Presented by Waleed Fouad Rizk Ab Waleed Fouad Rizk Abobatta B.Sc.(Agric.(Horticulture) Faculty of Agriculture,

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Text of Presented by Waleed Fouad Rizk Ab Waleed Fouad Rizk Abobatta B.Sc.(Agric.(Horticulture) Faculty of...

  • Faculty of Agriculture DDeeppaarrttmmeenntt ooff HHoorrttiiccuullttuurree

    EEffffeecctt ooff hhuummaatteess ccoommppoouunnddss aanndd mmaaggnneettiicc iirroonn oonn

    ggrroowwtthh aanndd ffrruuiittiinngg ooff VVaalleenncciiaa oorraannggee ttrreeeess

    ((CCiittrruuss ssiinneennssiiss LL..))

    Presented by

    Waleed Fouad Rizk Abobatta

    B.Sc.(Agric.(Horticulture)

    Faculty of Agriculture, Tanta University (1989)

    M.Sc. Agric. (Horticulture)

    Faculty of Agriculture, Tanta University (1995)

    Thesis Submitted in Partial Fulfillment

    of the Requirements for the Degree of

    DOCTOR OF PHILISOPHY

    In

    Agricultural Sciences, Horticulture (Pomology)

    reutlFcar A o ytlFcaF

    Minoufiya University

    2014

  • i

    ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

    First of all, thanks to "ALLAH” who gave me the patience, power, knowledge

    and helped me to finish this work without his guidance; this work would have

    never been accomplished.

    I would like to express my ddepest thanks and appreciation to

    Prof. Dr. Saher A. Ahmed

    Professor of Pomology, Faculty of Agriculture, Minoufiya University for his

    supervision, valuable guidances, continous encouragements and continuous

    invaluable help, and for his critical remarks and ideas for the presentation of this

    work, he sacrificed a great deal of his time in the organization, reviewing and

    corrections of the manuscript.

    I would like to express my gratitude and acknowledgment appreciation to

    Prof. Dr. Magdy R. M. Rabeh

    Professor of Pomology and Head of Horticulture Department, Faculty of

    Agriculture, Minoufiya University for his scientific promotion efforts, suggesting

    this research point and for their kind help, co-operation and sincere help during

    the experimental work and the preparation of manuscript and supervision

    throughout this work.

    My most sincere thanks and appreciation are due to

    Pro. Dr. Mohammed S. Melligy Prof. of Horticulture and DDeeppuuttyy DDiirreeccttoorr ffoorr TTrraaiinniinngg

    Institute of Horticulture, Agriculture Research Center for his dear help and

    cooperation, valuable guidance and advice throughout this research.

    Finally, I’m very thanks for my god who gave me great family for their

    invaluable support, understanding, love, encouragement and help to complete

    this work by success.

    And a lot of thanks to all member of citrus department ( H. R. I. ) for great

    co-operation and sincere help during the experimental work

    And finally, thanks to everyone involved.

  • ii

    CONTENTS

    SUBJECTS Page

    LIST OF TABLES ………………………..………………..…………………………...………… IV

    LIST OF FIGURES …………………………………………………………………………… VIII

    I- INTRODUCTION ……………………..………………...………………...…………. 1

    II- REVIEW OF LITERATURE ……………………..…………...……………. 4

    1. EFFECT OF MAGNETITE (IRON ORE)…………………..……… 4

    1.1. Vegetative growth …………………………………...……………………………… 4

    1.2. Leaf chemical composition ……...………………………………………….….. 7

    1.3. The Total yield ………………………………………………………………………. 10

    1.4. Physical and chemical characteristics of fruits………………………… 11

    2. EFFECT OF K-HUMATE ………………………………………………...…… 14 2.1. Vegetative growth…….…………………………..………………………….....…… 14

    2.2. Leaf chemical composition ……………………….…………………………........ 23

    2.3. The Total Yield ……………………………………………………………………….. 33

    2.4. Physical and chemical characteristics of fruits……………………… 40

    III- MATERIALS AND METHODS ………………………..…………….... 47

    1. Experimental treatments.………………………………………………………..….. 48

    2. Experimental design ………………………………………………………….……... 49

    3. Measurements of vegetative characters ……………………………….……... 49

    4. Chemical composition of the leaves …………………………………….…… 50

    5. Flowering behavior ………………………………….. 53

    6. Fruit setting ………………………………………….………………..…………… 54

    7. Yield and yield efficiency …………………………………………………..……… 54

  • iii

    SUBJECTS Page

    8. Fruit quality ……………………………………………………………………..……… 54

    9. Statistical analysis ……………………………………….…………………………..… 56

    IV- RESULTS AND DISCUSSION 57

    1. Vegetative growth………………………………………………………………….… 57

    1.1. Shoot length……………..…………………………………………………………… 57

    1.2. Number of leaves …………………………..…………………………….…...…… 59

    1.3. Average of leaf area ……………………………………….…….…………………. 59

    1.4. Tree canopy volume…………………………………….…………………………. 61

    2. Flowering behavior ….…………………………..…… 63

    2.1. Leafy inflorescences %……………….……………………..……………….......... 63

    2.2. Woody inflorescences %………………………………………………………… 65

    2.3. Percentage of flowering on leafy inflorescences …………………… 65

    2.4. Percentage of flowering on woody inflorescences ………………… 65

    3. Water relations ………………………………………………………………………… 66

    3.1. Leaf relative water content ratio (RWC)……………………… ……… 66

    3.2. Specific leaf weight (Sp LW)………………………………………………....... 68

    3.3. Saturated leaf weight (S LW)………………………………………………… 68

    4. Leaf Physio-chemical characters ……………………………………………… 69

    4.1. Leaf proline content ………………………………………..…………….…….... 69

    4.2. Total Carbohydrates Content ……..………………………………….…… 72

    4.3. Leaf pigments …………..……………………………………………………………… 76 4.3.1. Chlorophyll a …..………………………………..………………………….… 76

    4.3.2. Chlorophyll b ………………………………………………………………..… 78

  • iv

    SUBJECTS Page

    4.3.3. Carotenoids …………………………………………………………...………..… 78

    5. Fruit set and trees production ……………….……………….……………...... 82

    5.1. Initial fruit set ratio ……………………………………..………………….… 82

    5.2. Final fruit set ratio …………………..…………………………………….…… 85

    5.3. Tree yield (k gm/tree) ……………………………………………………… 85

    5.4.Fruit number per tree ………………………………………………………… 88

    5.5. Tree yield efficiency (k gm/ M 3 tree canopy) ……………………… 88

    6. Fruit characters………………………………………………………………… 92

    6. 1. Physical parameters ………………………………………………………… 92

    6.1.1. Fruit weight ………………………………………………………………..…… 92

    6.1.2. Fruit volume …………………………………………………………………… 94

    6.1.3. Fruit shape index ………………………………………………………… 96

    6.1.4. Fruit peel thickness (cm) ………………………………………………… 99

    6.1.5. Fruit peel color ………………………………………………… 101

    6.1.5.1. Hue angle ……………………………..………………………………… 101

    6.1.5.2. A/B Ratio ………………………………..……………………………………… 103

    6.1.6. Fruit Juice Weight (gm) ………………..………..………………………… 105

    6.1.7. Fruit Juice volume (ml) …………….………..………..……… 105

    6.1.8. Fruit Juice weight ratio (w/w) ……………… 107

    6.2. Chemical parameters …… 109

    6. 2.1. Fruit juice TSS % content……..………..…………….……………… 109

    6.2.2. Fruit juice T. Acidity % content ………………..……………………. 109

    6.2.3. T