Digital divide, how to control inequality to information access in the process of crisis management: The case study on oil spill crisis in South Korea
Presenter : HyeonJu Jeong Ph.D Candidate in Sungkyunkwan University (South Korea)IAMCR, Stockholm, SwedenJuly. 25th. 2008
ContentsIntroduction1Literature Review2Research Questions34Methodology6Discussion and Conclusion5 Results
IntroductionOrganizations are always facing more crisis situations than ever before.As the Internet emerged as a tool that organizations could use to communicate with media and publics, in the crisis situation, the Internet is being incorporated into the crisis response. One of the drawbacks the Internet has is the inequality in the access to the digital media. Especially, core public, that is, victims and their family in a crisis, falls into the category of the Internet have-notsObjectives : To explore crisis communication responses by Samsung Heavy Industries Co. and whether they work well or not, searching for an alternative way for crisis management on Internet have-nots
Literature ReviewICrisis ManagementIICrisis Management throughthe InternetIIIDigital Divide
a five-category model of message strategies. (Coombs, 1995) 1) Nonexistence Strategies : to deny crisiss existence 2) Distance Strategies : to weaken the link between the crisis and organizations 3) Ingratiation Strategies : to gain public approval 4) Mortification Strategies : to gain forgiveness and acceptance 5) Suffering Strategies : To draw sympathy from the public 6) Silence Strategies 7) Endorsement of an outside expert
Crisis Management through Internet The usefulness of the Internet for crisis management (Perry, Taylor, & Doerfel, 2003)
1) It can help organizations scan environment to plan response for a crisis. 2) It can help organizations quickly communicate their decisions to main stakeholders.
Digital Divide Digital Divide : differences between individuals, households, companies, or regions related to the access to and usage of ICT (OECD, 2001).
Fundamental Causes of Digital Divide : Cullen (2001) - historical, socioeconomic, geographic, educational, behavioral, or generation factors, physical incapability of individuals Vehovar et al. (2006)- differences in age, gender, the level of education, religious belief, social status, monthly income of household, and the level of urbanization.
Research QuestionsRQ1. What kinds of crisis communication responses did the Samsung Heavy Industries, Co. make during a crisis?
RQ2. In a crisis, how did the Internet have-nots access to the information associated to the disaster and make their decision?
RQ3. Did the Internet have-nots properly accept the crisis responses the Samsung Heavy Industries, Co. made?
Methodology Content Analysis : - to analyze online news articles and the website of the Samsung Heavy Industries Co. From Dec 7th. to Jun. 18th in 2008. - to divide three periods based on conspicuous change in the companys position. i) 1st period : From Dec 7th to Jan 21st ii) 2nd period : From Jan 22nd (Apology) to Feb 29th iii) 3rd period : From Mar 1st ( fund for development) to Jun 18th (Judicial Decision) In-depth Interview - interview with residents in Tae-an province
Results Online Crisis Responses Distance Strategies & Silence Strategies Mortification Strategies,Distance Strategies, & Suffering Strategies Mortification Strategies & Silence Strategies
ResultsInternet Have-nots decision making process Mass Media, Inter-personal communication with their neighbors, the county office.SourcesWe dont have time to access any kind of media because we have to work just to survive.
If a passerby says something, they can know it. There are no other sources from which to get information.
ResultsInternet Have-nots Awareness of Crisis responses Dont KnowMost of them arent aware of the crisis responses through online by Samsung DissatisfactionThey wish for the company to take unlimited responsibility to provide pecuniary compensationAwarenessAttitude
As you see, the tile of my study is digital divide, how to control inequality to information access in the process of crisis management: Before starting my presentation, I am going to make a brief explanation about the oil spill accident which is the subject for this case study.The oil spill accident was caused by a barge;s hitting oil tanker. Here the barge was carrying a crane, belonging to Samsung Heavy Industries Co. In this study, I am going to deal with crisis management made by the Samsung, which is the biggest company in South Korea.
In contemporary society, organizations are facing more crisis situations than even before. In this crisis situations, what the most important is communication as a component for successful crisis management efforts. It indicates that organizations communicating poorly during crises can make a serious situation worse.Meanwhile, as the Internet emerged as a tool that organizations could use to communicate with media and publics, in the crisis situation, the Internet is being incorporated in the crisis response in various ways. However, one of the drawbacks the Internet has is the inequality in the access to the digital media. The reason that the inequality to the information access should be considered to be important is that core public, or victims and their family in a crisis falls into the category of the Internet have-nots. In addition, this inequality can influence on the effect of crisis management responses. Thats why the objectives of my study is to explore crisis communication responses by Samsung Heavy Industries Co. and whether they work well or not through analyzing their making decision process, eventually searching for an alternative way for crisis management on the Internet have-nots.*Even though several researchers tried to define the concept of crisis, here I put only one definition made by Fink on this slide.Fink defined a crisis as a situation that threaten positive image of an organization, or disturb normal business works by damaging the bottom line.Coombs (1995) developed five category model of message strategies for crisis management. Through clarifying that there exists no crisisThrough excuses, denial of volition, and justification. Through bolstering the existing organizations image.Through remediation, repentance, rectificationThrough describing the organization as a victimBased on these categories made by Coombs, I have analyzed the crisis responses by the Samsung Heavy Industries Co.1) There are various kinds of external sources that organization should examine including activist organizations websites, chat rooms, news groups, online bulletin boards, and other resources. 2) Traditional tactical responses such as news releases, news conferences, fact sheets, memos and letters to stakeholders, legal advice, third party endorsement, and monetary compensation can be adapted to the Internet. For example, news releases can be made into HTML to be placed on an organizations web page. Memos and letters can be sent to stakeholders in the form of email. Also new media tactics such as interactive chat, threaded dialogue, real-time video and audio effects are available. Especially, these days, almost all organizations have some type of web presence. Because of the flexibility of the web, organizations can accomplish a lot of communication objectives through their sites. It means that websites can provide an important component for public relations and organizational communications practitioners, helping organizations build relationships with their public. Through searching online, I tried to find out whether the Samsung Heavy Industries Co used those Internet sources in the process of crisis management. OECD (2001) defined the concept of digital divide as differences between individuals, households, companies, or regions related to the access to the usage of ICT. These differences in the availability of Internet access can be derived from the structural environment such as the establishment of network and the lack of skills in using the Internet. When it comes to the fundamental causes of digital divide, Cullen (2001) suggested historical, socioeconomic, geographic, educational, behavioral, or generation factors, physical incapability of individuals. Similarly Vehovar et al also suggested differences in age, gender, the level of education, religious belief, social status, monthly income of household and the level of urbanization.
*Based on this theoretical background, I have developed three research questions. First is what kinds of crisis communication responses did the Samsung Heavy Industries, Co. made during a crisis? Second is In a crisis, how did the Internet have-nots access to the information associated to the disaster and make their decision?Third is related to the effect of crisis management through online. That is, the third research question is did the