natural SelectionBelieved human fate is determined by forces beyond individual control, but that force isnt God; its nature or social forces that determine our fatePresents a bleak reality without explanation, letting the reader draw her own conclusions
An Episode of WarLiterary FocusSetting--As you read, focus on the details that Crane includes to describe the setting that allow you to visualize the characters, settings and events.
An Episode of WarNaturalist writers strove to show people as hapless victims of circumstances beyond their control; these forces include hereditary, environment (nature), and sheer chance.Characters are often victims of their own (bad) instincts or of a violent worldCharacters endure suffering quietly, with honor
An Episode of WarDiscuss as a classHow is the lieutenant a victim of chance? Why does Crane leave the lieutenant nameless? Tablework...in your notes. Identify three descriptions of human actions in the story that could also describe the actions of animals.After he is shot, several of the men attempt acts of kindness toward the lieutenant. Identify one gesture of kindness shown to the lieutenant and explain why it fails.Naturalism focused on the dignified suffering of people who face forces they cant control. Identify two examples of the lieutenants dignified suffering. Jack London (1876-1916)Grew up EXTREMELY poor in San FranciscoBegan working full time as an unskilled laborer at age 11Books were an escape from his lifeInspired him to travelGraduated from high school; attended one semester of college before heading to Alaska to find goldTaught him about peoples desire for wealth and powerOur inability to control the forces of nature (naturalism)First literary success, The Call of the Wild (1903)Jack LondonLiterary Focus: NaturalismConflict: the struggle between opposing forcesInternal: occurs within the mind of a characterExternalMan V. SocietyMan V. ManMan V. NatureMan V. Fate/GodIn To Build a Fire the setting serves as the opposing force Jack LondonLiterary Focus: Imagery and settingTable WorkAnalyzing imagery and setting for hints of foreshadowing Find three examples of imagery from the beginning of the story until it is noon (page 601) that hint the man may not survive this journeyFind three examples of the dogs feelings and instincts about survival from anywhere in the story How do the dogs feeling and instincts increase the dramatic irony? Kate Chopin (1851-1904)Raised in the Midwest (Missouri)Father died in RR accident when Chopin was 5Well educatedWidowed at 31 years oldleft to raise 6 children and manage her husbands business on her ownFirst published in 1889Stories often focused on women seeking independence from male dominated societyThe Story of an HourLiterary Elements: Setting: turn of the century (1900)Custom and law limited womens actions and control over their own livesNo right to voteCould not own propertyEducational and Employment opportunities severely limitedMarried women were expected to be subservient to and supportive of their husbandsThe Story of an HourLiterary Elements: IronyVerbal Irony: occurs when someone says something that deliberately contradicts what that person actually meansSituational irony: occurs when something happens that contradicts THE READERS expectationsDramatic Irony: occurs when the reader/audience knows something that the characters/actors do not know. Questions to think about: Table workHow do Richards and Josephine expect Mrs. Mallard to react to the news? How do their expectations help to guide our expectations? What is ironic and how is irony it displayed in this story?
How would you describe the Mallards marriage? Is Mrs. Mallard justified in her reaction to the news? Does she hate her husband or the institution of marriage?
What does the author mean by having Mrs. Mallard say, Free, free, free?