Presenter : HyeonJu Jeong Ph.D Candidate

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IAMCR, Stockholm, Sweden July. 25th. 2008. Digital divide, how to control inequality to information access in the process of crisis management : The case study on oil spill crisis in South Korea. Presenter : HyeonJu Jeong Ph.D Candidate - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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<ul><li><p> Digital divide, how to control inequality to information access in the process of crisis management: The case study on oil spill crisis in South Korea</p><p>Presenter : HyeonJu Jeong Ph.D Candidate in Sungkyunkwan University (South Korea)IAMCR, Stockholm, SwedenJuly. 25th. 2008</p><p>www.themegallery.com</p></li><li><p>ContentsIntroduction1Literature Review2Research Questions34Methodology6Discussion and Conclusion5 Results</p></li><li><p>IntroductionOrganizations are always facing more crisis situations than ever before.As the Internet emerged as a tool that organizations could use to communicate with media and publics, in the crisis situation, the Internet is being incorporated into the crisis response. One of the drawbacks the Internet has is the inequality in the access to the digital media. Especially, core public, that is, victims and their family in a crisis, falls into the category of the Internet have-notsObjectives : To explore crisis communication responses by Samsung Heavy Industries Co. and whether they work well or not, searching for an alternative way for crisis management on Internet have-nots</p></li><li><p>Literature ReviewICrisis ManagementIICrisis Management throughthe InternetIIIDigital Divide</p></li><li><p>Crisis Management</p><p>a five-category model of message strategies. (Coombs, 1995) 1) Nonexistence Strategies : to deny crisiss existence 2) Distance Strategies : to weaken the link between the crisis and organizations 3) Ingratiation Strategies : to gain public approval 4) Mortification Strategies : to gain forgiveness and acceptance 5) Suffering Strategies : To draw sympathy from the public 6) Silence Strategies 7) Endorsement of an outside expert </p></li><li><p>Crisis Management through Internet The usefulness of the Internet for crisis management (Perry, Taylor, &amp; Doerfel, 2003)</p><p> 1) It can help organizations scan environment to plan response for a crisis. 2) It can help organizations quickly communicate their decisions to main stakeholders.</p></li><li><p>Digital Divide Digital Divide : differences between individuals, households, companies, or regions related to the access to and usage of ICT (OECD, 2001).</p><p>Fundamental Causes of Digital Divide : Cullen (2001) - historical, socioeconomic, geographic, educational, behavioral, or generation factors, physical incapability of individuals Vehovar et al. (2006)- differences in age, gender, the level of education, religious belief, social status, monthly income of household, and the level of urbanization. </p></li><li><p>Research QuestionsRQ1. What kinds of crisis communication responses did the Samsung Heavy Industries, Co. make during a crisis?</p><p>RQ2. In a crisis, how did the Internet have-nots access to the information associated to the disaster and make their decision? </p><p>RQ3. Did the Internet have-nots properly accept the crisis responses the Samsung Heavy Industries, Co. made?</p></li><li><p>Methodology Content Analysis : - to analyze online news articles and the website of the Samsung Heavy Industries Co. From Dec 7th. to Jun. 18th in 2008. - to divide three periods based on conspicuous change in the companys position. i) 1st period : From Dec 7th to Jan 21st ii) 2nd period : From Jan 22nd (Apology) to Feb 29th iii) 3rd period : From Mar 1st ( fund for development) to Jun 18th (Judicial Decision) In-depth Interview - interview with residents in Tae-an province </p></li><li><p>Results Online Crisis Responses Distance Strategies &amp; Silence Strategies Mortification Strategies,Distance Strategies, &amp; Suffering Strategies Mortification Strategies &amp; Silence Strategies</p></li><li><p>ResultsInternet Have-nots decision making process Mass Media, Inter-personal communication with their neighbors, the county office.SourcesWe dont have time to access any kind of media because we have to work just to survive.</p><p>If a passerby says something, they can know it. There are no other sources from which to get information.</p></li><li><p>ResultsInternet Have-nots Awareness of Crisis responses Dont KnowMost of them arent aware of the crisis responses through online by Samsung DissatisfactionThey wish for the company to take unlimited responsibility to provide pecuniary compensationAwarenessAttitude</p></li><li><p>www.themegallery.com</p><p>As you see, the tile of my study is digital divide, how to control inequality to information access in the process of crisis management: Before starting my presentation, I am going to make a brief explanation about the oil spill accident which is the subject for this case study.The oil spill accident was caused by a barge;s hitting oil tanker. Here the barge was carrying a crane, belonging to Samsung Heavy Industries Co. In this study, I am going to deal with crisis management made by the Samsung, which is the biggest company in South Korea. </p><p>In contemporary society, organizations are facing more crisis situations than even before. In this crisis situations, what the most important is communication as a component for successful crisis management efforts. It indicates that organizations communicating poorly during crises can make a serious situation worse.Meanwhile, as the Internet emerged as a tool that organizations could use to communicate with media and publics, in the crisis situation, the Internet is being incorporated in the crisis response in various ways. However, one of the drawbacks the Internet has is the inequality in the access to the digital media. The reason that the inequality to the information access should be considered to be important is that core public, or victims and their family in a crisis falls into the category of the Internet have-nots. In addition, this inequality can influence on the effect of crisis management responses. Thats why the objectives of my study is to explore crisis communication responses by Samsung Heavy Industries Co. and whether they work well or not through analyzing their making decision process, eventually searching for an alternative way for crisis management on the Internet have-nots.*Even though several researchers tried to define the concept of crisis, here I put only one definition made by Fink on this slide.Fink defined a crisis as a situation that threaten positive image of an organization, or disturb normal business works by damaging the bottom line.Coombs (1995) developed five category model of message strategies for crisis management. Through clarifying that there exists no crisisThrough excuses, denial of volition, and justification. Through bolstering the existing organizations image.Through remediation, repentance, rectificationThrough describing the organization as a victimBased on these categories made by Coombs, I have analyzed the crisis responses by the Samsung Heavy Industries Co.1) There are various kinds of external sources that organization should examine including activist organizations websites, chat rooms, news groups, online bulletin boards, and other resources. 2) Traditional tactical responses such as news releases, news conferences, fact sheets, memos and letters to stakeholders, legal advice, third party endorsement, and monetary compensation can be adapted to the Internet. For example, news releases can be made into HTML to be placed on an organizations web page. Memos and letters can be sent to stakeholders in the form of email. Also new media tactics such as interactive chat, threaded dialogue, real-time video and audio effects are available. Especially, these days, almost all organizations have some type of web presence. Because of the flexibility of the web, organizations can accomplish a lot of communication objectives through their sites. It means that websites can provide an important component for public relations and organizational communications practitioners, helping organizations build relationships with their public. Through searching online, I tried to find out whether the Samsung Heavy Industries Co used those Internet sources in the process of crisis management. OECD (2001) defined the concept of digital divide as differences between individuals, households, companies, or regions related to the access to the usage of ICT. These differences in the availability of Internet access can be derived from the structural environment such as the establishment of network and the lack of skills in using the Internet. When it comes to the fundamental causes of digital divide, Cullen (2001) suggested historical, socioeconomic, geographic, educational, behavioral, or generation factors, physical incapability of individuals. Similarly Vehovar et al also suggested differences in age, gender, the level of education, religious belief, social status, monthly income of household and the level of urbanization. </p><p>*Based on this theoretical background, I have developed three research questions. First is what kinds of crisis communication responses did the Samsung Heavy Industries, Co. made during a crisis? Second is In a crisis, how did the Internet have-nots access to the information associated to the disaster and make their decision?Third is related to the effect of crisis management through online. That is, the third research question is did the Internet have-nots properly accept the crisis responses the Samsung Heavy Industries, Co. made? In terms of methodology, I used content analysis on online news articles and in-depth interview with residents in Tae-an province. In content analysis, I analyzed online news articles from Dec 7. to Jun 18 in 2008. The reason that I decide the period of analysis like this is that Dec 7. is the point when the accident occurred, while Jun 18th is the time when the judicial decision was released. In addition, for the convinience of the study, I have divided three periods based on conspicuous change in the Samsung Heavy Industries Co.s position. *In the crisis management response through online by Samsung Heavy Industries, Co. what s the main was the online news articles. Even though the company utilized its website, the portion was very low. In other words, the company used the web site to convey their social contribution activities. When it comes to direct response to this oil spill accident, the company only put the apology statement on the board. Also, the company didnt use any kind of online tactics such as interactive chat, threaded dialogue, real-time video and audio effects. In the first period, it appeared that the company thought that it had little to do with the tragedy and it could just help the cleanup operation as a form of social contribution.In the 2nd period, even though the company announced apology statement on Jan 22nd , on Jan 31st, the company denied its responsibility, saying that they felt concern for the damage resulting from the occurrence of the accident, yet they couldnt admit the suspicion of fault. Furthermore, On Feb, 5th the company announced that it wouldnt be able to pay piece rates for its employees, which seemed to be an effort to gain sympathy from the residents. In summary, the company used mortification strategies through the announcement of an apology statement, but soon after, turn to the distance strategies by denial of its responsibility. In addition, the company made use of suffering strategies by describing that the company couldnt provide any piece rate for its employees. In the 3rd period, the president of the company held a press conference to announce the measure to provide support for the damaged area with the fund contribution of one hundred million dollars. However, afterword, the company didnt make any kinds of crisis responses until the final judicial decision was released on Jun 18th. </p><p>*This is the result of the second research question. Even though they usually use mass media, interpersonal communication, official communication through county office in getting information and making their decision, in the crisis situation like this, they mainly depended on interpersonal communication channel to get information related to the accident. </p><p>*In order to find out whether these Internet have-nots properly accept the crisis responses the Samsung Heavy Industries, Co. made, I attempted to find out the degree of awareness of crisis responses and attitude to the company. According to the result, the residents didnt know the crisis responses including the announcement of an apology statement, the fund for development of 100 million dollars, and even judicial decision. As for the volunteering work, several residents have heard about that, yet they didnt find accurate meaning of the work.As for the apology statement, most of residents said that they have never heard about it. Although several residents said they have heard about it, but they got the news not through the Internet but mass media and thought it is too late. As for the fund for development, even though two residents answered that they had heard about it, yet they suspected the its usefulness. As for the judicial decision, most residents have heard about it through mass media, they answered they have heard that Samsung made false statements, but they didnt know about the specific fine. When it comes to the attitude to the company, they dissatisfied about the response by the Samsung and have very negative attitude on the company. </p><p>*</p></li></ul>

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