Presidential Succession and the Authority to Release Nuclear 2016-11-01¢  PP~FACE This pape ~ deals

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    RESEARCH PAPER P-S3:

    I)Rr:~IDENTIAL SUCCESSION AL"ID THE 'AUTHORITY TO RELEASE NUClEAR \X'EAPONS

    LC!gc:rc: נ.uurc:ncc: udirh E. Co:rson נ

    Augusr 1969

    ion wos developed נcוined in this public םוtion con oחהhe inro ז he publ i cation ד• gram רסחקiresecrc ו:רunder I DA'5 ince?ende ement by tne ~ ply endo חךct i חof thi5 Reseorch Pcper ooes

    ner Govemment cgency I nor וDeportment .cf Dejense or .o e officiol רזiing זec זזs re ~ nstrued כents be c זsnould tne con

    • incy ~ 9· סposition of any U S Govemment

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    IDA SE ANAL YSES י·ןTE FOR DEFEf jןINSTIT

    ISJON \ןDI ~~ D SOC.I I L STU?I א:INTERNATIONAL A Army-N ()40 ב\'{' Drj\'C:, Arllזקת on, VlrglnIב 222 )( 2

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  • PP~FACE

    of how the. release of nuclear ~ ble סhe pr ~ h ~ deals wi ~ This pape

    y nuc1ear strike were ~ weapons could be authorized if an eneס~ kiירר

    rent legal ~ esigent and his cu ~ or make unavai1able the יdisab1e

    • 1947 of ~ esidential Succession Ac ~ he ~ successors provided by

    .. O autnorize :5ד power זnt ~ esid ~ irnary ernphasis is on the ~ ne p :דA1though

    ion, a ~ reta1ia ~ genera1 or se1ective re1ease of nuclear weapons fo

    g יךatutory provisions governi.. זtiona1 and s ד:u i ~ of the cons תdiscuss.io

    ~ e rearie חt ~ ha ~ ia1 succession has been inc1uaed in order ~ esiden ~ p

    stand how ~ will undeו~ eside ~ eה tז fer ~ s auLhority dev01ves under dד:eת

    1 his re1ease ו'atute and hO ~ eady taken care oi by s ~ conditions al

    . dev01ve under conditions of nuclear attack ~ authority migh

    e מith t ,זן,. I deals :דto two parts. 'Par תiis divided ~ Tnis pape

    ia1 :דesiden ~ ional and statutory provisions that govern p :דitu ~ ns סc

    and how they ffiight app1y in Idifferent contingencies, .and תsuccessio '

    5 authority to release. ז!l o:f -;:he PI'es·ident י.יh the proble. ~ Part II deals wi

    der ~ s ~ or withho1d nuc1ear weapons for use bY,his mi1itary com»ande

    ances that apDroach ~ hypothetical circumsח worst cases .זי I •

    ains on1y tne'sources actua11y used; it is ~ The bib1iography.con

    hereiore of course not. comprehensive. The. authors oi .this paper ~

    terviews with several helpiu1 תiormal וf~ were assisted throuqh

    of=icials in the execu'Cive. and legis1ai!ive branches., as we11 as by a

    Responsibi1ity ת.ial successio :דority· on presiden 1מeading academic aut

    . he authors ~ ior a1} views expressed remains with

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    1

    CONTENTS

    ..................... -.................................... . ••••••••••••••••• RY.?R()VISIONS 1סAL A1'm STAYL1 ~ CONSTITUTI01

    1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . roduction :דA. In

    1 •.•••••.••••• 1947 tia1 Succession Act or תeesid ~ B. Tne P

    1 .....•.••••. s Passage ~1ז. Narrative Acount of the Ac 3 .•.•••.•.•.....••.•..•••.••. icn ~ 2. Issues and Resolu 5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . _ ..................... nc.lusions םC• 3

    6 ....•••••••.•.•••• 1963 C. Developrnents Between 1947 and 7 ך

    9 ..ס

    ....•. ent ~~~ uity or Gove תi ~ ack and Con ~~ 1. Nuc1ear A .••••••.••.....•....•.... a. Legis1ative ?ropos.=.1s ••.••.•••••.•.•..•.••...• ion ~ b. Issues and Reso1u •.••••.•••••..•..••...•.. ~ ial Disabi1ity ~ 2. Presiden

    10 1963-1967 : t ףe.. :דencL דןh A.. ~ y-.?i.f :זen אD. The T'

    10 .•••.•••.••....•.... 1. Orgin 5 and Legisla ti ve His tory 12 •....•...•.......•.••....... 2. Issues and Resolution 13 .: ...••...••....•••.•.•..••..••...•..• s 3ת. Conc1usio

    13 • • • • • • • • • • • • • " •••• '. ~ •••• 5 ions or Cu:::-ren t Law ~ E. App1ica

    14 ..................•.. tingency 1ת. Relative1y CIEa:::- CO 15 •..•.....••.•....•• gency ~;ז: n 2ס. Re1atively Unclear C

    ... ". . . . . . . . . . . . l6 ~ ....................... clusion 3ת. CO

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    p:::-eface

    I :ןar ?

    Parד: II AUTHORIZING T נE P...ELLASE OF .r.ז:ז L1CL .ןR W.c.APONS :s. •••••••••••••• 1ך

    רIrד: rod UCן: ioת .............- .. _" ........................ 17

    18 y Applicable to ~~ f ?residentia1 Author סds תiX

    ..•••••..••.•. ~ ....•.....•..•...• Decision on Re1ease סך -'-.....•• Je:::-s Iכ:ו? y ::ת ge ~ E;ne ~ ·la.r an ~ ued ~ 1. Broadly Const

    ........... " ...............•....... a.nd זגu2. Mil.i ta ry C017" ~ .....•.•..•........•......•... he ?eople ~ 3. Voice or

    ................... a1 Dele;ation Ad Hoc ~ t 4ת. Preside

    su:e a ?:::-esicentia1 Successor ror ~ E ~ Trying t Release AU:רד: or ..ב :-- y ...... , ...........................י . ~

    20 23 23

    24

    24 ia1 Succession ת~eside ~ e 0= ? 1ת. Li

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    A.

    B.

    C.

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  • יו •

    ••••.•••••.••••••.••••••. of Mili \:ary Command תia 2ר. c... ...•..•..... -.............. ef erence ~ ial :3ד. ?:-esiden

    •••••••••...• gs תiand ~ s ~ de תUs and ~ Irangemen ~ ~ ren ~ D. Cu

    . ;. .......................................... clusions תE. CO

    ••••••••••••••••• Succession ה'.x A Historical Background o ~ Ap ••••••.•••••• ' •. A. Presidential Succession Through Death

    1792 2. The Act oz •••••••••.• o Chester Alan Ar\:hur ~ om ~ g תi2. From Wash

    ••••••••••••• -•••••••••••.••.••..•. 1886 e Act or 'T13- • ו •...••••• 4. From Grover C1eveland to Harry S Truman

    b • D" ~ • S .•...••.....•......••.• ty ~ sa 2-~ 1rougn ~ on ~ B. uccess "ך" •••••••••••.••.••••••••.. sion ~ al Prov חutio ~ sti 1ת. CO

    esidents Gar=ield and Wilson ~ ies of ~ 2. Tbe Disabili

    ~ -~ Bib .•••••••.••.•.•.........•.••.•.••..••••••••••.••••••• apny ן-..: •

    ~ A _, Baoks ••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• '

    B. Articles ...........................י'י •י'י • • • • • • • • • • • • • ~

    4 •••••••••••••••.•• vernment Reports and Documents סGC. US

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    PART I

    TORY ?ROVISIOl'!S 'דג:ONAL AND STA :בCONSTITUT

    A. DlTRODUCTION

    The question of who should succeedlto the Presidency in caSe of

    e ?resident and the Vice ~ the death or the President or or both

    -i ~ he Cons ~ since ~ ticn eve תtent atte ~ rni ~ nte דed ~ ac rטesident has at ~ -~ s cr ::י-rame :-tention ci the 2.ד.. e גדas t נIt 'Y tutional Conven~ion of l787.

    e a solution to the problem or ~ ess determ ~~ס ion that C ~ itu ~ the Cons

    . ter the Vice ?resident ~ who should succeed to the Presidency'a

    : stitudcn תe CC תion 2, C'l?use 5, or t ~ Sec כI :בto A.rtic2e ד:Accordi...

    ,' from Office ~ case of the Remova1 of the Presiden תI or 1nability to discharge ת,Resignatio כor of his Death

    e Same ~ו, the Powers and Duties or the said Office ess ~ d the Conq תdent, a ~ es ~ he Vice ~ shall dev01ve on

    , r.ay by Law provide for·the Case or the Removal: Deatn esident and ~ ability, both of the ךResignation or L

    en act תOfficer shall t ~ g wha ~ i ~ Vice ?resident, decla , ngly ךd ~ as President, and such Officer. shall act acco

    a President shal1 ~ o כuntil the Disability be removed . ed ~ e1ec 1:כe

    Congress has passed three ~ g this constitutiona1 mandate תixercis ~

    1792; the Act cf כthe Act of !·1arch I pres~dential successicn 2aws:

    In Part I of this Janua~y 29, 1886; and the Act of Ju1y 18, 1947.

    f 1947) and other deve20pments ~ paper tne ?r