Promoting Student-Centered Learning in Experiential Educ Sample...Promoting Student-Centered Learning in Experiential Education ... are often teacher-centered. ... the experiential education paradigm.

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<ul><li><p>Journal of Experiential Education 2004, Volume 27, No. 2 pp. 141-160</p><p>Promoting Student-CenteredLearning in Experiential EducationCheryl A. Estes</p><p>Experiential educators claim to value student-centered learning, yet thevalues, as evidenced in practice, are often teacher-centered. The purposeof this article was to increase awareness of the inconsistencies betweenespoused values, and values in practice, effecting teacher and studentpower relationships during the facilitation of experiential programs. Theliterature review includes related philosophical topics, a summary of whatother professionals in the field have written about student-centered facili-tation, and an overview of eight generations of facilitation. The authorargues that teacher-centered facilitation is problematic in experientialeducation and justifies increasing the use of student-centered facilitationpractices. Suggestions are provided for: (a) establishing forums for dialogabout student-centered facilitation, (b) incorporating more student-cen-tered facilitation practices, and (c] considering student-centered learningduring program development and facilitator training. The author con-cludes that the profession's very commitment to integrity necessitates thatwe, as experiential educators, take action in order to ensure that our pro-grams become more student-centered.</p><p>Keywords: Experiential education. Student-centered, Facilitation,Processing, Values in practice</p><p>Dr. Estes is an Assistant Professor in the Department of Becreation and LeisureStudies at East GaroUna University. Correspondence can be addressed to theauthor at East Carolina University, Department of Becreation and LeisureStudies, 174 Minges Goliseum, Greenville, NC 27858. Dr. Estes can be reached bye-mail at: or 252-328-4638.</p></li><li><p>142 Journal of Experiential Education</p><p>There is a fundamental question that should be carved in stone over every</p><p>school entrance to remind us all, daily, of a problem we must battle on a</p><p>continual basis. That question: "Who processes the information within?" At</p><p>the moment, in too many classrooms, it is teachers using texts in ignorance</p><p>of the fundamental educational corollary to that question: "The extent to</p><p>which the learner processes the information to be acquired is the extent to</p><p>which it is acquired." (Wigginton, 1986)</p><p>Wigginton (1986) strikes at the heart of the problemaddressed in this articlefor education to be at its best,the learner must be the one who processes the informa-tion from educational experiences. Student reflection on experience isdeeply embedded within experiential education paradigms, but incongru-ence exists between what experiential education claims to value and whatexperiential education is in practice. It seems remarkable that one widelyrecognized facilitation technique, where the teacher speaks on behalf ofthe experience (Priest &amp; Gass, 1997), can co-exist with the Association forExperiential Education's (AEE) definition of experiential education,which includes a number of principles that support student-centeredlearning such as, "throughout the experiential learning process, the learn-er [italics added] is actively engaged in posing questions, investigating,experimenting, being curious, solving problems, assuming responsibility,being creative, and constructing meaning" (AEE, n.d.). On one hand, weclaim to value student-centered reflection, yet our values, as evidenced inpractice, are often teacher-centered.</p><p>The logic behind the author's claim is as follows: (a) The process ofexperiential education is commonly considered to be an "action-reflec-tion" cycle (Joplin, 1995, p. 15); and (b) one of the foremost assumptionsof experiential learning is, that it is "student rather than teacher based"(Joplin, p. 20], and the learner's experience is the valid basis for knowl-edge (Grosby, 1995; Joplin, 1995]; further, (c] AEE iterates that, "through-out the experiential learning process, the learner [italics added] is active-ly engaged in ... being creative and constructing meaning" (AEE, n.d.);however, (d] in practice, experiential educators often assume authorityfor directing what students learn during facilitation (e.g., teacher led dis-cussions) (Bacon, 1983; Bell, 1993; Brown 2002a, 2002b; Estes &amp; Tomb,1995; Priest, 1996; Vokey, 1987); thus (e) it is often the teacher, not thestudent, who has more power during reflection on experience; and (f) theway that teachers use this power to convey their own messages whileprocessing experiential activities makes student reflection, as it occurs inpractice, more teacher-centered than student-centered.</p></li><li><p>2004, Volume 27, No. 2 143</p><p>Interestingly, while highly skilled experiential educators readilyacknowledge this inconsistency in discussions (personal communica-tion, Mike Gass, November, 2001), it has been difficult to sustain sub-stantive discourse about the need to examine if and/or how teacherswield power over students during experiential learning. Why is this?The author argues that most experiential educators and students operat-ing in Western educational traditions are socialized into epistemologiesthat value teachers as authorities, so neither teachers nor students arevery aware of this inconsistency. Our socialization causes us to see our-selves as more student-centered than we actually are. That is, teacher-controlled processing of experiential activities fits our worldview ofwhat teacher-student relationships should look like. Further, it is proba-ble that while experiential educators unintentionally fall into this habitof assuming power over student learning, increased awareness of thisproblem will promote their desire to engage in conversations directed atincreasing the use of student-centered facilitation practices. While gen-erations of facilitation have evolved significantly over the past fortyyears (Bacon, 1983, 1987; Doughty, 1991; Gass &amp; Priest, 1993; Itin, 1995;Priest &amp; Gass, 1997; Priest, Gass &amp; Fitzpatrick, 1999; Priest, Gass &amp; Gillis,2000), experiential educators will benefit from critical refiection aboutwhere power resideswith the student, with the teacher, or with stu-dent-teacher partners in learningas they facilitate experiential pro-grams. Skilled experiential educators can make conscious choices thatempower students to take control of their own learning, and meaningfullearning can be increased to the extent that experiential educators canfacilitate learning experiences that are more student-centered.</p><p>The purpose of this article is to increase awareness of inconsisten-cies between espoused values, and values in practice, effecting teacherand student power relationships during the facilitation of experientialeducation programs. Awareness is a first step towards meaningfulchange, and this article is a catalyst for generating more conversationsabout this issue. Another goal is to increase the use of student-centeredfacilitation techniques in experiential education and facilitator trainingprograms. This article does not seek to establish the importance of stu-dent reflection in experiential learning, as this has been more than ade-quately covered elsewhere (see Joplin, 1995; Greenaway, 1993; Knapp,1992; Priest et al., 2000; Sugerman, Doherty, Garvey, &amp; Gass, 2000). Thetone of this article is intended to he provocative in order to stimulate dis-cussion. Further, the author admits in advance to certain generalizationsand exaggerations for the sake of clarity of argument. My central thesisis supported by a literature review that contains related philosophicaltopics, a summary of what other professionals in the field have saidabout student-centered teaching, and discussion about generations of</p></li><li><p>144 Joiurnal of Experiential Education</p><p>facilitation as they relate to student-centered learning. Suggestions forways experiential educators can facilitate student-centered learning areincluded. The article concludes with implications for program develop-ment and the training new experiential educators.</p><p>Definitions and Key ConceptsThe following definitions and key concepts are used in this article:</p><p>1. Facilitation includes, "anything and everything you [thefacilitator] do before, during, or after the learning experi-ences to enhance people's reflection, integration, and con-tinuation of lasting change" (Priest et al., 2000, p. 19).</p><p>2. Processing is a guided reflection session that takes place fol-lowing an experiential activity that typically consists of a cir-cular discussion where the leader poses questions to the par-ticipants and restates answers (Brown, 2002b). Other forms ofprocessing include drama, dance, journal writing, and paint-ing (see Greenaway, 1993; Sugerman et al., 2000). Processingis often used interchangeably with facilitation, but for thepurposes of this article, facilitation refers to the process ofguiding students through the entire learning experience.Processing refers only to conducting a discussion or activityas a means to reflect upon, learn from, and change as a resultof experience (Priest et al., 2000).</p><p>3. Reflection is a series of sequential steps in a process that aperson goes through following an experience, whichincludes: (a) reorganizing perceptions, (b) forming new rela-tionships, and (c) influencing future thoughts and actions inorder to learn from an experience (Sugerman et al., 2000).</p><p>4. Student-centered (used in conjunction with processing,learning, or teaching] describes a learning process wheremuch of the power during the experience resides with stu-dents. In some cases, students and teachers are collabora-tors, sharing equal power. Student-centered is used in thisarticle in the tradition of the Dewey Laboratory Schoolwhere children were involved in group activities whichwere designed to be similar to how people learned in reallifeusefulness and relevance were built into the system(Menand, 2001]. Further, student-centered education isappropriate at any age. Student is used throughout this arti-cle but is interchangeable with other terms including partic-ipant and learner.</p></li><li><p>2004, Volume 27, No. 2 145</p><p>5. Teacher-centered (used in conjunction with the words pro-cessing, learning, or teaching) describes a learning processwhere the power resides with the teacher. Teacher is usedinterchangeably with other terms including experientialeducator, facilitator, instructor, or leader.</p><p>Review of Related LiteratureOther professionals in the field have written about student-cen-</p><p>tered facilitation, but to date, the literature has not resulted in sustainedconversations aimed at increasing the use of student-centered facilita-tion practices. The literature review covers three areas: (a) First, there aretwo related philosophical topics that add clarity to the argument; (b)next, comments of those who have previously questioned the balance ofteacher and student power in experiential education are summarized;and (c) thirdly, the results of one study, which examined this situation,are discussed. The literature review concludes with a discussion of eightgenerations of facilitation as they relate to the student and teacher-cen-tered concept. Gollectively, this literature sets the stage for the actionsection of this articleincreasing awareness of, and sustaining dialogabout, student-centered facilitation, and making suggestions for increas-ing the use of student-centered techniques in experiential education andfacilitator training programs.</p><p>Related Philosophical Topics</p><p>Philosophy is used in this article as a tool to assist experientialeducators in becoming better facilitators, and two related philosophicaltopics help explain why teacher-centered facilitation does not fit withinthe experiential education paradigm. These topics are presented as: (a) areview of Dewey's philosophy about the importance of experience andthe student's role in learning from experience, and (b) an explanation ofwhy epistemologically congruent experiential education programs needto use student-centered facilitation techniques.</p><p>Centrality of experience. First, the central role of experience inlearning provides a philosophical basis for the experiential educationprofession. Dewey noted that, "all genuine education comes aboutthrough experience" (Dewey, 1938/1988). However, Dewey did notimply that all experiences were equally educative. Whether or not anexperience is educative depends upon the quality of the experience,whether or not it is engaging to the student [italics added] and if theexperience has continuity with the student's further experiences(Dewey, 1938/1988). Dewey was not proposing to elevate "doing" over"thinking," but rather he looked at doing and thinking as just practicaldistinctions one makes about the learning process as the learner adjusts</p></li><li><p>146 Journal of Experiential Education</p><p>to tensions that arise when they engage in the world (Menand, 2001].Grosby (1995] noted, according to Dewey, the goal of education was forthe student to be able to understand and use experience, and this wasachieved when students developed the critical thinking skills necessaryto examine their experiences. Thus, the teacher's role is to facilitate stu-dents' learning by engaging them in experiences that are fundamentallyreflective because of their relevance to students' lives. "After resolutioncomes reflection [by the student], on the movement [experience] so thatwhat is learned may be generalized and used again" (Grosby, p. 79].Further, as Hunt (1995] pointed out, Dewey does not downplay the roleof reflection in learning. Dewey does, however, move away from educa-tion's traditional pre-occupation with the mind and the bias inherent inelevating thinking over doing (Menand, 2001]. Thus, the importance ofexperience, and the student's role in critically reflecting on, and learn-ing from, experience are clearly expressed and supported through theexisting literature.</p><p>Epistemological methods. The second topic addressed by the lit-erature explains why epistemologically congruent experiential educa-tion must value students' roles in both their experiences and their sub-sequent reflection on those experiences. Epistemological methods thatvalue the teacher as authority are incongruent with the commitment ofexperiential education to student-created knowledge. When a teacherdirects student reflection by telling them what they learned, students arenot expected (or required) to think for themselves about what the expe-riences could mean. Therefore, they are not empowered to learn how tolearn from their experiences (Estes &amp; Tomb, 1995]. In a similar vein,Vokey (1987] discussed how Outward Bound's uncritical adoption ofpsychological language and models has compromised its commitment toself-reliance. Vokey notedto the degree the instructor controlsmetaphors and student processing, instructors and students are not col-laborators in the learning process. Teacher control of what is learned, nomatter how well intentioned, conveys a message of control over studentsrather than student empowerment. Therefore, when in the role ofautho...</p></li></ul>


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